2015-2016 Departmental Performance Report
Section IV: Supplementary Information

This page has been archived

Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or record-keeping purposes. It is not subject to the Government of Canada Web Standards and has not been altered or updated since it was archived. Please contact us to request a format other than those available.

Supporting Information on Lower-Level Programs

 

Food Sub-Program Activity Summary

Sub-Program 1.1.1: Meat and Poultry

The Meat and Poultry sub-program aims to mitigate risks associated with meat and poultry and their products that are produced in Canada's federally registered establishments or imported for consumption. The program achieves its objectives by verifying that meat, poultry and their products meet health and safety requirements through verification of compliance with the relevant governing acts and regulations. The program also helps to mitigate unfair market practices related to labelling compliance for pre-packaged meat products, and audits the delivery of a grading program based on objective meat quality and retail yield standards. The Meat and Poultry sub-program supports confidence in Canada's meat and poultry and their products.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

As part of the Modernized Slaughter Inspection Program, the CFIA engaged the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service and the United Kingdom. Preparatory work in swine, poultry and bovine was initiated with regards to pathology/defect dispositions. The risk assessment on hepatitis in poultry was completed. The Agency continued its work on pathology atlas/catalogue, and initiated work on a pilot-mandatory final Carcass Dressing Standards (CDS) standard and change in inspector duties in traditional poultry inspection plants.

The Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Regulations was amended to expand the Administrative Monetary Penalties (AMPs) to the Meat Inspection Act and its regulations. Operational Guidance to support the issuance of AMPs for violations of the Meat Inspection Act and Regulations was approved in April 2015. Related Training has been delivered and enforcement started.

As part of the Pathogen Reduction Initiative aimed at decreasing the levels of pathogens in meat and poultry, the CFIA published the results of the Microbiological Baseline Study in broiler chicken, and established pathogen reduction targets and strategies for improved monitoring. The results of the study were used to inform the work of the new Joint Government-Industry Working Group on the Control of Salmonella and Campylobacter in Poultry, including the development of performance standards in poultry and poultry products. The Working Group's report is scheduled to be released in 2016-17.

In partnership with Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada, the CFIA initiated a baseline study on the prevalence of E. coli in beef. Data analysis and a technical report of the pilot study were completed in January 2016. The CFIA will share the results of the pilot with participating establishments, industry and federal/provincial/territorial partners.

The CFIA continued engagement with the United States under the Regulatory Cooperation Council and the Beyond the Border initiatives. The objective is to contribute to a greater alignment of regulatory approaches while maintaining high standards for food safety. In 2015-16, the CFIA initiated the development of 2016-17 work plans with United States counterparts and industry stakeholders.

The objective of the Certification Requirements for Meat and Poultry initiative is to streamline the certification process, including the reduction or elimination of redundant certification, data elements and administrative procedures for shipments between Canada and the U.S. In 2015-16, follow up work was completed after the CFIA's mutual audits with United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service. Stakeholder engagement continued within Canada and at the binational level to identify short, medium and long term Regulatory Cooperation Council priorities. Active discussions were held to identify areas of mutual interest such as slaughter modernization, electronic certification, and review of the export libraries of U.S. and Canada.

Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
191,052,866 204,963,150 13,910,284
Human Resources (FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
1,812 1,799 (13)
Table 2-1b: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Federally registered meat and poultry establishments meet federal regulations Percentage of inspected federally registered meat and poultry establishments in compliance with federal regulations 98% 95.60% Not MetFootnote 27
Meat and poultry products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested domestic meat and poultry products in compliance with federal regulations 95% 97.32% Met
Meat and poultry products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested imported meat and poultry products in compliance with federal regulations 95% 98.62% Met

Sub-Program1.1.2: Egg

The Egg sub-program aims to mitigate risks associated with egg and egg products that are produced in Canada's federally registered establishments or imported for consumption. The program achieves its objectives by verifying that eggs and egg products are graded according to relevant governing acts and regulations and that they comply with the requirements of the said acts and regulations. The program also helps to mitigate unfair market practices by verifying that labelling and advertising practices meet the requirements for pre-packaged egg products. This sub-program supports confidence in Canada's egg and egg products.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

In 2015-16, the Egg sub-program activities continued to evolve under the CFIA's Single Food Program. Inspections and sampling planning activities continued to be updated and prioritized in consideration of risk, as development of the Program Management Framework and integrated Agency Inspection Model progressed towards broader risk-based planning and delivery approaches.

Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
8,641,142 9,035,357 394,215
Human Resources (FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
83 73 (10)
Table 2-1c: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Federally registered shell egg establishments meet federal regulations Percentage of inspected federally registered shell egg establishments in compliance with federal regulations 98% 96.22% MetFootnote 28
Shell egg and egg products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested domestic shell egg and egg products in compliance with federal regulations 95% 99.00% Met
Shell egg and egg products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested imported shell egg and egg products in compliance with federal regulations 95% 99.53% Met

Sub-Program 1.1.3: Dairy

The Dairy sub-program aims to mitigate risks associated with dairy and dairy products that are produced in Canada's federally registered establishments or imported for consumption. The program achieves its objectives by verifying that dairy and dairy products meet health and safety requirements through verification of compliance with the governing acts and regulations. The program also helps to mitigate unfair market practices by verifying that labelling for pre-packaged dairy products meets the requirements as set out in the acts and regulations. This sub-program supports confidence in Canada's dairy products.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

In 2015-16, the Dairy sub-program activities continued to evolve under the CFIA's Single Food Program. Inspections and sampling planning activities continued to be updated and prioritized in consideration of risk, as development of the Program Management Framework and integrated Agency Inspection Model progressed towards broader risk-based planning and delivery approaches.

CFIA's integrated Agency Inspection Model was piloted for dairy in 2015-16. It was demonstrated that the new inspection approach identified non-compliance as effectively as the previous system, and that tools developed were appropriate.

Under the Food Safety Recognition Program, the CFIA officially recognized the Dairy Farmers of Canada for their food safety program which is designed to help producers manage food safety risks on their farms.

Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
11,242,869 14,559,058 3,316,189
Human Resources (FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
112 114 2
Table 2-1d: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Federally registered dairy establishments meet federal regulations Percentage of inspected federally registered dairy establishments in compliance with federal regulations 98% 99.00% Met
Dairy products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested domestic dairy products in compliance with federal regulations 95% 97.94% Met
Dairy products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested imported dairy products in compliance with federal regulations 95% 88.54% Not MetFootnote 29

Sub-Program 1.1.4: Fish and Seafood

The Fish and Seafood sub-program aims to mitigate risks associated with fish and seafood products processed in Canada's federally registered establishments or imported for consumption. It achieves its objectives by developing product and process standards and ensuring that products, importers and domestic industry comply with quality, safety and identity of fish and seafood requirements through verification of compliance with the governing acts and regulations. This sub-program supports confidence in Canada's fish and seafood products.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

In 2015-16, the CFIA continued to enhance the Canadian Shellfish Sanitation Program with a view towards the long term sustainability of the program. The CFIA supported the program's stakeholders' engagement to reclassify under-utilized shellfish harvest areas. On a bilateral basis, the CFIA continued to honor Canada-US systems recognition for shellfish.

In response to Budget 2014 commitments, the CFIA worked to enhance compliance of imported foods by conducting a series of assessments of foreign food safety systems, included preventive upstream controls for fish and seafood. South Korea was engaged to follow up on the completion of the Canadian assessment tool needed for document review of its shellfish program. CFIA also performed onsite assessment for shellfish in Mexico and continued work on draft audit report. Chile was engaged for the future assessment of its shellfish program.

CFIA's integrated Agency Inspection Model was piloted for fish and seafood in 2015-16. Roll-out of the pilot in the fish and seafood sector demonstrated that the new inspection approach identified non-compliance as effectively as the previous system, and that tools developed were appropriate.

Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
49,668,541 54,532,244 4,863,703
Human Resources (FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
453 406 (47)
Table 2-1e: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Federally registered fish and seafood establishments meet federal regulations Percentage of inspected federally registered fish and seafood establishments in compliance with federal regulations 98% 98.11% Met
Fish and seafood products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested domestic fish and seafood products in compliance with federal regulations 95% 97.61% Met
Fish and seafood products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested imported fish and seafood products in compliance with federal regulations 95% 87.89% Not MetFootnote 30

Sub-Program 1.1.5: Fresh Fruit and Vegetables

The Fresh Fruit and Vegetables sub-program aims to mitigate risks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables and their products produced in Canada or imported for consumption. It achieves its objectives by verifying that products meet all stipulated health and safety requirements through verification of compliance with the relevant governing acts and regulations. This sub-program mitigates unfair market practices by verifying that labelling and net quantity requirements for pre-packaged Fresh Fruit and Vegetable products are adhered to. This sub-program supports confidence in Canada's fresh fruit and vegetable products.

Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
34,910,256 31,628,083 (3,282,173)
Human Resources (FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
294 230 (64)
Table 2-1f: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Federally registered fresh fruit and vegetables establishments meet federal regulations Percentage of inspected federally registered fresh fruit and vegetable establishments in compliance with federal regulations 98% 98.85% Met
Fresh fruit and vegetable products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested domestic fresh fruit and vegetable samples in compliance with federal regulations 95% 98.95% Met
Fresh fruit and vegetable products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested imported fresh fruit and vegetables samples in compliance with federal regulations 95% 96.83% Met

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

The CFIA requested and received a completion of the Canadian Assessment for Fresh Fruit and Vegetables from Mexico. The response is currently being evaluated, and any additional information or clarifications requested of Mexican authorities will be based on the evaluation. The CFIA will negotiate on-site visits once the evaluation is completed. The on-site assessment of Guatemala, originally scheduled for 2015, has been rescheduled for September 2016 at the request of the Guatemalan authorities.

A Trusted Trader-Agri-food Pilot to reduce inspection frequencies for apples and onions imported from the United States were conducted by assessing the ability of the industries in Canada and the United States to manage risks related to quality standards on their own, without significant reliance on CFIA and USDA inspections. The CFIA completed the onion pilot on January 20, 2015. Phase II of the apple pilot started on January 1, 2016 when inspection frequency was reduced from 50% to 25%. A third pilot for potatoes was delayed due to Canada's potato industry's opposition to the implementation of a reduced inspection frequency.

Sub-Program 1.1.6: Processed Products

The Processed Products sub-program aims to mitigate risks associated with processed products, including honey and maple products, which are produced in Canada or imported for consumption. The program achieves its objectives by verifying that processed products comply with health and food safety requirements through verification of compliance with the relevant governing acts and regulations. This sub-program minimizes unfair market practices by verifying that labelling and net quantity requirements for pre-packaged processed products are adhered to. The program supports confidence in Canada's processed products.

Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
11,641,531 10,256,814 (1,384,717)
Human Resources (FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
102 86 (16)
Table 2-1g: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Federally registered processed products establishments meet federal regulations Percentage of inspected federally registered processed products establishments in compliance with federal regulations 98% 97.77% Met
Processed products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested domestic processed products in compliance with federal regulations 95% 98.12% Met
Processed products for domestic consumption meet federal regulations Percentage of tested imported processed products in compliance with federal regulations 95% 96.98% Met

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

In 2015-16, the Processed Products sub-program activities continued to evolve under the Single Food Program. Inspections and sampling planning activities continue to be updated and prioritized in consideration of risk, as development of the Program Management Framework and iAIM progress towards broader risk-based planning and delivery approaches.

Sub-Program 1.1.7: Imported and Manufactured Food Products

The Imported and Manufactured Food Products sub-program aims to mitigate risks associated with food commodities that are regulated by the relevant governing acts and regulations. The CFIA and provincial/territorial governments share the jurisdiction over IMFP because the sector includes a large variety of foods that are traded intra-provincially or inter-provincially. This program achieves its objectives by verifying that these products comply with the health, food safety, and consumer protection requirements. The program mitigates unfair market practices by verifying that requirements related to net quantity, composition, claims, labelling, and advertising of these foods are adhered to and by enforcing the governing acts and regulations. Through enforcement of the acts and regulations, the program supports confidence in Canada's imported and manufactured food products.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

In 2015-16, the Imported and Manufactured Food Products sub-program activities continued to evolve under the Single Food Program. Inspections and sampling planning activities continue to be updated and prioritized in consideration of risk, as development of the Program Management Framework and iAIM progress towards broader risk-based planning and delivery approaches.

Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
56,679,574 51,138,825 (5,540,749)
Human Resources (FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
455 447 (8)
Table 2-1h: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Risks to the Canadian public associated with imported and manufactured food (IMF) products are mitigated Percentage of major health risks in the imported and manufactured food sector that are addressed through the annual update to food safety inspection programs 95% 100% Met
Risks to the Canadian public associated with imported and manufactured food (IMF) products are mitigated Percentage of inspected IMF products with accurate net quantity, composition, labelling and advertising 70% 72.1% Met

Animal Health and Zoonotics Sub-Program Activity Summary

Sub-Program 1.2.1: Terrestrial Animal Health

The Terrestrial Animal Health sub-program aims to prevent the entry of reportable, foreign animal diseases and the spread of reportable domestic animal diseases as set out in the relevant governing acts and regulations. This sub-program achieves its objectives by delivering initiatives that track, detect, and mitigate risks to the terrestrial animal resource base. This sub-program supports food safety, public health, and protection of the animal resource base, and instils national and international confidence in Canadian agricultural products. Through verification of compliance, this sub-program supports domestic and international confidence that Canada's animals are free from certain reportable diseases, particularly those potentially transmissible to humans.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

Foot and Mouth Disease, often referred to as FMD, is a highly contagious viral disease of domestic and wild animals with split hoof, such as cattle, goats, sheep, deer, and antelopes. In 2015-16, to increase access to Foot and Mouth Disease vaccines, the North American Foot and Mouth Vaccine Bank, which is administered jointly by Canada, the United States and Mexico, initiated expansion of its sharing arrangements to the Australia and New Zealand FMD Vaccine Banks. Once finalized, the new arrangement will increase the quantity of Foot and Mouth Disease vaccine available to each country.

Following the identification in Canada of mad cow disease or Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in a single cow in February 2015, the CFIA formed a Program Delivery Committee, tasked with identifying and addressing priority areas for improvement in order to maintain the integrity of Canada's BSE control program delivery. The committee identified eight priority areas for improvement. These priorities emphasized the need for timely and accurate surveillance and specified risk material control data, training to support and maintain BSE expertise, as well as ensuring operational continuity and preparedness. Multi-disciplinary working groups are developing options for each of the identified areas for improvement.

In 2015-16, the CFIA continued to develop partnerships with approved private and provincial laboratories to provide alternative service delivery options for the Agency. Quality Management Oversight Framework for laboratories and the criteria necessary to guide the transfer of select tests for alternative service delivery arrangements were developed. The Agency is ready to start transferring tests to private and provincial laboratories following the renegotiation of export certificates with trading partners.

Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending (RestatedFootnote 31) 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
91,139,624 113,446,917 22,307,293
Human Resources (Full-Time Equivalents – FTEs)Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned (RestatedFootnote 31) 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
754 726 (28)
Table 2-2b: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Federally registered veterinary biologics establishments meet federal regulations Percentage of inspected federally registered veterinary biologics establishments in compliance with federal regulations 90% 96.00% Met
Veterinary biological products in compliance with federal regulations Percentage of tested veterinary biological products in compliance with federal regulations 100% 99.30% Met
Animals in Canada are transported humanely Percentage of inspected live loads in compliance with humane transport standards 100% 98.34% Met

Sub-Program 1.2.2: Aquatic Animal Health

The Aquatic Animal Health sub-program aims to mitigate risks associated with the introduction and spread of certain aquatic animal diseases of concern to Canada. This program achieves its objectives by partnering with Fisheries and Oceans Canada to deliver on initiatives that track, detect and control aquatic animal diseases as set out in the relevant governing acts and regulations. Through verification of compliance, this sub-program supports domestic and international confidence that Canada's aquatic animal resources are free from aquatic animal diseases, and contributes to the sustainable productivity of aquaculture and harvest fisheries.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

Following sustained consultation and engagement with Federal-Provincial/Territorial governments and industry stakeholders, the Domestic Control Program, which is the last phase of the Domestic National Aquatic Animal Health Program, was successfully implemented on December 31, 2015. Under the control program, the various watersheds and coastal waters in Canada each have a declared disease status (free/infected) with respect to reportable diseases listed in the Reportable Disease Regulations of the Health of Animals Act. These declarations will provide a predictable standard response to disease outbreaks based on the status or the area, which will enable the CFIA to move away from the case-by-case basis for ordering the destruction of affected animals.

In 2015-16, as part of the Domestic Movement Program, standards for domestic compartments free of specific diseases within declared infected areas were developed and made publicly available through CFIA area and regional offices.

Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending (RestatedFootnote 32) 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
4,806,034 5,780,338 974,304
Human Resources (Full-Time Equivalents – FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned (RestatedFootnote 32) 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
38 43 5
Table 2-2c: Performance Results
Actual Results Actual Results Results Actual Results Actual Results
Domestic aquatic animals and their products are compliant with Canadian regulations and meet the standards of international agreements Percentage of certified aquatic animal and aquatic animal product shipments that meet the receiving country's import requirements 99% 99.9% Met
Risks to the Canadian aquatic animal resource base are mitigated Number of reportable aquatic animal diseases that have entered into Canada via specified regulated pathways 0 2 Not MetFootnote 33

Sub-Program 1.2.3: Feed

The Feed sub-program aims to minimize risks associated with livestock and poultry feeds manufactured in or imported into Canada. The program achieves its objectives by verifying that feeds are safe, effective and labelled in accordance with the relevant governing acts and regulations. This sub-program contributes to the production and maintenance of a healthy and sustainable animal resource base which supports food safety and environmental sustainability. Through verification of compliance, this sub-program supports confidence in feed manufactured in Canada.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

In 2015-16, the CFIA continued with work toward modernizing the Feeds Regulations to address current gaps and weaknesses, and provide more clarity to regulated parties. The Agency developed and held stakeholder consultations on Feed Ingredient Labels, and staged eight public meetings across Canada on a consolidated modernized risk- and outcome- based regulatory framework to safeguard feeds, attain a balance between fair and competitive trade, and minimize regulatory burden. Cost-Benefit Information Sessions were also held to generate input on key regulatory features such as facility licensing and product registration for drafting of a cost-benefit analysis. The results of these efforts will be reflected in a comprehensive regulatory proposal that the CFIA intends to publish in the Canada Gazette, Part I, in 2017.

The CFIA continued to work with other government departments on initiatives identified in the Federal Action Plan on Antimicrobial Resistance and Use in Canada. The CFIA participated in the initiative led by the Public Health Agency of Canada to develop a framework to prevent the spread of antimicrobial resistance, while providing input and leadership into the development of further surveillance, stewardship and innovation activities related to antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use. In collaboration with Health Canada, the CFIA began the development of a framework and program recommendations for veterinary oversight of medically important microbiological drugs in feeds.

Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending(RestatedFootnote 34) 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
18,606,362 21,815,872 3,209,510
Human Resources (Full-Time Equivalents – FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned RestatedFootnote 34) 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
182 190 8
Table 2-2d: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Feed establishments meet federal regulations Percentage of inspected feed establishments in compliance with Feeds Regulations and Health of Animals Regulations (Feed Ban), after follow-up, not including labelling tasks 95% 95.5% Met
Feed labels meet federal regulations Percentage of inspected feed facilities in compliance with Feeds Regulations and Health of Animals Regulations (Feed Ban), after follow-up, when assessed against inspection tasks associated with labelling 95% 96.6% Met

Plant Resources Sub-Program Activity Summary

Sub-Program 1.3.1: Plant Protection

The Plant Protection sub-program aims to mitigate the risks associated with the introduction and spread of plant pests of quarantine significance to Canada. This sub-program achieves its objectives by delivering initiatives that track, detect and control, or eradicate regulated plant pests and diseases as set out in the relevant governing acts and regulations. The program verifies that plants and plant products, and their associated risk pathways, meet phytosanitary requirements. Through verification of compliance, this sub-program supports environmental sustainability and public health and instils confidence in Canada's plants and plant products.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned Efforts Against Pests

Asian Gypsy Moth is an invasive insect regulated as a quarantine pest by Canada and the United States of America. It poses a significant threat to Canada's forests, biodiversity, and economy. In 2015-16, the CFIA continued to collaborate with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to further the Asian Gypsy Moth certification program under the Beyond the Border Initiative. The program is designed to keep the risk of Asian Gypsy Moth at origin as much as possible by having vessels inspected and certified by competent inspection bodies in one of the Asian Gypsy Moth- regulated countries (China, Japan, Korea and Russia)1. The CFIA and the USDA met with plant protection officials from China, Korea and Japan in 2015 to further assess and enhance the Asian Gypsy Moth certification program in each country. In 2015 the CFIA compiled results of compliance verification inspections in Canada for vessels certified in Russia in preparation for a joint CFIA-USDA meeting and technical assessment with Russia in summer 2016. Further information on the Asian Gypsy Moth can be found on CFIA's websiteEndnote xxi

The Asian Long-horned Beetle was detected in the Mississauga/Toronto area in August 2013. To satisfy international plant protection criteria for successful eradication, Canada has to conduct at least 5 years of surveys whose results indicate no finding of Asian Long-horned Beetle. In 2015-16, the CFIA conducted surveys to verify the success of the eradication measures implemented in 2014. The surveys did not find any Asian Long-Horned Beetle.

Following the detection of Potato Wart in Prince Edward Island in 2014, the CFIA continued to monitor potato fields in Prince Edward Island and conduct necessary inspections and certification. In 2015-16, the CFIA became a member of a joint government-industry Potato Task Force. The task force was tasked to develop a forward plan for delivering the potato seed certification program for Canadian potato seed producers. The program needed to respect the necessary requirements set by USDA-APHIS regulators. The task force team, through consultations with industry, provincial governments and federal partners, developed options on an efficient alternative approach to seed potato tuber inspections requirements. A draft report is expected to be finalized in 2016-17.

In 2015-16, in an effort to minimize the risk of invasive alien species to the Canadian environment and economy, the CFIA extensively engaged and collaborated with the provinces, invasive species councils, and other federal partners on a number of plant pest issues, including the enforcement of existing phytosanitary measures. The CFIA also collaborated with the USA, Australia and New Zealand on an education and awareness approach to reduce invasive plants introduction through e-commerce. The CFIA initiated a series of risk analysis of several plant species, as well as reviewed invasive plants policy, directives and guidance material.

Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
61,142,377 63,028,955 1,886,578
Human Resources (FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
626 549 (77)
Table 2-3b: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Pre-border plant pest risks are mitigated Percentage of inspected shipments from off-shore system approaches or pre-clearance programs in compliance with federal regulations 85% 96% Met
At-Border plant pest risks are mitigated Percentage of pre-arrival documentation in compliance with Canadian import requirements 90% 97% Met
Post-border plant pest risks are mitigated Percentage of new pest detections that have a science based management plan initiated within one year 90% N/A
No new pest detection
N/A
No new pest detection

Sub-Program 1.3.2: Seed

The Seed sub-program aims to ensure that seeds sold in Canada meet established standards, that seeds are properly represented in the marketplace and that most agricultural crop kinds are registered before entering the marketplace. The program achieves its objectives by verifying that seeds meet quality, biosafety, labelling and registration standards as set out in the relevant governing acts and regulations. Regulating the environmental release of plants with novel traits contributes to environmental sustainability and the health and safety of Canadians. Furthermore, quality assured and accurately labelled seeds contribute to a prosperous agricultural production system and to domestic and international confidence in Canada's seeds.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned Partnering with Industry for Alternative Service Delivery

The CFIA continued to maintain an oversight and audit role to ensure the effectiveness of the overall alternative service delivery program, aimed at maintaining high quality while gaining efficiencies. In 2015-16, the CFIA worked with authorized service providers to conduct seed crop inspections. Private entities inspected approximately 94 percent of the pedigreed seed crops grown in Canada while the CFIA inspectors inspected the remaining 6 percent. The project was expanded to include hybrid corn and hybrid canola inspections in 2015-16.

Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
10,446,956 11,646,066 1,199,110
Human Resources (FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
98 108 10
Table 2-3c: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Seed complies with federal regulations Percentage of tested domestic pedigreed seed lots in compliance with federal regulations 95% 96.4% Met
Seed complies with federal regulations Percentage of authorized confined releases of Plants with Novel Traits (PNTs) into the Canadian environment that are in compliance with the authorized conditions 90% 97% Met

Sub-Program 1.3.3: Fertilizer

The Fertilizer sub-program aims to ensure that regulated fertilizer, fertilizer/pesticides and supplement products sold in Canada are properly labelled, effective and safe for humans, plants, animals, and the environment. The program achieves its objectives by verifying that all fertilizers and supplements meet the standards for safety and efficacy as set out in the relevant governing acts and regulations. Through verification of compliance, the program contributes to public health and environmental sustainability and supports domestic and international confidence in fertilizers manufactured in Canada.

Performance Analysis and Lessons Learned

In 2015-16, the CFIA continued to review the Fertilizers Regulations. A draft proposal was developed and adjusted to align with the Agricultural Growth Act, but was not published in Canada Gazette, Part I as was originally planned. In late 2015, the Agency reviewed its regulatory change priorities across all commodity areas – plant resource base protection, animal health and food safety. Modernization of the Fertilizers Regulations is now targeted to resume in the winter of 2017 (for publication in Canada Gazette, Part I).

Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
4,211,152 3,976,965 (234,187)
Human Resources (FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
38 37 (1)
Table 2-3d: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Fertilizer and supplement products meet federal regulations Percentage of inspected fertilizer and supplement products in compliance with federal regulations (Fertilizers Regulations) 90% 96% Met
Fertilizer and supplement products meet federal regulations Percentage of submissions reviewed within the prescribed service delivery standards 90% 61% Not MetFootnote 35

Sub-Program 1.3.4: Intellectual Property Rights

The Intellectual Property Rights sub-program, by which plant breeders can obtain intellectual property rights for their new plant varieties, aims to create an environment in Canada which supports innovation in plant breeding, as set out in the relevant governing acts and regulations. This sub-program achieves its objectives by assessing applications from plant breeders to determine that new plant varieties meet the criteria for protection, and when all requirements have been met, granting rights to the variety breeder/owner for a period of up to 18 years. The owner of a new variety who receives a grant of rights has exclusive rights over use of the variety, and will be able to protect his/her new variety from exploitation by others. By enforcing the relevant governing acts and regulations, this sub-program stimulates plant breeding in Canada, facilitates better access to foreign varieties for Canadian producers and supports the protection of Canadian varieties in other countries.

Budgetary Financial Resources (dollars)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
929,618 1,155,076 225,458
Human Resources (FTEs)Footnote 26
2015-16 Planned 2015-16 Actual 2015-16 Difference (actual minus planned)
8 9 1
Table 2-3e: Performance Results
Expected Result Performance Indicators Targets Actual Results Actual Results
Plant breeders develop new varieties for the Canadian market Percentage of Plant Breeders' Rights applications that reach approval and are granted rights 100% 100% Met

For the 2015 calendar year, the CFIA received 273 applications for Plant Breeders' Rights (PBR), 189 applications were granted PBR and 1,601 PBR applications were renewed. More information on PBR can be found on the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's websiteEndnote xxii.

Supplementary Information Tables

Departmental Sustainable Development Strategy

1. Overview of the Federal Government's Approach to Sustainable Development

The Federal Sustainable Development Strategy (FSDS) 2013-16 presents the Government of Canada's sustainable development activities, as required by the Federal Sustainable Development Act. In keeping with the objectives of the Act to make environmental decision making more transparent and accountable to Parliament, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) supports the implementation of the FSDS through the activities in this supplementary information table.

Although the CFIA is not bound by the Federal Sustainable Development Act and is not required to develop a departmental sustainable development strategy, the CFIA voluntarily contributes to Theme III - Protecting Nature and Canadians, and Theme IV - Shrinking the Environmental Footprint - Beginning with Government.

2. Themes I to III: Department- and Agency-Led Targets

N/A - CFIA does not lead any targets.

3. Themes I to III: Implementation Strategies

CFIA participates in six implementation strategies through ongoing activities in its Plant Resources Program (PAA 2.1.3.) and Plant Protection Sub-Program (PAA 2.1.3.1.).

The implementation strategies support the FSDS Theme III Target 4.6: Invasive Alien Species (By 2020, pathways of invasive alien species introductions are identified, and risk-based intervention or management plans are in place for priority pathways and species) in Goal 4: Conserving and Restoring Ecosystems, Wildlife and Habitat, and Protecting Canadians.

Applicable CFIA Implementation Strategies:

4.6.2 Implement activities and strategic objectives with a focus on preventing and limiting new invasive species from entering Canada so that entry and domestic spread of invasive plants and plant pests is managed and response to invasive plants and plant pests is planned and implemented.

  • Performance indicators: Implementation of the Invasive Alien Species Strategy for Canada (2004) as it relates to preventing the introductions of new and emerging invasive plants and plant pests.
  • Results for 2015-2016: Continued to develop and implement programs and policies related to the practical prevention, early detection, response and management activities identified within the IAS Strategy and that are aligned with the CFIA's Plant Protection mandate and priorities.

4.6.7 Develop and implement a risk analysis framework (i.e., risk assessment, risk management and risk communication) and a pathways approach in regulating invasive alien species in Canada so that entry and domestic spread of invasive plants and plant pests is managed and response to invasive plants and plant pests is planned and implemented.

  • Performance indicators: The CFIA annually develops risk assessments, risk management documents, fact sheets, and risk categorizations.
  • Results for 2015-16: Continued to identify high-risk invasive species and pathways. Ongoing development of tools and capabilities for assessing pest risk and spread. Several risk assessments, factsheets and risk management plans were developed for invasive plants and plant pests. Shared information from risk analyses with various federal and provincial partners to enhance awareness and promote collaboration to support transparent decision making and response to new invasive species.

4.6.8 Engage in partnerships with provincial governments, industry, and stakeholders in responding to invasive species within Canada in order to increase stakeholder and partner cooperation, stakeholder and partner awareness of plants and plant pests, and compliance with policies and regulations.

  • Performance indicators: Partnerships with provincial invasive species councils as well as with agricultural, forestry and horticultural stakeholders. Consultations with Canadians on regulatory options and decisions through tools such as Risk Management Documents.
  • Results for 2015-16: Participated at meetings of Invasive Species Councils in British Columbia and Alberta to provide updates on the CFIA's IAS program activities and to increase engagement and cooperation for preventing and limiting spread of invasive plant pests in Canada. Ongoing engagement with partners and stakeholders on developing risk analysis frameworks and response plans. Initiated the implementation of the Kudzu Response Plan in partnership with the province of Ontario and the affected landowner. Developed and implemented new import and domestic requirements for potentially injurious organisms used for research or education, as bait, in the pet trade or as pest control. These include insects, fungi, earthworms and biological control agents.

4.6.9 Jointly with Transport Canada), cooperate with the United States and international regulators to inspect vessels to ensure compliance with Canadian regulations.

  • Performance indicators: The Asian Gypsy Moth (AGM) is an invasive quarantine pest for Canada. Under the AGM program, the CFIA collects data on the inspection of vessels for AGM and associated compliance rates based on requirements under the Plant Protection Act.
  • Results for 2015-16: Enhanced collaboration with the U.S. on the AGM Pre-departure Vessel Certification Program to prevent the introduction of the AGM to North America by mitigating the risk of introduction at origin. Initiated engagement with other countries such as Chile, Mexico and New Zealand to explore potential expansion of the AGM vessel certification program.

4.6.10 Jointly, with Canadian Border Services Agency, prevent the introduction and rapid dispersal of invasive species and disease into Canada via land, air and marine ports of entry, thus reducing potential deleterious effects to ecosystems, economies and society.

  • Performance indicators: Prevention of the introduction and spread of invasive species into Canada through inspections at marine ports of entry under the AGM Program as well as airport and post office inspections for other invasive pests.
  • Results for 2015-16: The introduction and spread of invasive species into Canada was prevented through vessel inspections at marine ports of entry for AGM. An interim in-transit protocol was implemented outlining the phytosanitary requirements for shipments to be able to transit Canada by the various modes of land transportation.

4.6.11 Foster international, national and provincial collaborative arrangements and partnerships with industry to prevent and limit the introduction of invasive species entering Canada. This will increase stakeholder and partner cooperation, stakeholder and partner awareness of plants and plant pests, and compliance with policies and regulations. This will also increase international engagement, cooperation and awareness of invasive species and compliance with policies and regulations, ensuring that international standards and processes reflect Canadian interests.

  • Performance indicators: International activities aimed at mitigating risks to Canada's plant resource base from imported plants and plant products.
  • Results for 2015-16: Continued participation and collaboration at international venues such as the International Plant Protection Convention and the North American Plant Protection Organisation working groups. Fostered work of national groups such as the Invasive Alien Species Task Force and the National Forest Pest Forum to identify IAS challenge and opportunities for collaborative prevention and response measures. Bilateral meetings with trading partners such as the U.S., China, India and Australia to advance understanding and resolution of plant protection issues in agriculture, forestry and the environment. Established working group with various trading partners to promote awareness of plant pest risks associated with e-commerce. Promoted awareness of invasive species and compliance with Canadian regulations to ensure that the risks to Canada's plant resource base from imported plants and plant products are mitigated.

4. Theme IV: Targets and Implementation Strategies

Goal 6: GHG Emissions and Energy

Target 6.1: GHG Emissions Reduction

The Government of Canada will reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from its buildings and fleets by 17% below 2005 levels by 2020.

Departmental Target

13% below 2005 levels by 2020

Performance Measurement

Expected result

Reduce the carbon footprint and energy consumption of federal operations.
Performance indicator Performance level achieved
GHG emissions (kt CO2 equivalent) in fiscal year 2005-06. 6.43 kt CO2
GHG emissions (kt CO2 equivalent) in fiscal year 2015-16 3.93 kt CO2
Percentage change in GHG emissions from fiscal year 2005-06 to fiscal year 2015-16, inclusive of renewable power emission credits, if applicable. - 38.9%
Adjustments made to base year GHG emissions [indicate if not applicable]. Not Applicable

Goal 7: Waste and Asset Management

Target 7.2: Green Procurement

As of April 1, 2014, the Government of Canada will continue to take action to embed environmental considerations into public procurement, in accordance with the federal Policy on Green Procurement.

Performance Measurement

Expected result

Environmentally responsible acquisition, use and disposal of goods and services.
Performance indicator Performance level achieved
Departmental approach to further the implementation of the Policy on Green Procurement in place as of April 1, 2014. The existing CFIA Procurement and Contracting Policy (2008) posted on the CFIA's internal website references the Treasury Board's Policy on Green Procurement, which promotes the selection of Green Products/Services when searching the Public Services and Procurement Canada Standing Offer Index for goods or services.
Number and percentage of procurement and/or materiel management specialists who completed the Canada School of Public Service Green Procurement course (C215) or equivalent, in fiscal year 2015-16. 2
100%
Number and percentage of managers and functional heads of procurement and materiel whose performance evaluation includes support and contribution toward green procurement, in fiscal year 2014-15. 3
100%
Departmental green procurement target Table Note 1
By March 31, 2017, 90% of vehicles Table Note 2 purchased annually are from the Pre-Authorized Vehicle List (PAVL). Table Note 3
Performance indicator Performance level achieved
Number of vehicles purchased from the PAVL, relative to total number of vehicles purchased in fiscal year 2015-2016. (%) 165 vehicles purchased
99.4% from PAVL

Table Notes

Table Note 1

As part of its FSDS 2013-2016 voluntary commitment, CFIA previously included two departmental green procurement targets pertaining to green IT purchases. In September 2015, an Order in Council (2015-1071) established Shared Services Canada as the mandatory provider of services related to end-user IT equipment. As a result of this change, CFIA's Contracting and Procurement Policy Division no longer controls the sourcing of procurement contracts for IT equipment.

Return to table note 1 referrer

Table Note 2

Does not include farm equipment, boats, ATVs or snowmobiles.

Return to table note 2 referrer

Table Note 3

Where operational requirements allow.

Return to table note 3 referrer

Implementation strategy element or best practice Performance level achieved
7.2.1.5. Leverage common use procurement instruments where available and feasible. Seeking to reach "Achieved" status Table Note 4
Best Practice
7.2.3. Train acquisition cardholders on green procurement.
Exceeded Table Note 5

Table Notes

Table Note 4

CFIA's performance indicator: By March 31, 2017, 75% of all call-ups for goods issued by the National Procurement and Contracting Service Centre will use Green Standing Offers where available or feasible. Results for 2015-2016: 91% of call-ups were issued, subject to availability and feasibility, to certified green suppliers on PSPC Standing Offers.

Return to table note 4  referrer

Table Note 5

There were 87 new acquisition card holders in 2015-2016 and 100% of them completed the required training prior to receiving their cards. CFIA has a procedure in place to ensure that all new acquisition card holders take the Green Procurement course prior to receiving their card.

Return to table note 5  referrer

5. Additional Departmental Sustainable Development Activities and Initiatives

n/a

6. Sustainable Development Management System

n/a

7. Strategic Environmental Assessment

During 2015-2016 reporting cycle, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency considered the environmental effects of initiatives subject to the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, as part of its decision-making processes. A Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) for policy, plan or program proposals includes an analysis of the impacts of the proposal on the environment, including on the FSDS goals and targets. No related public statements were produced in 2015-2016.

Details on Transfer Payment Programs of $5 Million or More

Details on Transfer Payments Programs

Name of Transfer Payment Program: Statutory Compensation Payments

Start Date: N/A

End Date: N/A

Description of Transfer Payment Program: Compensation payments in accordance with requirements established by regulations under the Plant Protection Act or the Health of Animals Act, and authorized pursuant to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act. These payments are to compensate Canadians, in accordance with the appropriate regulations, for plants or animals ordered destroyed for the purpose of disease control.

Strategic outcomes: A safe and accessible food supply and plant and animal resource base.

Results Achieved: 12 Canadians were compensated for plants ordered destroyed and 131 Canadians were compensated for animals ordered destroyed.

Program: Plant Resources Program ($ millions)
2013-14 Actual Spending 2014-15 Actual Spending 2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Total Authorities 2015-16 Actual Spending Variance
Total Other Types of Transfer Payments 688,530 1,004,726 300,000 1,632,836 1,632,836 1,332,836
Total Plant Resources Program 688,530 1,004,726 300,000 1,632,836 1,632,836 1,332,836

Comments on Variances: Actual compensation payments made to Canadians were $1.0 million higher than the $0.3 million that was earmarked under Planned Spending. This increase is largely attributed to the Potato Wart in Prince Edward Island.

Program: Animal Health and Zoonotics Program ($ millions)
2013-14 Actual Spending 2014-15 Actual Spending 2015-16 Planned Spending 2015-16 Total Authorities 2015-16 Actual Spending Variance
Total Other Types of Transfer Payments 57,604,105 11,550,351 3,200,000 15,498,181 15,498,181 12,298,181
Total Animal Health and Zoonotics Program 57,604,105 11,550,351 3,200,000 15,498,181 15,498,181 12,298,181

Comments on Variances: Actual compensation payments made to Canadians were $9.1 million higher than the $3.2 million that was earmarked under Planned Spending. This increase is largely attributed to Avian Influenza in Ontario.

Horizontal Initiatives

General Information

Name of horizontal initiative Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) Renewal
Name of lead department(s) Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
Federal partner organization(s) Health Canada (HC); Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)
Non-federal and non-governmental partner(s) Not Applicable
Start date of the horizontal initiative 2003-04, 2014-15 Renewal Core BSE program
End date of the horizontal initiative 2018-19
Total federal funding allocated (start to end date) $203,229,460 (from 2014-15 to 2018-19)
Funding contributed by non-federal and non-governmental partners Not Applicable
Description of the horizontal initiative

To protect human and animal health, the BSE program conducts surveillance, research and risk assessments on BSE and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) to minimize the risk of exposure to infected materials, assessment of the effectiveness of the risk mitigation measures and having measures in place to control any potential outbreaks. The BSE program supports market access for cattle, beef and related products by maintaining consumer confidence through promoting and explaining Canada's BSE program to domestic and international stakeholders.

Health Canada conducts research and risk assessments on human exposure to BSE and other TSEs, and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) carries out surveillance of human TSEs and targeted supporting research in this area. The CFIA enforces the removal of specified risk material (SRM) from the animal feed and the human food chains, monitors products entering and leaving Canada for adherence to Canadian standards or the standards of the importing country respectively, monitors for the prevalence of BSE in the cattle population through surveillance, verifies that measures to control potential outbreaks are in place and explains Canada's BSE control measures to domestic and international stakeholders (for example, through the veterinarians abroad program) in order to maintain confidence in Canada's BSE program. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) supports, stabilizes and repositions Canada's beef and cattle industry, including the provision of compensation payments to stakeholders impacted by BSE in Canada.

Shared outcome(s) Contributing to the protection of human and animal health, which supports domestic and international market access for Canadian cattle, beef and beef products.
Governance structures The CFIA is the federal lead for BSE program delivery. A summative evaluation of the CFIA's BSE program conducted in 2008 recommended the governance of the program be strengthened to enhance coordination and communication regarding BSE-related activities, both internally and with partner organizations. Based on that recommendation and consistent with governance models for related horizontal initiatives, the CFIA launched a new committee structure to bring the Agency's overall governance approach more in line with evolving business needs in 2010. The new governance structure focuses on the importance of sharing information internally and ensures a more efficient and streamlined senior-level committee structure. It is expected that the renewed structure will foster a whole-of-Agency approach to decision making and will support day-to-day operations across the Agency. To ensure that business line perspectives are integrated into decision making, three senior executive-level committees on Animal Health, Plant and Food Safety are supported.
Performance highlights

In 2015-16, the CFIA continued to deliver on key priorities of the BSE Program by managing and monitoring BSE-related risks to current standards, and also continued to improve communication and coordination (for example, governance), performance measurement and reporting, and financial tracking.

Health Canada (HC) provided food safety risk assessment and policy advice to Federal and Provincial regulatory authorities on BSE/TSE-related risks. The department also conducted environmental scanning activities to identify new and emerging threats from BSE/TSE in health products and in the food supply.

Comments on variances Not Applicable
Results to be achieved by non-federal and non-governmental partners Not Applicable
Contact information

Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Jaspinder Komal
Executive Director and Deputy Chief Veterinary Officer
613-773-7472

Public Health Agency of Canada
Matt Gilmour
Scientific Director General
Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health
National Microbiology Laboratory
Infection Disease Prevention and Control Branch
204-789-2070

Health Canada
Diana Dowthwaite
Director General, Compliance, Lab Services and Regional Operations Directorate,
Health Products and Food Branch,
613-736-3484

Planning Information
Federal organizations Link to departmental Program Alignment Architectures Contributing programs and activities Total allocation (from start to end date) 2015-16 Planned spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Expected results (ER) 2015-16 Targets (T) Contributing activity/ program results
(using specific indicators) Table Note 6
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Animal Health and Zoonotics Program/ Food Safety Program/ International Collaboration and Technical Agreements / Internal Services SRM Removal from the Human Food Chain 45,946,160 (2014-15 to 2018-19) 9,189,232 6,938,473 ER 1 T 1 RA 1
Import Controls 3,347,815 (2014-15 to 2018-19) 669,563 1,025,246 ER 2 T 2a
T 2b
RA 2a
RA 2b
BSE Surveillance 80,912,125 (2014-15 to 2018-19) 16,182,425 15,966,197 ER 3 T 3 RA 3
Cattle Identification 10,672,140
(2014-15 to 2018-19)
2,134,428 2,149,826 ER 4 T 4a
T 4b
T 4c
RA 4a
RA 4b
RA 4c
Export Certification 29,822,860
(2014-15 to 2018-19)
5,964,572 5,471,667 ER 5 T 5 RA 5
Technical Market Access Support 22,794,635
(2014-15 to 2018-19)
4,558,927 4,613,380 ER 6 T 6 RA 6
Health Canada Health Products Risk Assessment 1,538,882 (2014-15 to 2018-19) 302,461 1,141,604 ER 7 T 7 RA 7
Food Safety and Nutrition Risk Assessment and standard setting 4,194,843 (2014-15 to 2018-19) 877,672 874,432 ER 8 T 8 RA 8
PHAC Public Health Surveillance and Assessment Prion Diseases Program 4,000,000 (2014-15 to 2018-19) 800,000 787,603 ER 9 T 9 RA 9
Total for all federal organizations $203,229,460 (from 2014-15 to 2018-19) $40,679,280 $38,968,428 Not applicable

Table Notes

Table Note 6

Performance indicators are defined in the Performance Measurement Strategies and/or Performance Measurement Frameworks (PMF) of each federal partner.

Return to table note 6  referrer

ER 1: Specified Risk Material (SRM) Removal from the Human Food Chain:

Outcome: Safe food

Output: Compliance with current regulations

Activities: Continuation of the enforcement and verification of Specified Risk Material removal, handling and disposal by CFIA inspection staff.

Indicator: Industry compliance rate for removal of Specified Risk Material.

T 1: Targets: 100% compliance.

RA 1: The CFIA conducts on-site verification of federally registered slaughter and boning establishments. The CFIA also reviews records to verify compliance and the effectiveness of the control program. In 2015-2016, 95.30% (5615/5892) of the planned programming specific to the enforcement and verification of SRM removal was delivered nationally. A compliance rate of 99.62% was achieved in tasks delivered.

CFIA continued to conduct annual inspections of non-federally registered cattle slaughter establishments and audits of provincial inspection systems. Records are reviewed to ensure the removal, segregation and disposal of Specified Risk Material are properly carried out and to determine the adequacy of provincial oversight for plant controls.

ER 2: Import Controls:

Outcome: Products imported into Canada meet Canadian standards.

Output: Up-to-date import controls.

Activities: Review and update current import policies and conditions for BSE as required to reflect changes in international standards and evolving science.

Indicator 2a: Percentage of import policies verified and updated as required.

T 2a: Targets: 25% per year.

RA 2a: Target met

Indicator 2: BSE Import Policy is verified and updated as required.

T 2b: Targets: Annually, when the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) updates the BSE risk status country lists.

RA 2b: Target met

ER 3: BSE Surveillance:

Outcome: Safe animals and food and Market access

Output: Measurement of BSE level and distribution in cattle population.

Activities: Analyze options to redesign the BSE surveillance program and consult stakeholders to explore further targeting of surveillance.

Indicator: Temporal trend in exposure to the BSE agent in the cattle population.

T 3: Targets: Testing 30,000 samples from the high-risk category of cattle is the minimum national target.

RA 3: In the 2015-16 fiscal year, the total number of BSE samples tested by the National TSE Network Laboratories was 26,344 (17,007 CFIA and 9,337 provincial). Sampling for BSE surveillance is conducted primarily on-farm or at dead stock facilities.

In Eastern Canada, sampling at dead stock is consistent since contracts are signed with the facilities to hold a specified number of eligible carcasses for testing.

Sampling in Western Canada is mostly done on-farm by private practitioners. The surveillance program is reliant on producers or practitioners voluntarily submitting eligible diseased, down, dead or dying animals for sampling. If producers and practitioners do not send in samples, the numbers fall. Since BSE can mimic many other common disease conditions of cattle, it would be neither practical nor feasible to try to enforce mandatory surveillance.

However, the CFIA has worked in collaboration with provinces and industry representatives (CanSurvBSE) to encourage continued commitment to the BSE surveillance program and we continue to work with our industry and provincial partners to maintain a high level of awareness of the importance of sample submission for BSE.

ER 4: Cattle Identification:

Outcome:

  • Governments and other entities make informed decisions to manage animal and related human health issues
  • Risks to Canadian livestock resource base are mitigated
  • Canadian livestock sector is compliant with regulations

Output 1: Compliance verification and enforcement strategy; inspection reports; data quality audits; trace-out reports; letters of non-compliance; administrative penalties; prosecutions.

Activities: Inspections, compliance verification, investigations and enforcement actions.

Output 2: Regulations; program and related policies; privacy impact assessment; threat risk assessment; Administrator agreement; tools for CFIA staff (e.g. program related policy, positions, manuals, SoPs, etc.)

Indicator 1: Number and development status of inspection tools in place.

T 4a: Targets: Training, tools and materials are relevant and up-to-date.

RA 4a:

  • Train-the-trainer course developed and delivered
  • The e-training course (I6D286) is revised based on new requirements and inspection frequencies
  • Classroom course (I6D287) is developed based on new requirements and inspection frequencies
  • The on-site coaching checklist (I6D270) is developed to validate that inspectors are qualified to deliver the program.
  • Manual of Procedures is amended to reflect new regulatory requirements

Indicator 2: Number of inspectors trained.

T 4b: Targets: All inspectors verifying compliance are trained.

RA 4b: All inspectors verifying compliance were trained.

T 4c: Targets: 100%.

Indicator 3: Ratio of non-compliances versus number of Compliance Verification System (CVS) tasks carried out by CFIA staff expressed as a percentage.

RA 4c: A trial period of the CFIA's performance measurement framework for BSE was completed, which included the effectiveness of the draft key indicators for certain program elements (as indicated above).

ER 5: Export Certification:

Outcome: Products exported from Canada meet requirements imposed by foreign countries.

Output: Export certificates.

Activities: Provision of export-related certification services to a wide range of industries needing them.

Indicator 1: Percentage of exports meeting the standards of the importing country as required.

T 5: Target: 100%

RA 5: Target met

ER 6: Technical Market Access Support:

Outcome: Maintain or improve confidence in Canada's animal production and food system, facilitating access to domestic and international markets.

Output: Increased market demand and confidence.

Activities: Continue the establishment and maintenance of strong relationships with trading partners, and the provision of global leadership and influence concerning international policies and standards development.

PI 6: Indicator: Trends in market demand for Canadian bovines and beef products; media tracking for consumer confidence in beef in Canada.

T 6: Target: An ongoing record of markets that are opened/expanded/maintained, and exports of Canadian beef and cattle.

RA 6: Target met

ER 7: Food Safety and Nutrition: Risk Assessment:

Immediate Outcome: Increased expertise and knowledge of BSE/TSE science, risks and product surveillance

PI 7: Indicator: Number and type of training, conferences, symposiums, etc. attended by HC staff on BSE/TSE topics

  • Number of Health Risk Assessments conducted as a result of BSE suspicion by product line (i.e. food products)
  • Number of knowledge transfer activities related to BSE/TSE

Intermediate Outcome: Increased knowledge-based decision-making

T 7: Targets:

Trending of: number of conferences/symposiums attended; knowledge transfer activities related to BSE/TSE

Data analysis sources:

  • Research papers
  • Laboratory studies
  • Research findings
  • Risk assessments (including recommendations)
  • Incident reports
  • Certificates
  • Internal records

RA 7:

A total of 3 training conferences/symposiums were attended by HC Staff:

  • Conducted a site visit to cell therapy facility;
  • Participated in Pharma webinars on the differences applying Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) in clinical versus commercial manufacturing;
  • Participated in Flow Cytometry course at Ottawa Hospital.

ER 8: Assessing human health risks and standard setting:

Outcome: Increased expertise and knowledge of BSE/TSE science, risks and product surveillance.

Output/Activities: Data analysis, research papers, laboratory studies, research findings, risk assessments, incident reports, certificates, internal records, proceeds of scientific meetings.

T 8: Number and description/type of direct consultation/visits with stakeholder as a result of Canadian expertise.

RA 8: Provided expert advice and recommendations on the risks of human exposure to BSE through the consumption of Canadian beef and beef products.

Provided expert advice and recommendations on the risks of human exposure to classical and atypical scrapie through the consumption of food products derived from Canadian sheep and goats.

ER 9: Prion Diseases Program

Outcome: Risks of human TSEs in Canada remain clearly defined and well controlled.

Output/Activities: Continued, detailed, case-by-case, laboratory-supported investigation of all human TSEs across Canada; improved methods and strategies for case investigation; comprehensive human TSE surveillance data; laboratory investigations of TSE diagnostics and biology; research publications; provision of policy advice for food safety, healthcare and international trade.

Indicator: Alignment of PHAC data from human TSE surveillance with international benchmarks; number of research presentations and publications; use of policy advice in decision-making.

T 9: Targets:

  • Maintenance of Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease surveillance sensitivity at a level where observed mortality from all human TSEs in Canada is consistent with that observed internationally i.e. 1-2 per million population per year
  • Number of research presentations; and research publications per year.

RA 9:

  1. Canadian national CJD surveillance data is available at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/hcai-iamss/cjd-mcj/cjdss-ssmcj/stats-eng.php
    • Observed annual mortality rates for CJD in Canada (cases per million):
      1.48 (2011); 1.81 (2012); 1.45 (2013); 1.54 (2014); 1.43 (2015)
  2. 16-year surveillance report published on epidemiology of CJD in Canada (1998-2013):

    Coulthart MB, Jansen GH, Connolly T, D'Amour R, Kruse J, Lynch J, Sabourin S, Wang Z, Giulivi A, Ricketts MN, Cashman NR. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease mortality in Canada, 1998-2013. Canada Communicable Disease Report 2015; 41(8):183-191.

  3. New diagnostic laboratory test (End Point Quaking Induced Conversion, EP-QuIC) validated and offered to clients starting February 1, 2016

    Supporting publications:

    • Cheng K, Sloan A, Avery KM, Coulthart M, Carpenter M and JD Knox. Exploring Physical and Chemical Factors Influencing the Properties of Recombinant Prion Protein and the Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) Assay. PloS One2014; 9(1):e84812.
    • Godal G, Simon SLR, Cheng K, and Knox JD: A new test for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: real-time quaking induced conversion. Canada Communicable Disease Report 2015; 41(8):192-5.
    • Cheng K, Vendramelli R, Sloan A, Waitt B, Podhorodecki L, Godal D, Knox JD: End-point quaking-induced conversion (EP-QuIC): a sensitive, specific, and high-throughput method for the ante-mortem diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2016; 54(7):1751-4.

    Invited Presentations:

    • Quaking Induced Conversion for CJD Diagnoses. Canadian Association for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (CACMID) annual general meeting. Vancouver BC, March 31, 2016.
    • End-Point Quaking-Induced Conversion (EP-QuIC): A Novel Ante-Mortem Test for CJD Diagnosis. Health Canada Research Forum. Ottawa ON, February 24, 2016.
    • JPND Update. Annual Meeting JPND Consortium. EU Joint Programme - Neurodegenerative Disease Research Proposal "Optimisation, harmonisation and standardisation of real-time QuIC analysis of CSF in the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease." Paris, November 10, 2015.

General Information

Name of horizontal initiative Canadian Food Safety Information Network Table Note 7 (CFSIN)
Name of lead department(s) Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
Federal partner organization(s) Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), the Public Health Agency of Canada, and Health Canada (HC)
Non-federal and non-governmental partner(s) Not applicable
Start date of the horizontal initiative 2014-15
End date of the horizontal initiative 2018-19
Total federal funding allocated (start to end date) $15,606,877 (2012-13 to 2018-19)
Funding contributed by non-federal and non-governmental partners Not applicable
Description of the horizontal initiative The Canadian Food Safety Information Network leverages the Public Health Agency of Canada's web-based informatics platform to strengthen the ability of Canada's federal, provincial and territorial (FPT) food safety authorities to share data to anticipate, detect and respond to foodborne hazards and minimize the impact of food safety events. The CFSIN is expected to link FPT food safety authorities and food testing laboratories across Canada.
Shared outcome(s)
  • Increased ability to anticipate, detect and prevent food safety incidents through an automated early warning system
  • Enhanced, coordinated, preventive and risk-based approach to food safety oversight
  • Rapid distribution of alerts and early warnings to reduce the impact of food-borne illnesses;
  • Faster response and resolution of food safety incidents and outbreaks, with enhanced access to resources,
  • Effective demonstration of a safe food supply and pan-Canadian food safety system to trading partners.
Governance structures

The CFIA's Vice President, Science, is the Executive Sponsor for the implementation of the CFSIN.

A CFSIN FPT Steering Committee has been established to provide integrated FPT leadership, input, guidance, and decision-making authority for the development and implementation of the CFSIN program component and associated food safety activities.

The Executive Sponsor chairs an interdepartmental Special Project Advisory Committee (SPAC) to provide oversight and guidance for the project component (IM/IT enablement) for the CFSIN initiative. For horizontality and transparency, a provincial member of the CFSIN FPT Steering Committee also participates.

The Senior Management Committee (SMC), chaired by the CFIA President, provides direction for the initiative and is accountable for overall implementation of the CFSIN.

The CFIA, HC, and the Public Health Agency of Canada work horizontally in delivering their shared food safety mandates and meet regularly to discuss food safety issues of mutual concerns. Additionally, regularly scheduled, targeted discussions regarding the implementation of the CFSIN occur.

Performance highlights

The CFSIN performance highlights are:

  • Continued engagement and collaboration with FPT partners;
  • Signed a single data sharing arrangement;
  • Developed a comprehensive data dictionary to identify and define data elements to be shared by CFSIN partners;
  • Launched pilot projects for data sharing;
  • Developed a Performance Measurement Strategy; and
  • Completed project documents (e.g., Project Charter, Business Case) to support subsequent funding requirements and to seek Treasury Board approval for the next stage of the project.

Continued contribution to the development of the CFSIN through regular engagement in the CFSIN steering committee, and provisions of input into the performance management framework.

Health Canada participated in the early planning and design stages of the CFSIN initiative during 2015-2016. The Department also explored data-sharing opportunities related to microbial health risk assessments and information available through the Canadian Laboratory Information Network (CANLINE).

Participated in the data dictionary working group led by the CFIA.

Comments on variances The surpluses seen in the contributing programs and activities, Data Support and Environmental Scanning, are due to lower than anticipated salary expenses and delayed operating expenses caused by external environmental factors. With respect to the Enhanced IM/IT architecture activity, Actual Spending exceeded Planned Spending due to expenditures originally scheduled for 2014-15 being incurred in 2015-16.
Results to be achieved by non-federal and non-governmental partners Not applicable
Contact information

Canadian Food Inspection Agency:
Aline Dimitri
A/Executive Director
Food Safety Science Directorate
Telephone: 613-773-5542

Health Canada:
Karen McIntyre
Director General
Food Directorate
Health Products and Food Branch
Telephone: 613-957-1821

Public Health Agency of Canada:
Michael Stollman
Director
Office of Business Integration and Planning
Telephone: 613-219-0305

Table Notes

Table Note 7

In June 2015, the "Food Safety Information Network" was changed to the "Canadian Food Safety Information Network" to maintain a consistent nomenclature with previously established networks in human and animal health.

Return to table note 7  referrer

Planning Information
Federal organizations Link to departmental Program Alignment Architectures Contributing programs and activities Total allocation (2012-13 to 2018-19) 2015-16 Planned spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Expected results (ER) 2015-16 Targets (T) Contributing activity/ program results
(using specific indicators)
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) Food Safety Program
Internal Services
Data Support, Coordination and Outreach 9,901,987 2,252,442 2,172,321 ER 10 T 10 RA 10
Environmental Scanning 1,060,365 251,138 188,944 ER 11 T 11 RA 11
Enhanced IM/IT architecture 3,104,889 1,532,963 2,238,072 ER 12 T 12 RA 12
Public Health Agency of Canada Public Health Infrastructure Program Development of new Food Safety module on CNPHI platform 368,839 209,977 238,649 ER 13 T 13 RA 13
Health Canada Food Safety and Nutrition Data Support, Coordination and Outreach 1,170,797 263,423 226,823 ER 14 T 14 RA 14
Total for all federal organizations $15,606,877
(2012-13 to 2018-19)
$4,509,943 $5,064,809 Not applicable

ER 10: Data Support, Coordination and Outreach

Outcome: Improved and strengthened availability and reliability of food testing capacity and capabilities across Canada.

Output / Activities: Engage federal, provincial, and territorial (FPT) partners to confirm participation in the CFSIN through bilateral data sharing arrangements; Engage private laboratories on laboratory quality management and accreditation; Work with partners to develop a common food safety data dictionary and identification of data elements to be shared.

T 10: Targets: Minimum of one data sharing arrangement signed in 2015-16. Complete draft data dictionary to support data sharing and integration activities.

RA 10: One data sharing arrangement between the CFIA and Alberta Health and Alberta Agriculture and Forestry was signed in February 2016.

A pilot project with Alberta Health and Alberta Agriculture and Forestry has begun to identify methods of sharing food safety data.

The CFIA and the Data Dictionary Working Group (made up of members from HC, the Public Health Agency, and some provincial members) have completed the first comprehensive draft of the data dictionary, which contains agreed upon detailed descriptions of identified data elements to be shared.

Engagement and outreach activities with the provinces have been ongoing. A face-to-face meeting with the Steering Committee was held in Edmonton in December 2015. Both provincial and federal partners were present. The CFSIN FPT Steering Committee was designated as the decision-making body for the initiative. The Terms of Reference for the Steering Committee were finalized.

ER 11: Environmental Scanning

Outcome: Better understanding of incidents, technological trends, and emerging issues that could affect the safety of Canada's food supply.

Output / Activities: Work with FPT partners to advance a more collaborative and systematic approach to identifying new and emerging threats to the food supply; track new scientific findings or social concerns; monitor domestic and international trends in food safety to improve food safety programs; and develop a coordinated pan-Canadian systematic approach to searching and cataloguing intelligence and information.

T 11: Targets: An inventory of environmental scanning and intelligence data.

RA 11: A draft inventory of environmental scanning and intelligence data available to federal partners was completed. A survey has been completed on the environmental scanning and intelligence practices of provincial partners. The findings from the survey will be combined with the inventory from federal partners to form a better understanding of pan-Canadian environmental scanning activities related to food safety.

A Knowledge Integration Using Web-Based Intelligence (KIWI) was identified as a potential tool to facilitate the CFSIN's environmental scanning activities. This option will be explored further in 2016-17.

ER 12: Enhanced IM/IT Architecture

Outcome: An aggregated CFIA data sources for food safety testing results and trending and analysis in support of food safety programs and policy development. Complete the CFSIN project deliverables (for this stage of the CFSIN initiative).

Output / Activities: Develop the CFSIN project deliverables to seek Treasury Board approval (for the next project stage of the CFSIN initiative).

T 12: Targets: Complete project documentation to support further approval for the next project stage of the CFSIN initiative fall 2015.

RA 12: The high-level business requirements and project deliverables were completed. A Treasury Board Submission to seek project approval and expenditure authority to begin the next stage of the project was made.

ER 13: Development of the new Food Safety module on CNPHI platform

Outcome: Completion of Requirements Gathering and of preliminary configuration for new food safety sub-modules that are not data dependent.

T 13: Targets: 100% completion by 2015-16 of Requirements Gathering for sub-modules that are not data dependent, and 40% completion by 2015-16 of Configuration for these sub-modules.

RA 13: In 2015-16, the Public Health Agency of Canada documented and fully completed the requirements gathering for the data dependent and non-data dependent sub-modules. Configuration of the sub-modules did not commence until April 2016, when Treasury Board granted project and expenditure authority, enabling the start of the next stage of the project.

ER 14: Data Support, Coordination and Outreach

Outcome: Improved ability of government agencies and industry to anticipate, prepare and efficiently respond to food safety issues and emergencies.

Output/Activities: Coordinate outreach activities to support CFSIN and expand use of CANLINE within Health Canada food science laboratories.

Performance Measures: Outreach and training sessions held with Health Canada Food Directorate's research and regulatory community; creation of new CANLINE user accounts.

RA 14: Two outreach sessions were held within the Food Directorate and over twenty user accounts were created this year.

Liaised with researchers to enhance the internal use of Food Directorate's CANLINE database that will be integrated into CFSIN.

General Information

Name of horizontal initiative Food Safety Modernization (FSM)
Name of lead department(s) Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
Federal partner organization(s) Health Canada
Non-federal and non-governmental partner(s) Not Applicable
Start date of the horizontal initiative 2011-12
End date of the horizontal initiative 2015-16 (Electronic Service Delivery Platform implementation extended to 2017-18)
Total federal funding allocated (start to end date) $99,800,000 (new funding) and $40,000,000 (internal reallocation) (2011-12 to 2015-16)
Funding contributed by non-federal and non-governmental partners Not Applicable
Description of the horizontal initiative

The CFIA was created in 1997 to enhance food safety systems through the consolidation of inspection and quarantine services that were being delivered by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Health Canada (HC), Fisheries and Oceans Canada, and Industry Canada. The current inspection system comprises numerous independent inspection delivery models.

In Budget 2011, the Government of Canada committed funding amounting to $96.8 million to the CFIA to improve and modernize its food safety inspection system. A number of CFIA initiatives were identified to modernize Canada's food safety inspection system. In support of the Agency's modernization initiatives, HC received $3.0M for enhanced health risk assessment capacity.

The main objectives of this modernization initiative are to move the CFIA away from a system of independent commodity-specific inspection approaches and inspector training, and paper-based record keeping and interactions with stakeholders, to that of a single-inspection approach consistent across the food safety program, supported by standardized training, technology information solutions, enhanced proactive science capacity and improved service to stakeholders.

The plan consists of three elements:

  1. inspection system modernization, including the development of an improved inspection model which will provide standardized activities across the food program, national training for inspectors, enhanced Listeria control in high-risk ready-to-eat foods, enhanced HC health risk assessment capacity in support of CFIA modernization activities, and the IM/IT enablement of the integrated Agency inspection model and the export certification process;
  2. supporting risk-based decision-making through enhanced scientific capacity, including a proposal for a food laboratory network, enhanced capacity for scientific testing and improved facilities and equipment; and
  3. increasing efficiency through improved information management and information technology, including data storage and back-up capacity; enhanced connectivity, and more support for inspector tools such as wireless devices and laptops.
Shared outcome(s) Modernize the CFIA's inspection system by providing up-to-date and relevant training and necessary technology support. This shared outcome will address the increasing complexity of inspection associated with industry advancements in food production and international advancements to improve food safety systems.
Governance structures The CFIA has imposed an internal governance framework for the delivery of activities related to Food Safety Modernization. The CFIA's Senior Management Committee, chaired by the President, will provide direction for initiatives and is accountable for overall implementation. Three VP-level advisory committees responsible for each of the three elements (inspection system modernization, science, and IM/IT) will report to the Agency's Senior Management Committee and will be accountable for ensuring that activities are on track and on budget. Each will operate individual governance structures, led by a business sponsor and a dedicated project manager, with representation from all implicated areas. Corporate Management Committee provides the forum to ensure horizontal integration among the three elements.
Performance highlights

For 2015-16, high level business processes will be finalized for the integrated Agency inspection model (formerly known as the improved inspection delivery model). Project and expenditure approval was sought and was received for the IM/IT enablement of the integrated Agency inspection model and the export certification process (the Electronic Service Delivery Platform (ESDP) project). The CFIA plans to execute the Implementation Stage of the ESDP project. The activities include analyze, design, configure, develop, integrate, and test the technology and application solution. It also includes the testing, correcting, and preparing training materials. The ESDP project team will be working heavily with stakeholders on the design and configuration of the technical solution, including the validation of the end user experience.

With respect to the implementation of Health Canada's Listeria policy for non-meat ready-to-eat food, the Agency will continue staffing actions to provide additional inspection staff for inspection activities in high-risk areas, validate new laboratory methodologies for Listeria in non-meat commodities, and analyze additional food and environmental samples. CFIA subject matter experts will also provide refresher training to existing staff to keep inspectors current with emerging trends and developments related to their work. Adjustments to the core training program will occur as the new inspection model is developed and refined.

The Modernizing Equipment and Laboratories sub-projects at the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and St-Hyacinthe Food laboratories have moved into the Project Implementation stage. Additionally, the highly skilled scientists who were hired in targeted laboratories will continue research projects to develop novel, more rapid and sensitive detection methods to enhance the Agency's response to food safety incidents. They will also develop a new process for the development of tests in real-time in response to an outbreak. In the Integrated Laboratory Network initiative, the project team will continue to work in collaboration with partners and explore the concepts, processes, and mechanisms available to conduct a laboratory systems analysis of the Canadian food laboratory system. Partners will be engaged in exploring data and information requirements and opportunities in anticipation of future feasibility assessments, with respect to the use of existing feasibility assessments, or in the creation of an IM/IT platform for secure data sharing.

As part of the interrelated efforts to improve Canada's food safety system, the CFIA will continue to work with federal, provincial, and territorial (FPT) food safety partners to establish a Canadian Food Safety Information Network (CFSIN). This initiative will leverage an existing web-based electronic platform used for Canadian public health and animal health networks to allow real-time sharing of food safety information and laboratory data among FPT food safety authorities. The CFSIN will enhance food safety surveillance and laboratory response capacity across Canada to allow FPT food safety partners to improve their collective ability to anticipate, detect, and response to foodborne threats and hazards.

In its efforts to improve efficiency, significant IMIT investments in laboratory storage and connectivity have been made by the Agency including:

  • Upgrading of bandwidth for thirteen laboratory links to improve connectivity
  • $2 million for laboratory data storage equipment and infrastructure to support the centralization and sharing of laboratory data as part of a broader laboratory improvement strategy

In addition to investing in its own laboratory data storage and connectivity functions, the Agency has provided a $500,000 investment towards the Government of Canada (GC) shared priority project Genomics Research and Development Initiative (GRDI). The Agency's investment will be used to support the IT infrastructure required to enable the GRDI multi-department, science/research storage sharing network.

The Agency continues to make investments in technological tools to support inspector mobility and productivity. To date, 598 ruggedized tablets have been deployed and an additional 278 tablets are in the process of being deployed to further support the inspectorate. The tablets provide cellular connectivity to allow access to CFIA networks, and applications supporting the inspection function.

Comments on variances Actual Spending exceeded Planned Spending due to expenditures originally scheduled for 2014-15 being incurred in 2015-16.
Results to be achieved by non-federal and non-governmental partners Not Applicable
Contact information

Canadian Food Inspection Agency:
Tanya Day
Director, Agency Transformation
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
613-773-5576

Health Canada
Samuel Godefroy
Director General, Food Directorate
Health Products and Food Branch
613-957-1821

Planning Information
Federal organizations Link to departmental Program Alignment Architectures Contributing programs and activities Total allocation (from start to end date) 2015-16 Planned spending Table Note 8 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Expected results (ER) 2015-16 Targets (T) Contributing activity/ program results
(using specific indicators) Table Note 9
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) Food Safety Program
Internal Services
Inspection Modernization $100,200,000 (2011-12 to 2015-16) $15,815,570 $16,589,820 ER 15 T 15a
T 15b
T 15c
T 15d
RA 15a
RA 15b
RA 15c
RA 15d
Enhancing Scientific Capacity $19,800,000 (2011-12 to 2015-16) 6,700,000 $7,840,814 ER 16 T 16 RA 16
Improved IM/IT $16,800,000 (2012-13 to 2015-16) $4,100,000 $3,842,558 ER 17 T 17 RA 17
Health Canada (HC) Food Safety and Nutrition Enhancing Health Risk Assessment Capacity to Support CFIA Food Safety Inspection Activities $3,000,000 (2011-12 to 2015-16) $700,000 634,946 ER 18 T 18 RA 18
Total for all federal organizations $99,800,000 (new funding) and $40,000,000 (internal reallocation) (2011-12 to 2015-16) $27,315,570 $28,908,138 Not applicable

Table Notes

Table Note 8

As per TBS RPP guidance, the 2015-16 planned spending numbers includes only those resources which have received TB approval as at February 1st, 2015. It does not include $12,891,374 of FSM funding earmarked for the CFIA and for which TB approval will be requested after February 1st, 2015.

Return to table note 8  referrer

Table Note 9

Performance indicators are defined in the Performance Measurement Strategies and/or Performance Measurement Frameworks (PMF) of each federal partner.

Return to table note 9  referrer

ER 15: Inspection System Modernization

Integrated Agency Inspection Model (formally known as the Improved Inspection Delivery Model):

Outcome: The development and sequential implementation of an integrated Agency inspection model that will result in the improved management of food safety risks.

Outputs/activities: A single food inspection program, the Integrated Agency Inspection Model, will be developed in support of the CFIA's transformation agenda. It will include standard collection, reporting and analysis across all food commodities and will provide a more consistent inspection and enforcement approach for regulated parties.

T 15a: Targets:

  • Engagement of stakeholders both internally and externally to promote the understanding of the CFIA's transformation agenda.
  • Identification of high level business processes and vision of business functions to support the effective implementation of the integrated Agency inspection model.
  • Prioritization of key activities within the integrated Agency inspection model to support a sequenced transformation agenda.

RA 15a: Results for 2015-2016

CFIA has continued to engage with both internal and external stakeholders to promote understanding of CFIA's transformation agenda.

In particular, regular engagements at all levels of the organization have occurred internally around the implementation of the Integrated Agency Inspection model. The Agency is fully engaged with those Industry stakeholders who have already come on board to the new inspection approach and those who will soon come on board. The Agency has received very positive feedback to date around the new inspection approach.

Additionally, the Agency began regular engagements both internally and externally to promote a better understanding of the new Electronic Service Delivery Platform. (ESDP)

The inspections under iAIM began in November 2015 in a limited rollout to specific commodities. These commodities were: Fish (domestic QMP), Feed (export canola oilseed processors), Dairy (Domestic Food Safety Enhancement Program (FSEP)) and Greenhouse (export certification program).

This strategy was adopted to validate the new inspection approach, and new tools (standardized worksheet and report, and operational guidance). The feedback from this validation through the first wave roll out demonstrated the following:

  • The new inspection approach identified non-compliance as effectively as the old systems;
  • The new guidance (Standard Inspection Procedures (SIP), Preventive Control Plans (PCP) and Commodity Specific Reference Material (CSR)) can be applied at the field level
  • The new inspection worksheet was easy to complete and captured the appropriate information
  • Management and Operational Guidance and Expertise (OGE) support was timely

Verifying Compliance with HC's Revised Listeria Policy

Outcome: Fewer illnesses caused by Listeria monocytogenes resulting from the consumption of high-risk, non-meat ready-to-eat (RTE) foods.

Outputs and Activities: The Agency will enhance inspection and testing activities to verify industry control of Listeria in all high-risk, non-meat ready-to-eat food. The Agency will increase the number of inspections and samples taken and analyzed and provide technical support for risk assessments resulting from positive findings. Sampling data will be used to support risk-based decision-making. Industry will be encouraged to implement preventative Listeria control programs. New Listeria testing methods will be validated and trend analysis will be developed.

T 15b: Targets: Number of non-meat ready-to-eat samples collected and analyzed.

RA 15b:

In 2015/16, the CFIA continued to enforce Health Canada's Listeria Policy through monitoring sampling conducted by inspectors to verify the effectiveness of the control measures used to eliminate, inhibit, and prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat non-meat Foods.

CFIA conducted technical assessments, and provided policy interpretation, advice and guidance, in partnership with Health Canada. To promote compliance with the new preventive control approach outlined in the Agency's iAIM model, the CFIA is in the process of developing interpretive guidance and model systems.

Electronic Service Delivery Platform (ESDP) Project

Outcome: ESDP will provide a set of technologies and tools for citizens, Industry, and CFIA inspectors as they carry out their respective roles under the new inspection model. It will provide an electronic platform that will allow more readily access to CFIA programs and to conduct regular business transactions.

Outputs and Activities: ESDP will enable the Integrated Agency Inspection Model (IAIM) and the electronic delivery of export certificates. ESDP aims to standardize and automate processes, provide information on resource utilization, activities, results and compliance issues; and provide operational performance data for analysis and tracking.

T 15c: Targets:

  • More predictable, efficient, and reliable service to industry and thereby increase industry competitiveness and confidence.
  • Increase the effectiveness and transparency of the inspection process and thereby maintain confidence in Canada's safe and accessible food supply and plant and animal resource base.
  • Maintain international trading partner confidence in Canada's export certification process thereby protecting access to Canada's export markets; Increase clarity of the per transaction costs of services to substantiate related user fees.
  • Partially offset ongoing ESDP support and maintenance costs.
  • Increase internal administrative and operational effectiveness by automating inspection activities.
  • Optimize inspection coverage by enabling management to continually reallocate the inspectorate to changing priorities throughout the year.
  • Efficiencies in reduction of applications that support licensing, inspection and certification activities

R 15c

CFIA completed documenting the detailed business processes and drafted concepts of operations for the delivery of the processes being automated through the Electronic Service Delivery Platform (ESDP).

CFIA received Treasury Board project and expenditure authority to undertake the implementation phase of the ESDP project. To date:

  • The project has procured the services of a System Integrator to design and develop the new Electronic Service Delivery Platform which will enable the following functions: enrolment, permissions issuance, inspection & export certification.
  • The System Integrator has initiated the review of business process maps and narratives, as well as detailed business requirements.

Recruitment and Training of Inspectors

Outcome: The development and implementation of a national recruitment strategy to provide inspection managers with qualified candidates when and where required. The training process for inspection staff within the CFIA will be designed to meet the requirements of the Integrated Agency Inspection Model.

Outputs and Activities: Build a culture of recruitment to increase the awareness of the Agency as an employer of choice, leverage technology to assess and place candidates more efficiently and develop strategy for remote locations. Training strategy for inspection community aligned with the competency-based curriculum for inspection staff.

T 15d: Targets:

  • Number of Agency employees trained.
  • Number of Agency inspectors trained.

RA 15d:

Training on the iAIM was launched in June 2015. By March 2016 approximately 465 (336 food) inspection staff were trained on:

  • Standard Inspection Procedures
  • Compliance Verification of a Preventive Control Plan
  • Electronic Inspection Worksheet
  • Rugged tablet

These employees also received training on one or more of the following topics:

  • Compliance Verification of Preventive Control Plans - Fish
  • Compliance Verification of Preventive Control Plans - Dairy
  • Compliance Verification of Preventive Control Plans - Greenhouse
  • Compliance Verification of Preventive Control Plans - Oil Seed

With the exception of the Electronic Inspection Worksheet (virtual) and the rugged tablet (self-directed), all training was delivered in the classroom enabling effective decision making.

ER 16: Enhancing Laboratory Response Capacity

Outcome: The CFIA is able to detect and respond faster to food safety hazards.

Outputs and Activities: The number of highly skilled scientists in targeted laboratories will be enhanced through hiring additional scientists. New rapid, scientific, and sensitive food safety testing methods will be developed.

Targets:

  • Scientists hired.
  • Collaborative projects established with experts.
  • Enhanced and newly developed food safety testing methods.

Modernizing Equipment and Laboratories

Outcome: Improved CFIA food laboratory capacity to detect and respond to food safety related hazards.

Outputs and Activities: Complete Laboratory expansion and renovation of targeted laboratories. Upgrade laboratory equipment by acquiring modern testing equipment.

T 16: Targets:

  • Expansion and Renovation projects completed on schedule.
  • Procurement of equipment.

RA 16:

  • The Modernizing Equipment and Laboratories sub-projects at the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and St-Hyacinthe food laboratories have been completed as scheduled.
  • CFIA's collaborative research project with Genome Canada and Alberta Innovates on Biosolutions on Listeria monocytogenes genomics has been completed. A final report has been submitted; genome methods will undergo formal validation and roll-out in CFIA laboratories will be adopted over the next two years (2015-16, 2016-17).
  • Work on CFIA's research project with Genome Canada and Alberta Innovates on Biosolutions on E. Coli O157:H7 genomics is completed and a draft report has been submitted.
  • CFIA has become a national and international leader in the field of food safety genomics. CFIA Scientists are leading national and international research collaborations to expand the utilization of genomics methodology to build emergency response capability to support food safety investigations, identify food bacterial isolates definitively, and establish international best practices for the analysis and interpretation of bioinformatic data.
  • A new, more informative genomics analysis, the Report of Genomic Analysis (ROGA), has been added to routine diagnostics of all foodborne pathogens identified within the CFIA lab network in order to build a genomic database for comparison with newly isolated pathogens. In addition to new isolates, historic isolates have also been analyzed.
  • In addition, this analysis, previously only conducted at the Ottawa Laboratory - Carling, is being rolled out to all CFIA food microbiology diagnostic labs as part of two Canadian Safety and Security Program (DRDC-sponsored) projects in order to increase efficiency of the testing and to reduce the timelines for acquisition of results. Full implementation should be completed by the end of 2016-17.
  • Various other more efficient testing methods have been developed through smaller research projects, including genomics and other relevant novel technologies.
  • A draft research memorandum of understanding with the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has been negotiated and has been approved through CFIA governance. The MOU will be signed once approved by the US FDA and US State Department. Once signed, this MOU will provide the required overarching legal framework to enable formal research collaboration between the agencies.

ER 17: Improved IM/IT

Outcome: To provide the Agency and Agency staff with stable and up-to-date information management capabilities and tools that will enable the implementation and execution of the modernized inspection delivery model.

Outputs and Activities: Information Management and Integration, information access to the front-line staff through increased connectivity and modernized applications.

T 17: Targets:

  • With data governance processes and business intelligence reporting established, will be further strengthened and made more operational.
  • The foundations created for new and modernized applications, and an architecture program initiated, new infrastructure, processes and tools will continue to be introduced and mobility/connectivity will be assessed.
  • Overall, compliance with TBS policies on application portfolio management will be improved.

RA 17:

  • The CFIA has further strengthened its data governance process and Business Intelligence (BI) by developing an Information Management (IM) & Collaboration Strategy, BI and Analytics Roadmap and Information Architecture Strategy. Improved information based decision making has been achieved through the deployment and regular use of operational and executive dashboards and maturing analytic practices. We have further enhanced the program performance management capabilities of the Agency's Business Information Management Centre (BIMC) by strengthening the tools, processes and governance to capture and report on operational data. Dashboards for Senior Management were further enhanced by providing strategic analysis to better highlight the areas of attention related to the delivery of the core Program and Corporate functions of the Agency.
  • Mobility & Connectivity have been assessed and spawned various initiatives on the 2016/2017 Agency's Approved Investment Plan.
  • An IMIT Architecture program was established in FY 2014/15 and continues to be developed and is being integrated into the Agency's Enterprise Architecture.
  • In response to the TBS government-wide Application Portfolio management (APM) strategy, an APM Program was established, and implemented in the modernization of the Applications. Lessons learned from the APM Program implementation have been applied. Thus, the Agency is better positioned to continue moving towards a balanced and sustainable technology platform based on the architected Government of Canada (GC) standards with key platforms identified.

ER 18: Enhancing Health Risk Assessment Capacity to Support CFIA Food Safety Inspection Activities

Enhanced Health Risk Assessment Capacity:

Outcome: CFIA-led food safety investigations will be supported by timely health risk assessments that will further support swift action to minimize/mitigate the potential exposure of Canadians to foodborne hazards.

Outputs/Activities: Health Canada will build additional flexibility in its health risk assessment capacity to sustain its current level of service through the hiring of additional employees, ongoing training, review and analysis of health risk assessment activities, and the proactive development of new policies and guidelines, where appropriate.

T 18: Targets: 90% of Health Risk Assessments (HRAs) at CFIA's request responded to within time standards.

RA 18: 100% of 198 HRA requests were provided within time standard.

Continued improvements/revisions to standard operating procedures, report templates, work instructions and other HRA resources to expedite delivery of HRAs and increase transparency in decision-making.

Continued technical training of scientific evaluators, and the cross-training of an additional FTE for after-hours HRAs.

Continued to lead the Food Safety Health Risk Assessment Consortium to create better partnerships between federal, provincial and territorial departments/agencies responsible for food safety. The Consortium enhances the capacity for each of its members to respond to food safety and risk assessment issues.

General Information - CFIA Form

Name of horizontal initiative Renewal of Government Response and Action Plan to the 2008 Listeriosis Outbreak
Name of lead department(s) Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
Federal partner organization(s) Health Canada (HC); and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)
Non-federal and non-governmental partner(s) Not Applicable
Start date of the horizontal initiative 2009-10; Renewed in 2012-13
End date of the horizontal initiative 2015-16 (CFIA); 2016-17 and ongoing (HC and PHAC)
Total federal funding allocated (start to end date) $112,900,000 (2012-13 to 2016-17) and $10,500,000 ongoing (HC and PHAC).
Funding contributed by non-federal and non-governmental partners Not Applicable
Description of the horizontal initiative

The objective of this horizontal initiative is to continue to enhance the Government of Canada's ability to prevent, detect and respond to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses, pursuant to recommendations stemming from reviews of the 2008 listeriosis outbreak.

The three federal organizations, the CFIA, HC, and PHAC, received a total spending authority of $112.9 million for this initiative (CFIA: $60.4 million over four years, PHAC: $33 million over five years, and HC: $19.5 million over five years). PHAC and HC also received a total spending authority of $10.5 million ongoing ($6.6 million and $3.9 million respectively). Each federal organization identified the resource requirements, strategic outcomes, objectives, and implementation plan for each program area.

Shared outcome(s)

Address Immediate Food Safety Risks by maintaining:

  • hired ready-to-eat meat inspection staff;
  • scientific and technical training programs for inspection staff;
  • technical support to continue enhanced connectivity for inspectors;
  • enhanced food safety program risk management; and
  • capacity for the increasing number and complexity of health risk assessments.

Enhanced Surveillance and Early Detection by maintaining:

  • capacity to improve and validate test detection methods for Listeria;
  • scientific capacity to continue additional Listeria testing;
  • ability to develop and improve test detection methods for Listeria and other foodborne hazards;
  • national public health surveillance tools and platforms through the expansion of the FoodNet Canada (formerly C-EnterNet) Program; and
  • strengthened laboratory diagnostic and networking tools: continued implementation of whole genome sequencing; continued expansion of PulseNet Canada.

Improved Government Response to Foodborne Illness Outbreaks in Canada by maintaining:

  • support to the Food Safety Portal;
  • risk communication and social marketing strategies;
  • human illness outbreak response capacity; and
  • national epidemiological surge public health outbreak capacity.
Governance structures

The CFIA, HC and PHAC currently work horizontally in delivering their shared food safety mandates. Pursuant to existing trilateral memoranda of understanding, the three partners meet regularly to discuss food safety issues of mutual concern. This governance framework includes Deputy Head, Assistant Deputy Minister, and Director General level committees, which meet regularly to discuss and plan approaches for addressing joint food safety issues. The work of the committees is also informed by the F/P/T Ministers of Health and Agriculture and their associated discussions on food safety.

In October 2013, the CFIA joined Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada in reporting to the Minister of Health. This reorganization has strengthened Canada's food safety system by bringing all three authorities responsible for food safety under one Minister. This will ensure clear focus, easy collaboration and timely communications with Canadians in relation to food safety.

Performance highlights

(Planning Highlights below are from 2015-16 Reports on Plans and Priorities (RPP))

The CFIA, HC and the PHAC have acted on all of the recommendations put forward by the Independent Investigator. Organizations have achieved considerable success in carrying out the Government's 2009 action plan in response to the 2008 listeriosis outbreak. Sustained effort on critical activities regarding human resources, scientific capacity and communications will maintain this strengthened food safety system.

Results to be achieved by non-federal and non-governmental partners Not Applicable
Contact information

Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Nina Frid
Executive Director
Strategic Policy and International Affairs Directorate
613-773-6739

Health Canada
Deryck Trehearne
Director General, Resource Management & Operations Directorate,
Health Products and Food Branch,
613-957-6690

Public Health Agency of Canada
Steven Sternthal
Director General
Centre for Food-borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases
Infectious Disease Prevention and Control Branch
613-948-6883

Planning Information
Federal organizations Link to departmental Program Alignment Architectures Contributing programs and activities Total allocation (from start to end date) 2015-16 Planned spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Expected results (ER) 2015-16 Targets (T) Contributing activity/ program results
(using specific indicators) Table Note 10
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) Food Safety Program
Internal Services
Maintaining hired inspection staff in ready-to-eat meat establishments 29,104,000
(2012-13 to 2015-16)
7,276,000 7,805,380 ER 19 T 19 RA 19
Maintaining scientific and technical training programs 14,336,000
(2012-13 to 2015-16)
3,584,000 2,024,223 ER 20 T 20 RA 20
Maintaining enhanced connectivity for inspectors 2,280,000
(2012-13 to 2015-16)
570,000 623,765 ER 21 T 21 RA 21
Maintaining enhanced food safety program risk management 6,680,000
(2012-13 to 2015-16)
1,670,000 1,998,284 ER 22 T 22 RA 22
Maintaining capacity to improve test detection methods for Listeria and other foodborne hazards 1,960,000
(2012-13 to 2015-16)
490,000 510,820 ER 23 T 23 RA 23
Maintaining scientific capacity to continue Listeria testing 5,360,000
(2012-13 to 2015-16)
1,340,000 1,481,115 ER 24 T 24 RA 24
Maintaining support to the Government of Canada Food Safety Portal 680,000
(2012-13 to 2015-16)
170,000 141,613 ER 25 T 25 RA 25
Health Canada (HC) Food Safety and Nutrition Maintain ability to respond within established service standards to the increasing number and complexity of health risk assessments and food safety investigations 13,500,000 (2012-13 to 2016-17) and 2,700,000 ongoing 2,708,404 Table Note 11 2,229,809 ER 26 T 26 RA 26
Maintaining ability to develop and improve test detection methods for Listeria and other foodborne hazards 3,000,000 (2012-13 to 2016-17) and 600,000 ongoing 591,596 Table Note 11 925,542 ER 27 T 27 RA 27
Maintaining a Social Marketing Strategy 3,000,000 (2012-13 to 2016-17) and 600,000 ongoing 600,000 344,710 ER 28 T 28 RA 28
Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) Health Promotion and Disease Prevention; Public Health Infrastructure Maintain national public health surveillance tools and platforms through the expansion of the FoodNet Canada program 7,929,923 (2012-13 to 2016-17) and 1,585,679 ongoing 1,521,344 1,637,606 ER 29 T 29 RA 29
Public Health Infrastructure Maintain strengthened laboratory diagnostic and networking tools: Continued implementation of whole genome sequencing 4,471,260 (2012-13 to 2016-17) and 894,252 ongoing 926,048 972,371 ER 30 T 30 RA 30
Public Health Infrastructure Maintain strengthened laboratory diagnostic and networking tools: Continued expansion of PulseNet Canada 1,852,105 (2012-13 to 2016-17) and 370,421 ongoing 380,304 370,433 ER 31 T 31 RA 31
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Maintain human illness outbreak response capacity 14,525,824 (2012-13 to 2016-17) and 2,908,774 ongoing 2,847,174 2,134,536 ER 32 T 32 RA 32
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention; Health Security; Public Health Infrastructure Maintain national epidemiological surge public health outbreak capacity 4,220,888 (2012-13 to 2016-17) and 840,874 ongoing 694,727 754,271 ER 33 T 33 RA 33
Total for all federal organizations $112,900,000
(2012-17) and $10,500,000
ongoing (HC and PHAC)
$25,369,597 $23,954,478 Not applicable

Table Notes

Table Note 10

Performance indicators are defined in the Performance Measurement Strategies and/or Performance Measurement Frameworks (PMF) of each federal partner.

Return to table note 10  referrer

Table note 11

These figures have been adjusted to correct an error in the 2015-16 RPP. The first Contributing Program for Health Canada was understated by $8,404, while the second was overstated by the same amount.

Return to table note 11  referrer

ER 19: Maintaining Hired Inspection Staff in Ready-to-Eat Meat Establishments:

Outcome: Improved management of food safety risks in federally registered ready-to-eat meat establishments.

Output/Activities: Maintain additional inspection capacity in order to continue delivering enhanced verification and inspection activities resulting from the mandatory Listeria testing and reporting requirements for federally registered ready-to-eat meat establishments.

Targets

  1. Number of inspectors maintained
  2. Percentage of delivered tasks related to Listeria controls and sampling that were found to be acceptable.

Results for 2015-16

In 2015-2016, the CFIA was successful in maintaining the expanded workforce complement of 70 FTEs. These additional FTEs continued to deliver enhanced verification and inspection activities resulting from mandatory Listeria testing and reporting requirements in federally registered ready-to-eat meat establishments.

Six different tasks were delivered related to Listeria controls and sampling. These six tasks were delivered 6,062 times in 2015-2016 and 98.93% were found to be acceptable, demonstrating that food safety risks related to Listeria controls were and continue to be effectively managed in federally registered ready-to-eat meat establishments.

*Changes from 2014-2015 results are underlined. Compared to 2014-2015, the number of verification tasks delivered has increased by 323 (or 5.6%). Compliance has increased by 0.1%.

ER 20: Maintaining Scientific and Technical Training Programs:

Outcome: Improved management of food safety risks in federally registered ready-to-eat meat establishments.

Output/Activities: Continue to develop and deliver enhanced scientific and technical training programs to ensure that new and existing ready-to-eat meat products inspection staff are aware of the latest trends in science and technology related to meat processing and of updated policies.

Targets:

  1. Number of training sessions delivered.
  2. Number of inspectors trained, number of person days for this training.

Results for 2015-16

The delivery of Meat School continued in 2015 - 16. Several courses that had previously been offered as part of the formal session of Meat School, including Orientation to the CFIA, Foundations of Inspection and Note Taking, have continued to be delivered as part of the Core training for all new CFIA inspectors at the Canadian Border Security Agency (CBSA) campus in Rigaud, Quebec. Other courses, including Food Safety Investigation and Introduction to Compliance Verification System (CVS), are delivered to the inspectors in their local areas.

Eight (8) sessions of Meat School were run in 2015 - 16. In total (at Meat School, Core training and area training) 58 training session for meat processing inspectors were delivered, 300 inspectors received training, and this accounts for a total of 840 training days delivered.

Other updates to training include:

  • The training material for the Control Measures for Listeria in ready-to-eat meat was completed, as well as the development of the training materials for the E. coli O157:H7 Policy course and the E. coli O157:H7 Sampling course.
  • The remodeling and fusion of two courses - Meat Processing and Inspection Procedures and Controls in Meat Processing - have progressed.
  • Health Canada has finalized its Listeria Policy. Training for the new policy for inspectors who have previously been trained is ready to be launched in the first quarter of FY 2016 - 17.

The training for the Meat Products Export course was also updated and delivered.

ER 21: Maintaining Enhanced Connectivity for Inspectors:

Outcome: Improved management of food safety risks.

Output/Activities: Continue to provide frontline inspection staff with the ability to securely access the CFIA's network and applications through high speed internet connectivity.

Targets:

  1. Number of inspectors with high-speed access.
  2. Average amount of data used per aircard.

Results for 2015-16

In 2015-16, the number of inspectors with high speed aircard access fluctuated to a maximum of 850 people. There was an average use of 170 megabytes of data per month, and the peak months of use were between September and November.

Connectivity of inspectors is being sustained by ongoing support and maintenance of the aircards and mobile devices. Maintenance includes the costs of personnel to support the aircards and mobile tablets, as well as some travel, training and courier costs as device usage fluctuates based on staffing changes and changes to location due to inspection models.

ER 22: Maintaining Enhanced Food Safety Program Risk Management:

Outcome: Improved management of food safety risks through the continued review of food safety programs and activities.

Output/Activities: Continue to modernize food safety standards, programs, policies and operational procedures to make them consistent and reflect current trends (e.g. rapid technological and scientific advancements in food production).

Targets: List of reviews/updates/projects completed (e.g. risk-based sampling plans).

Results for 2015-16: In 2015-16, the CFIA continued to modernize food safety standards, programs, policies and operational procedures. Examples of documents that were modernized include:

  • Guidance documents and model systems, including those related to Listeria requirements. Update focused on using plain language to support the coming into force of the proposed SFCR.
  • The Technical Processes Section in the Domestic Food Safety Directorate. Updates focused on building in meat specific expertise with a focus on Listeria and other microbiological pathogens of concern. This has enhanced CFIA's programmatic technical support capacity towards our internal process by providing valuable and streamlined advice to Operations.

Sampling plans. Updated and prioritized based on risk.

ER 23: Maintaining Capacity to Improve Test Detection Methods for Listeria and other Foodborne Hazards:

Outcome: Improved management of food safety risks through improved detection methods for Listeria and other foodborne hazards.

Output/Activities: Continue to provide greater availability and choice of testing methods for the detection of Listeria by industry and the CFIA, and faster turnaround time for reporting results.

  1. Completion of the validation protocol.
  2. Completion of the validation project, technical review of validation project data.
  3. Decisions made on new methods.

Results for 2015-16

The CFIA continued to improve and validate detection methods for Listeria in meat products, and in the meat processing environment. The goal is to reduce the time required to test samples, while enabling more rapid response times during food safety investigations.

In 2015-16, method validation studies were conducted on four rapid screening methods for Listeria in ready-to-eat meat. The technical evaluation is complete on one of the four rapid screening methods, which was deemed to be equivalent to the Canadian reference method. This method allows for negative samples to be reported in as little as 24h following sample receipt. The methodology is anticipated to be published in the Compendium of Analytical Methods (the Compendium) in 2016 to be available for use by both CFIA laboratories and industry.

Technical evaluation is ongoing on the three additional rapid screening methods that were validated by CFIA laboratories in 2015-16.

The International performance method comparison study that was initiated in 2012 was completed this fiscal year. This study compared international reference methods to the Canadian reference method for Listeria in meat and meat processing environmental samples. The results of the study have been provided to the joint CFIA/Health Canada Microbiology Methods Committee (MMC) for final review. The data presented may be used to expedite rapid method evaluations when validations studies are performed outside of Canada, and potentially allow the MMC to accept many more rapid Listeria methods for regulatory testing.

ER 24: Maintaining Scientific Capacity to Continue Additional Listeria Testing:

Outcome: Early detection and faster response to potential foodborne illness outbreaks through enhanced laboratory testing capacity, contributing to improved decision-making.

Output/Activities: Continue early warning of potential contamination in the food processing environment.

  1. Targets: Number of product and environmental samples submitted to laboratories for Listeria versus 2008 baseline.
  2. Reports produced on data trends at a defined frequency.
  3. Number of experts dedicated to trend analysis.

Results for 2015-16:

CFIA continued testing of additional ready-to-eat meat and environmental samples, as a result of the updated Listeria Directives.

Product samples for Listeria testing have increased approximately threefold since 2009.

The Environmental Monitoring Program for Listeria in ready-to-eat meat establishments is ongoing. The program purchased and supplied inspectors with environmental test kits, which tested over 1000 environmental samples this year.

CFIA has conducted a microbiological baseline study pilot on retail ready-to-eat foods to inform the design and implementation of a future 12-month study under Pathogen Reduction Initiative.

The National Listeria Trend Bulletin has been drafted, and will be finalized for publication and sharing with CFIA stakeholders. The Bulletin communicates trends in Listeria prevalence and other Listeria-related information.

ER 25: Maintaining Support to the Government of Canada Food Safety Portal:

Outcome: Canadians are aware of food safety risks, and they contribute to its management by sourcing their food safety information via several on-line Government of Canada resources.

Output/Activities: Continue to improve public access to integrated Government of Canada food safety information through the migration of CFIA food safety information to Canada.ca.

Targets

Trending of:

  • Number of visitors and visits to food safety information on the inspection.gc.ca site (until December 2016 when food safety content will be posted on Canada.ca)
  • Number of followers and tweets distributed through the CFIA food safety Twitter account.
  • Number of food safety related CFIA Facebook postings.

Results for 2015-16:

In 2015-16, the food safety information on the CFIA external web site (inspection.gc.ca)Footnote 22 received 44,970,082 views, and 22,417,096 hits from 13,646,154 visitors.

The CFIA has been active in the Web Renewal Initiative and will be migrating the information on the Food Safety Portal, such as the list of food recalls, to Canada.ca between September and December 2016 in accordance with the TBS mandate for web renewal.

The CFIA's food safety Twitter account had 45,224 followers at the end of 2015-16.

1068 food safety tweets were issued this year.

There were 1229 food safety postings on Facebook.

ER 26 - Maintaining ability to respond within established service standards to the increasing number and complexity of health risk assessments (HRAs) and food safety investigations:

Outcome: Improved management of food safety risks.

Output/Activities: Provide risk assessments, based on the best available science and methods, within established service standards and strengthen the prevention of and response to food safety incidents.

Targets:

  • Number of staffing actions (hired/allocated) and level of funding allocated over time, specifically targeting the enhancement of our capacity for HRAs.
  • Maintenance of FTEs to support HRA activities.
  • Number of HRAs completed within service standards.
  • Number of quality management practices implemented, including Standard Operating Procedures, templates, and inter-departmental Health Canada (HC)-CFIA protocols.
  • National and international collaborations conducted related to risk modelling method development, refinement, testing, validation, and implementation.

Results for 2015-16

  • The current FTEs allocated to HRAs have been maintained.
  • The current FTEs allocated to HRAs have been maintained.
  • Continued technical training of scientific evaluators and cross-trained an additional FTE for after-hours health risk assessments (HRAs).
  • 100% of 307 HRA requests were provided within Health Canada's service standard.
  • The Current Standards Operating Procedure (SOP) for HRA service standards was reviewed and updated.
  • A streamlined evaluation process for HRAs was developed, and the HRA training module was updated.
  • Continued to lead the Food Safety Health Risk Assessment Consortium to create better partnerships between federal, provincial and territorial departments/agencies responsible for food safety.
  • The Consortium enhances the capacity for each of its members to respond to food safety and risk assessment issues.

ER 27: Maintaining ability to develop and improve test detection methods for Listeria and other foodborne hazards:

Outcome: Improve test detection methods for Listeria and other foodborne hazards.

Output/Activities: Have a suite of rapid validated tools available to industry and government partners to allow action to be taken at the earliest opportunity, thereby reducing exposure of Canadians to foodborne hazards.

Targets

  1. Risk assessment modelling methods and Information Technology (IT) tools that are current, accepted, validated, and meet international standards.
  2. Number of improved test detection methods and other laboratory diagnostic tools developed for faster detection of Listeria and other hazards in foods.
  3. Number of FTEs hired/allocated to developing/improving microbiological and chemical methods.
  4. Establishment of service standards and protocols for publishing microbiological or chemical methods according to the MMC and RCMC.
  5. Establishment and description of criteria and processes to identify priority methods for validation by HC and CFIA according to the MMC and RCMC.
  6. Number of methods prioritized for fast tracking and validation by MMC and RCMC.
  7. Number of completed pilots and validated methodologies/prototypes for the detection of Listeria and other hazards in foods.
  8. Continue to develop rapid screening methods for the detection of natural toxins.

Results for 2015-16

  1. n/a
  2. Completed the evaluation and validation of a new culture method for the detection and isolation of Listeria monocytogenes in alignment with national and international methods and industry test kits.

    Completed the development of a new Listeria culture method for environmental samples (e.g., stainless steel, ceramic, plastic).

  3. n/a
  4. n/a
  5. n/a
  6. n/a
  7. Continued to integrate and validate a microfluidic platform for rapid detection, identification and characterization of foodborne pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes in food matrices, the food processing environment and water within a few hours.

    Published 3 new methods, updated 16 methods and removed 1 out-dated method from the Compendium of Analytical Methods.

    Completed a multi-laboratory governmental study to generate data on the equivalence of international culture methods for Listeria monocytogenes.

    Completed a detailed review of Salmonella methods in the Compendium of Analytical Methods.

  8. Developed rapid methods for the purification and screening of priority toxins, including mycotoxins, phycotoxins, and process-induced toxins in food and feed stocks.

    ELISA method for alternariol:

    • Validation has been completed for bread and bran matrix.
    • Bread samples were analysed by developed kit and results compared with LC-MS/MS.

Polyclonal antibodies generated against tenuazonic acid to develop rapid screening method.

ER 28: Maintaining a Social Marketing Strategy

Outcome: Canadians are aware of and contribute to the management of food safety risks.

Output/Activities: Continue to increase awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with unsafe food handling practices and foodborne illness among vulnerable populations through the use of multi-faceted activities.

Targets

  1. Establishment of strategic partnerships to expand the reach of messaging
  2. Breadth of food safety marketing campaign activities and products.
  3. Web tracking statistics.

Results for 2015-16

Due to factors beyond Health Canada's control (specifically, the Caretaker Convention following the 2015 Federal election), many planned outreach and awareness activities during the August 3-November 3, 2015 election period, were postponed, cancelled and/or deferred to the next fiscal year.

A collaborative messaging pilot project with the Retail Council of Canada and seven member retailers, sunset on May 31, 2015, crowning a15 month collaboration. Ready-to-use materials, developed by Health Canada, were provided to participating retailers (Co-op Atlantic, Costco, Federated Co-op, Loblaw, Metro, The Grocery People, and Walmart) at no charge for placement in-store and online, reinforcing communications across multiple touch points such as in flyers, social media posts and website banners.

To broaden the reach of the food safety messaging, discussions were undertaken with additional partners to launch an expanded collaborative messaging initiative in 2016-17.

Multi-faceted activities ranging from: distribution of awareness collateral through telephone and online requests; digital engagement; partnerships with retailers and the non-profit sector; multi-media advertising; and market research.

Dissemination of educational materials: Updated the Safe Food Handling Guides for Vulnerable Populations with the latest risk findings, and distributed to requesting individuals, non-government organizations, health professionals and other intermediaries. Also conducted wider-scale distribution:

  • 25,000 guides for pregnant women handed out at all 68 Thyme Maternity stores during a one-month period (June 15 - July 15, 2015).
  • A targeted mail out to 16,000 obstetricians/gynaecologists, midwives and birthing centres; licensed daycare centres; pediatricians; extended care facilities also took place to promote the guides to those serving at-risk populations.
Safe Food Handling Guides
Target audience Organic (requested) Targeted Mail-out In-store distribution
Pregnant women 10,029 29,160 25,000
People with a weakened immune system 12,828 3,800
Children 5 and under 26,554 40,551
Adults 60+ 19,019 3,800
Sub-total 68,430 77,311 25,000
Total 170,741 guides distributed
Digital engagement: Generated new social media content (via the Healthy Canadians social media platforms)
Healthy Canadians social media channel Results
Facebook: 34 posts with a reach of 707,752 (times a person saw the post). 707,752 views; 7,693 comments, likes and shares; and 13,148 click-throughs to Healthy Canadians web content
Twitter: 147 tweets 989 re-tweets and 490 favourites
Pinterest: 8 pins 344 re-pins and 22 likes
YouTube: 2 videos 2,283 views and 8 likes
TOTAL 22,694 engagements (interactions)
Promoted food safety messages through collaborations with the RCC and participating retailers and Thyme Maternity
Organization Activities
Thyme Maternity
  • On-going placement of 7 blog articles on food safety (April 1, 2015 - March 31, 2016)
Retail Council of Canada
  • Retailers shared 2 online videos, 4 animated storyboards for in-store TV screens, 10 Facebook and Twitter posts, web banners and Pinterest-style visuals (April 1 - May 31, 2015)

Ran a national multi-media advertising campaign that improved message reach and increased the uptake of food safety information.

  • Reached pregnant women and parents of young children with web-based advertising, social media promotions, search engine marketing, content integration and pamphlet distribution via a maternity wear retailer (refer to dissemination entry above for statistics on the latter).
Channel Reach / impressions
(times an ad was delivered)
Clicks through to food safety web content on Canada.ca
Facebook advertisements 5,429,095 29,416
Twitter advertisements 1,329,055 10,430
Google Adwords (SEM) 436,182 14,357
Web banners:
Baby Center
2,008,150 4,598
Web banners:
Mode Media (Food & Living topic areas)
3,995,204 15,399
Web banners:
Rogers Media (Food and Parenting topic areas)
2,030,598 2,065
Web banners:
She Blogs Media
14,332,000 14,818
Total 29,560,284 91,083

Conducted a behavioural research with prenatal care providers to gain insights which will inform future awareness activities to pregnant women and their health professionals. (Fielded in March 2016 - 781 questionnaires completed).

Obtained 1,198,660 page views on the Food Safety section of Canada.ca website. This represents a 5.32% increase in views compared to the prior year.

2015/16 Pageviews Avg. Time Duration
April 2015 94,300 0:02:30
May 2015 104,498 0:02:47
June 2015 135,507 0:02:46
July 2015 126,764 0:02:52
August 2015 81,971 0:03:02
September 2015 98,501 0:02:28
October 2015 101,521 0:02:39
November 2015 83,746 0:02:54
December 2015 82,977 0:03:09
January 2016 91,476 0:02:54
February 2016 101,296 0:02:33
March 2016 96,103 0:02:45
Total: 1,198,660 0:02:44

ER 29: Maintaining national public health surveillance tools and platforms through the expansion of the FoodNet Canada program:

Outcome: Enhanced foodborne disease surveillance.

Output/Activities: Improved surveillance tools through the expansion of FoodNet Canada (formerly C-Enternet) to include at least three functional sentinel sites in Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia.

Targets:

  1. Steady state achieved. Test results acquired in all three sites for all four components (human, retail products including imported products, farm commodities and water).
  2. Sampling conducted for all planned commodities in all three sites. Integrated analysis conducted for the Annual Report including all four components from all three sites.
  3. Contracts and agreements confirmed for all four components in all three sites.

Results for 2015-16

FoodNet Canada has achieved steady state in three functional sentinel sites in Ontario, Alberta and British Columbia. The National Microbiology Laboratory continues to work with the provincial public health laboratories in Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia to obtain human Campylobacter and Salmonella isolates for molecular subtyping for FoodNet Canada.

In 2015-16, FoodNet Canada increased engagement with CFIA, commodity groups and Industry.

FoodNet Canada produces annual reports that are publicly available and emailed to over 600 stakeholders.

FoodNet also received and responded to 105 requests for information in 2015-16.

There were 8 peer-reviewed publications from FoodNet Canada in 2015-16. In addition, data from FoodNet Canada was provided in the 2014 Short Report information on severity of illness for generating the estimates of hospitalizations and deaths from food-borne diseases in Canada.

FoodNet Canada enhanced collaboration with key stakeholders and provided information to support the assessment of new risks emerging from various outbreaks.

FoodNet Canada developed processes to proactively share food-borne risks with CFIA and the industry to inform preventive actions and conducted surveillance on farm and at retail to assess potential risk of E. coli O157 in pork. The estimates of hospitalization and death associated with foodborne illness were published in August 2015.

ER 30: Maintaining strengthened laboratory diagnostic and networking tools: Continued implementation of whole genome sequencing:

Outcome: Canada's ability to rapidly detect potential outbreaks and trace their origins is enhanced.

Output/Activities: Modern genomic technologies will continue to be implemented to provide substantially more detailed information and evidence on foodborne pathogens during outbreak investigations. This will be done according to the roadmap that has been developed for the implementation of genomic epidemiology in PulseNet Canada.

Targets: Progress in the completion of PulseNet Canada Genome roadmap implementation, including the completion of sequencing 1000 retrospective priority pathogen isolates and pilot projects that utilize whole genome sequencing for outbreak response in real time.

Results for 2015-16: The Public Health Agency of Canada's National Microbiology Laboratory continued to make significant progress in the implementation of whole genome sequencing (WGS) during 2015-16. WGS was used in real-time to support the response to all multijurisdictional foodborne disease outbreaks. The finalization of interpretation criteria, as well as the decentralization of WGS for routine surveillance, will occur beginning in 2016-17.

ER 31: Maintaining strengthened laboratory diagnostic and networking tools: Continued expansion of PulseNet Canada:

Outcome: Canada's ability to rapidly detect and trace the origins of food hazards is enhanced.

Output/Activities: The expansion of the PulseNet Canada laboratory network will increase outbreak detection capacity and information sharing amongst Federal Provincial Territories (F/P/T) partner laboratories.

Targets

  1. Development and delivery of new training and knowledge translation materials to support the expansion of the network including genomic epidemiology materials.
  2. Expanding operations and the supporting MOU to include additional tests (including Comparative Genomic Fingerprinting, whole genome sequencing).
  3. Accreditation of and publishing interpretation criteria for Multiple-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) (E. coli O157:H7).

Results for 2015-16

There were no significant changes this year in the number of personnel certified by PulseNet Canada for Listeria analyses (last year there were 34 personnel from 9 PulseNet laboratories certified by PulseNet Canada for Listeria this fiscal year; compared to 9 personnel from 4 laboratories at the time of the 2008 listeriosis outbreak). Overall, these numbers are not expected to change as participation among provincial laboratories has approached 100% for the past several years.

Expansion activities are now exclusively focused on the roll-out and decentralization of whole genome sequencing for routine surveillance and outbreak response.

In 2015-16, eight MiSeq benchtop sequencing units were purchased and installed at provincial public health laboratories.

Staged implementation of sequencing for routine surveillance will begin in 2016-17, starting with Listeria monocytogenes.

ER 32: Maintaining human illness outbreak response capacity

Outcome: Enhanced effectiveness and efficiency of response activities, as well as improved coordination and capacity to respond to multi-jurisdictional foodborne illness outbreaks.

Output/Activities: Maintenance of protocols to ensure awareness of processes, roles and responsibilities of Federal, Provincial and Territorial partners; % of relevant Health Portfolio staff utilizing communication platform and Toolkit prototype; timely implementation of analytical studies when identifying source of a food-borne illness outbreak.

Targets

  1. Completion of the Foodborne Illness Outbreak Response Protocol (FIORP 2010) revision.
  2. Percentage of developed training modules facilitated to our Federal/Provincial/Territorial partners.
  3. Completion of Foodbook: Canadian Food Exposure Study to Strengthen Outbreak Response Report and Control Bank.

Results for 2015-16

The Outbreak Management Division (OMD) continued to support foodborne illness outbreak response capacity through ongoing maintenance of standard operating procedures and protocols. The Foodborne Illness Outbreak Response Protocol (FIORP) identifies the roles and responsibilities of federal, provincial and territorial (FPT) partners during an outbreak investigation and provides guidance on communications and information sharing. OMD is the custodian of the FIORP and the 2015 revision was developed in consultation with FPT partners. It is in the process of being finalized.

The Outbreak Central Collaboration Centre was implemented in 2014 and continues to be OMD's main platform for information sharing during an outbreak investigation. In 2015-16 the Outbreak Management Division managed 13 active Outbreak Investigation Coordinating Committees (OICCs) and an Outbreak Central event was created for each OICC (100%) as a communication platform with federal, provincial and territorial partners involved in each investigation. The use of the platform has been included in the OMD Outbreak Response standard operating procedures to support timely information sharing with all investigative partners, including those within the health portfolio during an investigation.

The Foodbook Report and Enteric Control Bank were developed in 2015-16 through the leadership of the Centre for Foodborne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in collaboration with FPT partners. Foodbook represents Canada's first source of national food exposure data to support timely and effective foodborne illness outbreak response. Foodbook is an innovative solution to address food safety knowledge gaps in Canada by providing detailed exposure information needed to compare potential outbreak sources, identify most likely causes, and enhance public health response capacity.

ER 33: Maintaining national epidemiological surge public health outbreak capacity:

Outcome: Improved coordination and capacity to control and mitigate an outbreak which poses a public health threat to Canadians.

Output/Activities: Efficient and effective federal surge capacity to support outbreak response and mitigate the public health impact of a foodborne illness outbreak.

Targets

  1. Continue to develop a plan for maintaining Agency surge capacity which includes: recruitment strategy, training strategy (including annual training for new and existing surge staff), and agreed-to competencies;
  2. List of staff for surge reviewed and updated; and
  3. Number of Directorates participating in the surge (AERO = All Events Response Operations) response requirements.

Results for 2015-16

CPHI developed and validated competency dimensions with indicators to support public health capacity development for epidemiologists working in food safety. Competency profiles were developed for epidemiologists working at the Public Service EC-04 to EC-07 classification levels within the Outbreak Management Division and Enteric Surveillance and Population Studies (ESPS) Division within the Centre for Food-borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. ESPS competency profiles have been validated and are final. In February 2016, CPHI hired an individual to assist in the identification of learning resources for competencies identified in the competency profiles for PHAC epidemiologists. A train-the-trainer program on implementing workforce competencies was developed and pilot tested. It is now being rolled out with Computer-based interactive multimedia (CBIM) prototype project groups and pilot stakeholders. A stakeholder engagement process for CBIM was also developed. It will be used to obtain stakeholder feedback, and endorsement of the competency profiles benchmarked for Agency jobs.

In 2015-16, AERO 2.0 release went into production. The Privacy Impact Assessment was completed in June 2015, after which the pilot testing was conducted (Summer 2015). User registrations started in September 2015 and are ongoing. In order to broaden the registrations and improve the database functionality, new business requirements were captured, which include additional skill sets and enhancements to the Requests for Assistance and Mobilisation sections. AERO Release 3.0 development was completed in March 2016 and it is expected to be deployed by the end of August 2016.

Health Portfolio Operations Centre/Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response (HPOC/CEPR) supported the Outbreak Management Division through the capacity to mobilize subject matter experts in the event of food safety outbreaks in Canada and continued to build on the protocols and procedures developed, integrating mobilization aspects into the existing federal plans and protocols related to foodborne illness.

General Information

Name of horizontal initiative Plum Pox Monitoring and Management Program (PPMMP)
Name of lead department(s) Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
Federal partner organization(s) Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)
Non-federal and non-governmental partner(s) Not applicable
Start date of the horizontal initiative 2011-12
End date of the horizontal initiative 2015-16 (CFIA and Agriculture and Agri-food Canada); 2016-17 and ongoing (CFIA)
Total federal funding allocated (start to end date) $17,200,000 (2011-12 to 2015-16) and $1,300,000 ongoing (CFIA)
Funding contributed by non-federal and non-governmental partners Not applicable
Description of the horizontal initiative

Plum pox virus (PPV) is a viral plant disease that infects Prunus species including peach, plum, apricot and other stone fruit plants. PPV does not affect human or animal health but reduces fruit yields, mottles leaves, and causes visual symptoms on stone fruit, thus reducing their marketability. The virus is spread locally by insects and through the movement of infected propagative material, including live trees of all age classes, rootstock, bud wood, cuttings or other green branches and twigs, and tissue cultures.

PPV was first discovered in Ontario and Nova Scotia in 2000. The Government of Canada responded in 2001 with a three-year, $49.3 million PPV program to suppress PPV, and to evaluate the feasibility of eradication. Based on the recommendations of a PPV International Expert Panel, the seven-year Plum Pox Eradication Program (PPEP) was launched in 2004 ($85 million) and augmented in 2007 with an additional $58.6 million totaling $143.6 million in federal and Ontario government funding. The PPEP expired on March 31, 2011.

Eradication of PPV has been achieved in six of the seven quarantine areas established at the beginning of the eradication program. These six quarantine areas are Blenheim, Fonthill, Stoney Creek and Vittoria in Ontario, and the Annapolis Valley and Wolfville in Nova Scotia. Although eradication was not achieved in the remaining quarantine area in Niagara, the infection rate has been reduced from 1.9% of tree samples to less than 0.02% in 2010. The perimeter and a 10 km area around the remaining quarantine area continues to be surveyed and monitored with one detection of PPV in 2013 that resulted in an 800 m extension of the western border of the Niagara quarantine area. By implementing a PPV monitoring and management (PPMMP) strategy, PPV will remain in the Niagara region, and the industry will thus need to manage the risks it poses to the production and marketability of products.

The PPMMP consists of regulatory plant protection activities, and for the first five years of the program, significant research will be carried out to develop PPV risk mitigation tools and educational and awareness program components to build the capacity within the industry to implement best management practices.

CFIA and AAFC funding was obtained from Budget 2011, which allocated $17.2 million over five years for the PPMMP, to transition to a management and monitoring strategy to contain and mitigate the spread of plum pox.

Shared outcome(s) The outcome of the Government's PPMMP is to fulfill the Government of Canada's plant protection obligations and international responsibilities through implementation of measures to mitigate the spread of PPV on a national and international level. The PPMMP's other outcome is to facilitate industry management of PPV.
Governance structures The CFIA's PPMMP activities and deliverables are managed and governed by the Plant Business Line Committee, as PPV is an established, regulated plant pest requiring ongoing decision-making to protect Canada's plant resource base. Also, AAFC's A-Base activities are managed and governed by the Director General (DG) of the Mixed Wood Plains directorate. The DG has the final "sign-off" authority for AAFC Science and Technology Branch activities, including the PPMMP. An AAFC Research Development and Technology (RDT) Director has been assigned as responsible for ensuring that PPV research activities are implemented, managed and reported as required. A PPV Steering Group (PPV-SG), consisting of CFIA and AAFC director-level officials, was established for the first five years to make recommendations about program delivery to the above CFIA and AAFC governance committees. The PPV-SG liaises with internal and external stakeholders as required, including international plant protection bodies, to provide updates and seek input about program and research parameters at stakeholder conferences and meetings. After a period of five years, when AAFC's role in the PPMMP has concluded, the CFIA's Plant Business Line Committee will be responsible for managing the PPMMP on an ongoing basis.
Performance highlights For 2015-16, the key horizontal plans are: implement appropriate sampling and detection of PPV host material to update, as required, the quarantine area boundary; enforce restrictions to mitigate the spread of PPV; and undertake research activities to improve the regulatory program.
Comments on variances Although 2015-16 Actual Spending is less than the Planned amount in some contributing programs, it is comparable to 2014-15 spending levels and the Expected Results have been achieved.
Results to be achieved by non-federal and non-governmental partners Not applicable
Contact information

Canadian Food Inspection Agency

Darlene Blair
Director Plant Protection Division
Plant Health and Biosecurity Directorate
613-773-7116

Patricia McAllister
National Manager - Horticulture
Plant Health and Biosecurity Directorate
613-773-7166

Charlene Green
Horticulture Specialist
Plant Health and Biosecurity Directorate
905-938-8697

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Della Johnston
Director - RDT
Mixed Wood Plains Directorate
519-738-1218

Lorne Stobbs
Research Scientist - Vineland, Ontario
905-562-2037

Aiming Wang
Research Scientist - London, Ontario
519-953-6697

Planning Information
Federal organizations Link to departmental Program Alignment Architectures Contributing programs and activities Total allocation (from start to end date) 2015-16 Planned spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Expected results (ER) 2015-16 Targets (T) Contributing activity/ program results
(using specific indicators) Table Note 12
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) Plant Resources Program/ Internal Services Monitoring and Detection 4,155,349 (2011-12 to 2015-16) and
541,009 ongoing
716,485 509,614 ER 34 T 34 RA 34
Regulatory Enforcement 4,588,113 (2011-12 to 2015-16) and
660,368 ongoing
806,207 466,478 ER 35 T 35 RA 35
PPV Regulatory Research 1,135,095 (2011-12 to 2015-16) and
98,623 ongoing
121,639 101,742 ER 36 T 36 RA 36
PPV Suppression Research 689,441
(2011-12 to 2015-16)
85,668 209,774 ER 37 T 37 RA 37
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) Science, Innovation and Adoption PPV Regulatory Research 374,643 (2011-12 to 2013-14) Funds sunsetted in 2014 Funds sunsetted in 2014 Funds sunsetted in 2014 Funds sunsetted in 2014 Funds sunsetted in 2014
Virus Resistance Research 2,723,562 (2011-12 to 2015-16) 514,766 516,368 ER 38 T 38 RA 38
PPV Suppression Research 2,471,190 (2011-12 to 2015-16) 390,825 390,825 ER 39 T 39 RA 39
Education and Awareness Activities 261,271 (2011-12 to 2015-16) 23,763 23,763 ER 40 T 40 RA 40
Total for all federal organizations $16,398,664 (2011-12 to 2015-16) and $1,300,000 ongoing $2,659,353 $2,218,564 Not applicable

Table Notes

Table Note 12

Performance indicators are defined in the Performance Measurement Strategies and/or Performance Measurement Frameworks (PMF) of each federal partner.

Return to table note 12  referrer

Note: For Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, total allocation and planned spending amounts exclude any indirect costs.

ER 34: Monitoring and Detection:

Outcome: Mitigate the spread of PPV on a national and international level.

Outputs/activities: Monitoring activities will be carried out by the CFIA to confirm and adjust the boundaries of the Niagara quarantine area as necessary. In accordance with NAPPO guidelines, the CFIA will conduct detection activities annually by taking samples along the Niagara quarantine area perimeter. Laboratory testing of the samples to determine the presence of PPV will be conducted by the CFIA. To detect whether PPV has spread beyond the quarantine area, samples will be collected annually in orchards up to 10 km beyond the Niagara quarantine area perimeter.

Indicator: Established quarantine areas and areas with PPV-susceptible species will determine the location where sampling will occur. Samples will be collected from peach, plum, nectarine, and apricot species located inside and outside of the quarantine area.

T 34: Targets: An estimated 22,850 samples will be taken and tested annually until 2015-16 and reduced to 17,000 samples in 2016-17 and onward. Total samples are determined based on sampling protocol which is reviewed annually and actual PPV-susceptible species. Adjustments to quarantine areas and grower/resident plantings influence final sample numbers.

RA 34: A total of 8,920 samples were collected from the quarantine area perimeter and surrounding area. All samples were tested and PPV was not detected. As per the 2015 - 16 sampling plan, samples were not collected from British Columbia, Quebec, Nova Scotia or other areas of Ontario.

ER 35: Regulatory Enforcement:

Outcome: Mitigate the spread of PPV on a national and international level.

Outputs/activities: Through its inspection activities, the CFIA will monitor and assess regulated parties' compliance with the PPMMP regulatory requirements. Monitoring activities include issuing Movement Certificates for regulated material (dormant root stock, seedlings, seeds, and plant material for research) and conducting audits and compliance verifications of retail outlets, nurseries and other facilities that may sell or distribute susceptible Prunus species. When a non-compliance is identified, the CFIA will take the most appropriate response to obtain compliance in view of factors such as potential or actual harm, the compliance history of the regulated party, and intent.

To help maintain a lower level of virus prevalence within the quarantine area a prohibition on propagation of regulated Prunus plants within the quarantine area will continue. The prohibition on propagation will result in the use of only PPV-free or certified clean stock (planting material that is free of all viruses including PPV) within the Niagara quarantine area.

Indicator: Compliance of growers, residents and retailers within the quarantine area with movement restrictions.

T 35: Targets: Annual inspection of a sub-set of growers, residents and retailers to determine if movement of material or propagation has occurred.

RA 35: Inspectors issued movement certificates for approved material following compliance verification of regulated parties. Information regarding the continued propagation ban was distributed through local newspapers and targeted audiences. Commercial production areas and residential properties were inspected (1/3 of quarantine area sub-set) to ensure compliance with the propagation ban. Inspectors issued Notices of Prohibition or Restriction of an Activity to non-compliant individuals.

ER 36: PPV Regulatory Research

Outcome: Restrain the prevalence of PPV in the Niagara region; mitigate the spread on a national and international level.

Outputs/activities: To support the clean stock program, a research study is being conducted by the CFIA to develop strategies for eliminating PPV from rootstock. This program supports the enforcement of the propagation prohibition. The most effective method(s) for eliminating PPV from infected nursery stock materials will be evaluated so that desirable foreign varieties may become eligible for use by industry through clean stock services.

Regulatory research will also develop improved detection tools and more extensive knowledge about PPV to support PPV surveillance, monitoring and detection. CFIA research projects include characterizing genetic variation within individual strains of PPV found in Canada, monitoring for the introduction of new strains, and mapping the movement of the virus in Canada.

Beyond 2016, the CFIA will conduct similar research, such as evaluating the host range for newly discovered strains of PPV to determine the range of Prunus hosts to be regulated in Canada. This research will ensure that the ongoing regulatory program remains effective in mitigating the spread of PPV.

The requirement of a comprehensive list of host plants for new strains of PPV detected in Canada is to enhance surveillance protocols and industry awareness

Indicator: In total, three indicators are identified:

  • Protocol for the production of virus-free nursery stock for domestic and export clean stock programs using virus elimination techniques.
  • A genetic map to understand the movement of PPV strains and isolates to allow for continuous improvement of regulatory surveillance protocols.
  • Identification of and protocols for the detection of any new strains and isolates of PPV not previously reported in Canada.

T 36: Target: Development of a protocol for virus elimination.

  • Genetic mapping and identification of new strains are dependent on the number of samples collected that test positive.
  • The list of host plants is variable depending on the identification of new strains and isolates in Canada during routine surveillance activities.

RA 36: Genetic mapping and identification/characterization of new PPV strains and isolates

In attempts to establish a baseline of PPV's genetic diversity in Canada the P3/6K1 and coat protein (CP) coding regions of Canadian PPV positive survey isolates were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. To date, target sequence data have been generated for a total of 107 Canadian PPV isolates obtained from commercial orchards. These include isolates from Nova Scotia, the "Legacy" isolates from the early PPV detection in Canada between the years of 2000 - 2003 and samples collected during the Plum Pox Virus Eradication Program (PPEP) in 2009 and 2010. The P3/6K1 and coat protein regions of the genome allow for accurate identification and strain classification and provide information that allows identification of potential recombination events. All isolates in this study were confirmed to be PPV-Dideron (D) isolates. A single anomalous isolate with greater genetic diversity was identified. This isolate, CDN 10-43817, was distinct from other Canadian isolates, for example it did not fit into subgroup I or subgroup II described by Theilmann et al. 2006. (Can. J. Plant Pathol. 28:144-151). The isolate was sequenced completely and confirmed to be a D isolate without any evidence of recombination. There is evidence of great genetic diversity among Canadian PPV D isolates that may necessitate further subdivision to better reflect the population structure. Isolate CDN 10-43817 might represent a distinct and separate introduction event, providing support for the potential value of this approach in identifying new introductions and or movement of PPV isolates in Canada. New isolates detected during the PPMMP survey will be analysed to determine identity and relationship to known Canadian isolates.

During the course of the 2013 Canadian PPMMP survey an isolate of PPV was detected in Prunus trees growing on a residential property in Grimsby, Ontario. The isolate was determined to be an isolate of the Recombinant (Rec) strain of PPV. PPV Rec isolates were detected also in 2008 and 2010 on the same residential property as in 2013. The 2008 and 2010 Rec isolates were sequenced completely and the sequences deposited in GenBank (HG964685 and HG964686, respectively). The available sequences of the 2013 Rec isolate are 98-99% identical to the corresponding regions of the 2008 and 2010 isolates, indicating that they are likely the same isolate, representing a single introduction. This find resulted in adjustments to the PPV quarantine boundary.

In collaborations with scientists from Israel and Kazakhstan we analysed apricot and plum isolates of PPV from Kazakhstan. Sequencing their complete genomes confirmed that these were D isolates. The plum isolates were detected in plum trees maintained in the plum selection-orchard of the Pomological Garden, Almaty, Kazakhstan. The apricot isolates were detected in wild apricot seedlings obtained originally from Zailiyski Alatou at the northern edge of the Tien-Shan Mountains, but maintained in the Pomological Garden, Almaty for about 15 years. PPV was never detected in any wild apricot plants growing in their natural habitat in Zailiyski Alatou. Preliminary phylogenetic analyses seem to indicate a close relationship of the Kazakhstan apricot and plum isolates to the PPV isolate BIII/2 (accession GU461890), a plum isolate from Slovakia. The apricot PPV isolates seem to have been transmitted from plums by insects in the Pomological Gardens. This is important as the Tien-Shan Mountains is considered a valuable international source of Prunus germplasm. It also shows the need for and importance of carefully screening new germplasm introductions into such collections to prevent the loss of valuable germplasm.

The PPV strain Winona (W) was first detected and described in Canada. In collaborations with American and Russian Scientists, we have characterized PPV W isolates from Ukraine and Russia, and determined that PPV strain W is perhaps the most diverse strain of PPV, with seven distinct phylogenetically determined clades within this strain identified. PPV W isolates have a wide host range, and there appears to be differences in the host range of some PPV W isolates with Prunus tomentosa being a natural host for some Russian isolates while Prunus tomentosa does not appear to be a host for the Ukrainian isolate UKR 44189. In a collaborative study involving CFIA (Sidney Laboratory) and Russian scientists (Lomonosov Moscow State University) 9 new isolates of the Winona strain of PPV (W) from Russia were sequenced completely. We were able to confirm the high level of genetic diversity among PPV W isolates.

In collaborations with scientists from Palacky University, Czech Republic we evaluated the importance of almond in PPV spread in a survey conducted in the Czech Republic. Almond orchards and landscape almond trees were sampled in 2015. In six locations samples were collected from both symptomatic and non-symptomatic almond trees, as well as from symptomatic plums and apricots. Screening was carried out for the presence of PPV and other viruses known to infect almonds, using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA), real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR), and polyvalent degenerate oligonucleotides real time polymerase chain reaction (PDO-ntRT-PCR) analyses. PPV was not detected in any of the analysed almond trees. Symptom occurrence was not a reliable indicator of PPV infections in almonds. Although some almond trees showed intensive symptoms (vein clearing, yellow mosaics and chlorotic rings), and were evaluated as PPV suspicious by DAS-ELISA, the presence of PPV was not confirmed by RT-PCR. Apple chlorotic leaf spotting virus (ACLSV), the known causal agent of 'pseudopox' disease, also Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) were detected in symptomatic almond trees. This study arose out of concerns about a lack of information on almond as a host for PPV. Even when grown under high PPV infection pressure, over many years, these almond trees were not naturally infected by PPV. In this case the almond trees do not appear to represent any potential risk as a reservoir for the existing isolates of PPV or play a role in virus spread in this study.

Determination of an efficient and effective means of producing virus-free stock for replanting

Five virus elimination methods were evaluated to produce PPV-free stock. In vitro heat therapy followed by meristem culturing was the most promising of the methods assayed. In this method infected cultures were grown at 37°C for 20, 25 or 30 days, and then shoot tips were excised and grown on new media. The resulting plantlets were rooted, grown, and tested over two growing seasons. In this study, 100% of shoot tips survived regardless of time in heat therapy, and PPV was eliminated from 100% of the resulting plants. This method was technically feasible and also produced bacteria-free plants.

The second most promising method was traditional heat therapy, where infected trees were grown at 37° for several weeks followed by micrografting shoot tips onto clean rootstock. In this case, survival rate of grafts produced after 21 days in heat therapy was 78% and 93% of them were PPV-free. Survival rate of grafts produced after 42 days in heat therapy was 94% and 100% were PPV free.

ER 37: PPV Suppression Research

Outcome: Screening of foreign plant material for pests and diseases and conduct field pre-evaluations.

Outputs/activities: AAFC will identify foreign varieties with potential resistance to PPV. The CFIA has phytosanitary measures in place to mitigate pest movement into Canada from imported products. The CFIA will screen identified foreign plant material for resistance and hypersensitivity to PPV at the quarantine biocontainment facilities at the CFIA Sidney Laboratory.

Indicator: Plant material identified by AAFC and imported into Canada.

T 37: Targets: Variable, based on the number of identified potential candidate varieties and laboratory capacity.

RA 37: Evaluation of PPV tolerant varieties for resistance and hypersensitivity to PPV

Four Prunus varieties were received by the CFIA Sidney lab via Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC): three Primus domestic (cvs. 'Jojo x Felsina 7346', 'Jojo x Haganta 7184', and 'Jojo') and one P. dulcis (cv. 'Garrigues'). Four replicates of each cultivar were bud-grafted onto PPV-infected GF305 rootstock, observed and tested repeatedly throughout three accelerated growing seasons or until it consistently tested positive. The only time a variety tested positive was at the beginning of a growing season.

'Jojo' showed the most promise for resisting infection from PPV. Three of four 'Jojo' replicates consistently tested negative while the fourth replicate displayed limited hypersensitivity (a few small branches developed bark necrosis and subsequently died) and tested weakly positive once in 21 tests spanning three seasons.

ER 38: Virus Resistance Research

Outcome: Development of genetic and induced innate resistance in fruit trees to control PPV in Canada.

Outputs/activities: The use of genetic resistance has been demonstrated for a number of crop species to be the most effective and sustainable approach to control viral pathogens as it is environmentally-friendly and provides reliable protection without additional labour or material costs during the growing season. Research is being vigorously carried out to develop virus resistance strategies to help protect against PPV and manage the virus over the long term. Specific research projects to support virus resistance include 1) developing a new PPV-resistant peach tree line through gene manipulation to make susceptible hosts resistant to infection; 2) evaluating transferable resistance in rootstock that can be transmitted through grafting to existing fruit trees; 3) developing a virus vector which will act like a vaccine to induce resistance by gene silencing; 4) introducing and evaluating foreign resistance materials for potential use against PPV in Canada

Indicators: In total, three indicators are identified: 1) at least two genes in stone fruits that can be manipulated against PPV; 2) a protocol for the production of a genetically diverse peach population using tissue culture with a chemical mutagen; 3) a platform for screening for target gene peach variants from the peach population using next generation sequencing; 4) a rootstock that can produce gene silencing signals; 5) transmissible small ribonucleic acid (RNA) in scions; 6) a virus vector that is infectious on stone fruit species with potentiality against PPV; 7) a foreign material resistant to Canadian PPV isolate; 8) a protocol of multiplication of the foreign material using meristem tissues; 9) five year-end reports, 10 meeting abstracts and 10 scientific manuscripts.

T 38: Targets: Development of a peach population for screening for PPV resistance; evaluation of transmissible gene silencing signals against PPV; development of a viral vector against PPV; identification of a foreign material resistant to PPV suitable for use in Canada

RA 38: Towards developing novel genetic resistance to PPV in Canada, the following four projects were carried out:

Developing a new PPV-resistant peach tree line through tissue culture-based mutagenesis (by manipulation of a host gene required by PPV infection)

Like other viral pathogens, PPV has a small viral genome and thus depends on host factors to complete its infection cycle. Mutation or silencing of an essential host factor can make susceptible hosts resistant. Peach is the primary host to PPV. Common methods to develop recessive resistance cannot be used since this woody plant has a heterozygous genome and a long life cycle, produces large seeds, and is not genetically transformable. By using in vitro propagated shoots) a novel approach to the generation of chemically induced mutations was successfully developed. Over 2500 peach mutant lines were generated. In terms of host factor genes, an extensive screening in model species identified and several PPV host factors which can serve as target genes for screening peach mutants were conducted.

Developing transferrable resistance in rootstock that can be transmitted through grafting to existing fruit trees

Gene silencing is an epigenetic process of gene regulation that is associated with sequence-specific suppression of gene expression. An exciting feature of gene silencing in plants is that it can spread to distant areas of the plants via the phloem. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and plum that are highly resistant to PPV were generated. Further research demonstrated that silencing is transmissible from a resistant rootstock to a susceptible scion to induce partial resistance to PPV in the scion in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. However, the research failed to prove that such a systemic spread of gene silencing can be employed for the induction of PPV resistance in non-transgenic plum (scions) through PPV resistant plum (rootstocks).

Developing a virus vector which will act like a vaccine to induce resistance by gene silencing

Virus has the ability to induce gene silencing that degrades ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules sharing similar nucleotide sequence, termed virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). VIGS has potential to control viral diseases by silencing a host factor that is required for infections by target viruses. Research showed that Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) was highly endemic on stone fruit trees in China, and no obvious phenotypic differences were observed among PNRSV-positive or negative trees. A PNRSV-based vector was developed. After finding that this vector can be used effectively to silence two marker genes in model plants, the vector was modified to target the eIF(iso)4E gene, a host factor required for PPV infection. This modified vector knocked down eIF(iso)4E gene expression greatly and prevented PPV infection in peach.

Introduction and evaluation of foreign materials resistant to PPV

Almond cv. 'Garrigues' was imported from Spain. This cultivar was reported to be highly resistant to PPV and with the potential to induce the development of PPV resistance in scions. Over 10 cell lines of this cultivar were tested via tissue culture and tested for PPV resistance. Four lines were identified as immune to PPV.

ER 39: PPV Suppression Research

Outcomes: Development of recommendations based on scientific studies to further knowledge on the epidemiology of the Dideron strain of PPV in a cool temperate climate, and apply these recommendations towards the development of an integrated disease management program for the industry stakeholders to retrain the spread of PPV and reduce its economic impact.

Outputs/Activities: PPV suppression will be pursued through research to reduce PPV transmission in orchards. Research projects include assessing practices and processes, specifically the use of oil sprays on Prunus plant leaves, to suppress PPV transmission by insects; evaluating the influence of tree variety and age on the level of seasonal resistance to natural infection by insects; determining the efficacy of newly registered insecticides on the transmission of PPV, which will result in the development of application guidelines for use by industry; and evaluating foreign material for use in Canada (in collaboration with the CFIA). The impact of PPV infection on tree viability, bud hardiness, crop yield and fruit quality are also being examined.

Indicators: Information from research studies will be collated each year, and a final report prepared at the conclusion of the program. Information from the research will be shared with growers through grower workshops, newsletters and presented at scientific conferences. Indicators include the determination of both the beneficial and adverse effects of oil residue on leaves including ability to detect virus; the determination of whether new insecticides (repellents, antifeedants) have any effect on virus transmission by insects; the determination of seasonal susceptibility of peach trees to PPV and the effects of the disease on tree growth, winter hardiness, productivity and fruit quality; recommendations on the use of foliar and soil amendments to increase tree field resistance to natural transmission of PPV and improve tree productivity; recommendations on the proper timing and application of oils for optimum protection of trees to natural spread of PPV, in addition to possible interaction of new or currently used pesticides with oil applications.

T 39: Targets: Develop recommendations for the industry on integrated control practices to reduce the spread of PPV in commercial orchards and its impact on production. This will involve recommendations of the types of insecticide/antifeedant, oil applications and correct timing of applications. Information on the impact of PPV on tree productivity, hardiness and fruit quality will be made available to the industry.

RA 39: In 2012, commercial orchards were surveyed for Plum pox virus (PPV) infected peach trees for use in our studies. Eighteen orchard blocks with a previous history of PPV were extensively surveyed (11,740 trees). Of these, 11 trees at one site were found to be infected and were used in our study. Healthy and infected trees were monitored for the impact of PPV on growth, tree viability, bud hardiness, yield, and fruit quality until 2016. As of September 2015, no negative impact of PPV infection has been observed on any of the above parameters. It should be kept in mind that the sample size was small and limited to two varieties. The impact of early infection of newly planted trees by PPV-D was studied in a screen house certified by the CFIA containing 75 two year old trees of 5 peach varieties. Ten trees of each variety were graft inoculated with PPV in September 2012. Trees were monitored for growth, hardiness, yield and fruit quality until 2016. Virus was detected in most of the inoculated trees 2 years after infection. Subsequently after two further growing seasons no differences have been observed between infected and healthy trees, and no increased mortality in infected trees or reduced bud hardiness was recorded. Results are consistent with results from field studies referred to above.

Virus has principally been detected in basal leaves on shoots and throughout the cambial and bark tissues in both green and dormant wood. In these tissues the virus concentration remains high throughout the growing season with some reductions in warm summer months which may be linked to temperature and/or soil moisture levels. This information has been used to provide recommendations for "targeted sampling" for use in the CFIA eradication surveys to greatly improve virus detection in orchards. Natural spread of the Ontario isolate of PPV was demonstrated over a four year period in two commercial peach orchards in Niagara. Beginning with 11 and 4 infected trees found in each block respectively, the number of infected trees increased to 38 and 15 trees over the study. The moderate rate of increase at both sites can be attributed to a number of factors, including intrinsic properties of the virus isolate, the virus transmission efficiency of its insect vectors, and the relatively low numbers of migrant insects.

There were low numbers of insect vectors found later in the season compared with historical records. This was largely due to high rates of predation by the introduced multicolored Asian ladybeetle (MALB), which increased to large numbers by late summer. Building on previous research, we have shown that peach trees are most susceptible to infection with PPV early in the season when insect flight activity is low. Susceptibility to infection decreases throughout the early part of the season, reaching a low in August and September, while the peak in insect flight activity does not occur until usually about the end of June, leaving a relatively short window when partially resistant trees are exposed to viruliferous insects. Changes in virus concentration in the tree canopy were studied over four growing seasons. Consistently, data has shown higher concentration of the virus in the spring and early summer which declines over the warmer summer months. In several of the years, virus concentration recovered somewhat with cooler temperatures in September. The highest concentrations of virus were always found in the basal leaves of new year growth. Decreasing susceptibility of peaches to PPV infection throughout the season was demonstrated for young potted plants and for mature trees based on infection rates under controlled conditions using green peach insects as the vector. To investigate the effects of tree vigor on field resistance of peach to PPV infection, a replicated trial of peach trees of several fresh market varieties were examined. Over three growing seasons, the studies have shown that developing leaves adjacent to the growing tip (not fully expanded, partially unrolled leaves) remain susceptible to natural infection by insects throughout the growing season. As the shoots elongate and age, the now fully expanded leaves become more resistant to infection. Trees appear to be most susceptible in the spring and early summer which also coincides with actively growing leaves and peak numbers of insects. This provides for more discriminate timing of horticultural oil sprays for control of virus spread.

To further examine the positional effects of leaves on shoots on leaf susceptibility, peach leaves were collected biweekly from two peach varieties over the growing season. Leaves were sampled from basal, middle, and distal sections on the elongating shoots and insects inoculated in laboratory trials. Differences in percentage infection of leaves between the base and tip of short shoots (<5 cm) were not apparent in the spring. However as the shoots elongated over the summer, leaf infection decreased as their distance from the shoot tip increased. This is consistent with reports of increasing resistance in older mature leaves likely attributable to increased wax and cutaneous deposits on the leaf surface making them less attractive and more difficult to infect by insects. Another possible mechanism for increasing resistance in summer might be ribonucleic acid (RNA) silencing, which is a natural plant antiviral resistance mechanism. To examine the effect of tree age on susceptibility to natural infection, newly developed distal leaves proximal to the shoot tip were sampled from young (3-5 yrs), medium (6-9 yrs) and old (>10 yrs) Garnet Beauty peach trees over the growing season. When these detached leaves were insect inoculated in the laboratory, no significant differences were found in percentage infection between the different age groups over the growing season. Attempts to deepen the degree of resistance to PPV or to have it occur earlier in the season show some promise. During 2015 the number of leaves infected over the course of the season (8 virus transmission dates) decreased from 55 for the full rate of fertilizer to 45 for the half rate and 38 for trees that received no fertilizer that spring. Results for trees supplied different rates of fertilizer were variable during 2014, likely due to the interaction of nutrients with available moisture from irrigation and rainfall, climate conditions, and persistence of nitrogen in the soil. These results build on findings from 2011 and 2012 where leaves from trees supplied the full rate of nitrogen in spring had significantly higher rates of infection compared with unfertilized trees. Tree vigour is likely to affect resistance to some degree and further research to investigate the effects of macro and micro nutrients on the susceptibility of peach to PPV is warranted.

The effect of plant growth regulators and the adjuvant Sil-Matrix (a silicon-containing adjuvant) on levels of resistance of peach to PPV was studied from early July into September using the detached leaf technique. Following spray applications applied in June, Sil-Matrix reduced the number of infections during the first two July inoculation dates by 21% in 2014 (11 versus 14 for the control) and 56% in 2015 (4 versus 9). As one might expect for this type of material (non-hormonal), there were no differences in infection rates between treatments for the remainder of the season. Foliar sprays of Stop-It initially reduced infection rates by 50% in 2014 and 44% in 2015 for the first two trial dates in early July, but subsequent numbers of infected leaves over the remainder of the season were much higher (67% in 2014; 107% in 2015) compared to the water only control. Over the course of the season, infection rates for the plant growth regulator Apogee did not differ compared with the control. It should be noted, though, that little information is available regarding appropriate application concentrations for peach for any of these materials. Further study utilizing a range of spray rates is required. Perhaps reflecting a need to apply Pro-Gibb earlier in the season, for 2014 and 2015 combined there was no difference in infection rates between the Pro-Gibb and the control treatments for the first inoculation date (12 positive Pro-Gibb vs. 11 controls), but Pro-Gibb effectively reduced the number of positive leaves by 40% over the remainder of the season.

PureSpray Green Spray Oil 13E is now registered for use on peaches for the control of PPV. Foliar oil sprays have been shown to inhibit the transmission of PPV and other plant viruses and also to help control mites and soft bodied insects such as aphids. In agreement with industry findings, except for co-application with certain fungicides we were unable to demonstrate any detrimental effects of horticultural oil on tree growth or yield following repeated applications of oil up to the end of June. The combined use of oil and insecticides has not yet been investigated, but their use alone or in combination would contribute to a management program to reduce transmission of PPV to peach during the period after insect flight begins, approximately in late June and before trees become significantly less susceptible approximately in early August. Many of the results from our studies have been implemented in an Integrated PPV Management Program including improved detection through targeted sampling and improved diagnostics. Oil sprays have been shown to be effective protectants for young trees, and it is hoped that oils used in combination with insecticides and enhanced natural resistance over the growing season will contribute to a significant reduction in the spread of PPV.

ER 22: Education and Awareness Activities

Outcomes: an increased industry understanding and awareness of PPV best management practices along with increased industry uptake of PPV best management practices, which will also help prevent the spread of PPV.

Implementation Plan: Several activities will be conducted to increase industry knowledge and awareness of PPV management practices and to facilitate the transition from eradication to long-term management. These activities will be conducted in collaboration with Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA), which is responsible for providing PPV management crop advice and training to Ontario growers and nurseries. AAFC will also liaise with the Ontario Tenders Fruit Producers' Marketing Board (OTFPMB) and the Canadian Nursery Landscape Association (CNLA) to develop and promote an effective educational and awareness campaign.

Indicators: AAFC will collaborate with OMAFRA to distribute information to Ontario tender fruit industry members about the PPV best management practices by publishing pamphlets and articles. An AAFC-OMAFRA fact sheet and web postings relating to the management of PPV will provide information on the disease, including symptom recognition, proper use of treatments, virus testing methods, and contact information for service providers. Information will be shared with producers through presentations at grower meetings, conferences, and information sessions. European tender fruit producers and crop advisors who have experience managing the disease will be invited to participate in the conferences, meetings, and information sessions to leverage their expertise. Information and research findings will also be provided by local crop advisors and researchers.

T40: Targets: Dissemination of information to growers/stakeholders and the scientific community on best management practices to minimize spread of PPV and reduce its impact on production.

RA 40: The Ontario Tender Fruit Growers' mandate is to help ensure availability of clean virus tested nursery stock to the industry to reduce the incidence and spread of disease. The 2015-2016 Plum pox virus (PPV) extension funds were used to support this effort by offsetting the costs of maintaining a separate block of clean, virus tested mother plants. As of 2011, removal of infected material within the quarantine area is no longer mandatory. It is therefore even more crucial to ensure clean material is maintained as the future effects of PPV on fruit quality and tree health are unknown.

General Information

Name of horizontal initiative Food Safety Oversight (FSO)
Name of lead department(s) Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)
Federal partner organization(s) Health Canada (HC)
Non-federal and non-governmental partner(s) Not applicable
Start date of the horizontal initiative 2014-15
End date of the horizontal initiative Ongoing
Total federal funding allocated (start to end date)

$151,999,631 (2014-15 to 2018-19) and $35,606,377 ongoing

(includes CFIA and Health Canada)
2014-15: $15,873,766
2015-16: $24,607,196
2016-17: $40,305,915
2017-18: $35,606,377
2018-19 and ongoing: $35,606,377

Funding contributed by non-federal and non-governmental partners Not applicable
Description of the horizontal initiative

The objectives of this horizontal initiative are to strengthen the CFIA's and HC's food safety oversight of the fresh fruits and vegetables sector, the fish and seafood sector and the manufactured food products sector.

These objectives, aligned with the Government of Canada Outcome of "Healthy Canadians," will be achieved through the implementation of new programming and increased oversight activities.

The CFIA and HC received a total spending authority of $152 million over five years and $35.6 million on an ongoing basis for this initiative.

Shared outcome(s) To strengthen Canada's food safety oversight system by implementing a preventive food safety program for fresh fruit and vegetables and resources to increase food safety oversight in the fish and seafood and the manufactured food products sectors.
Governance structures

The CFIA and HC currently work horizontally in delivering their shared food safety mandates. This is supported by a memorandum of understanding (MOU), signed in 2008, which provides the foundation for building a clear understanding of their respective roles and responsibilities as they relate to human health and to provide links across the organizations to improve the design and delivery of integrated health-related solutions.

A governance model exists for the partner organizations to regularly convene and discuss food safety issues of mutual concern and responsibility.

This governance framework includes an Assistant Deputy Minister-level and Director General-level Committees on Food Safety that meet regularly to discuss and plan approaches for addressing joint food safety issues.

CFIA and HC will continue to work horizontally through these governance committees. As complementary components of the health portfolio, the two organizations will report results within an integrated, collaborative performance measurement framework.

Performance Highlights

In 2015-16, the CFIA achieved several key objectives towards full implementation of a preventive food safety program for the fresh fruit and vegetable sectors. Program design and development continued, with a focus on risk-based prioritization and implementation in Canada GAP certified establishments. To further support risk-based planning in all food areas, the CFIA also developed a Program Management Framework which will be used as part of the Agency's work planning process to allocate resources to areas of highest risk in a systematic way.

The CFIA continued to dedicate inspection resources funded under the FSO initiative to key activities in the Fish, Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, and Imported and Manufactured Food programs. The main focus of these resources was to deliver verification activities at domestic establishments, to respond to complaints and food recalls, and to follow-up on non-compliant samples found under enhanced FSO sampling.

CFIA laboratories were able to deliver on 96% of all samples planned under the FSO initiative, with a total of approximately 8,500 separate tests performed. The majority of the samples were determined to be compliant and free of pathogen and chemical contamination. Positive results were sent to CFIA Operations for follow-up and investigation as necessary.

In order to continue to support enhanced sampling under the FSO initiative, the CFIA conducted several method validation studies and implemented new testing capabilities. Highlights of these activities include the completion of validation work on a sensitive detection method for Vibrio in shellfish samples, implementation of an internationally accepted virology test method for shellfish samples, completion of the optimization of an in-house developed method for virus testing in all commodities, as well as enhancements to heavy metal and pesticide testing capabilities in key commodities.

Finally, to enhance the safety of imported products, the CFIA began implementation of foreign country assessments. The CFIA performed an on-site assessment for shellfish in Mexico in March 2016. The CFIA continued engagement with the Competent Authorities of Korea (shellfish), Chile (shellfish), Guatemala (berries), and Mexico (fresh fruit and vegetables) in order to advance preparations for assessments to be conducted in 2016-17. In addition to ongoing assessment work, the CFIA also continues to develop Foreign Country Assessment program design, with a focus on developing countries.

Comments on variances

The overall surplus is attributable to lower than expected salary expenses due to delays in staffing actions and to delays in contract, procurement and translation.

Results to be achieved by non-federal and non-governmental partners

Not applicable.

Contact information

Canadian Food Inspection Agency

Dr. Richard Arsenault
Executive Director
Domestic Food Safety Systems & Meat Hygiene Directorate
Policy and Programs Branch
Telephone: 613-773-6156

Lyzette Lamondin
A/Executive Director
Food Import Export and Consumer Protection Directorate
Policy and Programs Branch
Telephone: 613-773-6189

Dr. Bashir Manji
Executive Director
Food Safety Science Directorate
Science Branch
Telephone: 613-773-6431

Dr. Harpreet Kochhar
Associate Vice President
Operations Branch
Telephone: 613-773-6162

Health Canada

Karen McIntyre
Director General
Food Directorate
Health Products and Food Branch
Telephone: 613-957-1821

Planning Information
Federal organizations Link to departmental Program Alignment Architectures Contributing programs and activities Total allocation (from start to end date) 2015-16 Planned spending 2015-16 Actual Spending 2015-16 Expected results (ER) 2015-16 Targets (T) Contributing activity/ program results
(using specific indicators) Table Note 13
Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) Food Safety Program Preventive Food Safety Program Management 11,786,965 (2014-15 to 2018-19) and 2,138,827 ongoing 2,495,885 2,146,262 ER 41 T 41 RA 41
Enhanced Inspection Activities 90,809,417 (2014-15 to 2018-19) and 22,189,785 ongoing 13,037,119 11,116,716 ER 42 T 42 RA 42
Increased Sampling, Testing, and Analysis 22,283,451 (2014-15 to 2018-19) and 5,411,341 ongoing 3,756,838 4,094,982 ER 43 T 43a
T 43b
RA 43a
RA 43b
Foreign Country Assessments 6,293,373 (2014-15 to 2018-19) and 1,245,327 ongoing 1,245,327 1,065,855 ER 44 T 44 RA 44
Health Canada (HC) Food Safety and Nutrition Standard Setting 14,246,254 (2014-15 to 2018-19) and
3,080,927 ongoing
2,805,865 2,453,207 ER 45a
ER 45b
ER 45c
ER 45d
T 45a
T 45b
T 45c
T 45d
RA 45a
RA 45b
RA 45c
RA 45d
Health Risk Assessments 6,580,170 (2014-15 to 2018-19) and
1,540,170 ongoing
1,266,160 947,127 ER 46 T 46 RA 46
Total for all federal organizations $151,999,630 (2014-15 to 2018-19) and $35,606,377 ongoing $24,607,194 $21,824,149 Not applicable

Table Notes

Table Note 13

Performance indicators are defined in the Performance Measurement Strategies and/or Performance Measurement Frameworks (PMF) of each federal partner.

Return to table note 13  referrer

Expected Results and Targets

ER 41: Expected Results: Preventive Food Safety Program Management

Strengthened design and management of Preventive Food Safety Programing

T 41: Targets: Events and materials to support program delivery.

RA 41:

As part of its work to implement Integrated Risk Management, CFIA developed a Program Management Framework in 2015-16. The Framework will be applied by the Food Program (as well as Animal and Plant Health Programs) to support risk based planning and decision making, as well as clarity, consistency and communication of program design.

Specific to risk-based prioritization of the FFV sector, CFIA updated program direction regarding scope of CFIA inspections in establishments with implemented Canada GAP certified food safety systems, and provided this information to inspectors and industry. Sampling plans for the non-meat sector were updated and prioritized in consideration of risk.

Program design and direction to Inspection staff was developed in a number of sectors to reflect emerging issues. CFIA has expanded the scope of both allergen inspections at importers to include ground spice and of sprouted seed inspections to include fresh and milled chia seeds, pathogens and indicator organisms. CFIA also developed a questionnaire for use by Inspection staff to collect additional information on practices and processes used in the sprouted seed sector, which is shared with Health Canada for the purposes of risk assessment and standard setting.

Reviews of program design and controls for monitoring marine toxins in geoduck clam and for Vibrio parahaemolyticus in live oysters were initiated, with the goals of providing updated program direction and guidance, and of increased engagement with industry and health partners respectively.

Specific guidance was developed and published for industry, including "Guidance on Resistance Temperature Detectors used as Indicating Thermometers for Retort Vessels" which provides flexibility for operators of thermal processing systems in measuring temperatures. Additionally, "Guidance document for on-farm dairy processing operations - Registration and operational requirements" was published to provide interpretation of federal requirements and policies to industry considering becoming federally registered.

ER 42: Expected Result: Enhanced Inspection Activities

Increased inspection activities in the non-meat food areas.

T 42: Targets: Number of inspections conducted in the non-meat food area.

RA 42:

As part of the FSO initiative, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency achieved increased delivery in the following key activities:

  • fish quality management program (QMP) compliance verifications (CV) and importer audits;
  • facility assessments and food inspection in the non-registered sector;
  • good manufacturing practice (GMP) inspections and label verification of fresh fruit and vegetable establishments;

In addition to these activities, resources were also utilized to manage an increase in food complaint investigations and recall activities, while maintaining delivery of other priority inspection activities.

ER 43: Expected Result: Increased Sampling, Testing, and Analysis

Increased Sampling, Testing, and Analysis

T 43a: Targets: Sample testing reports, results and analysis completed in the non-meat food areas

RA 43a:

Of the 3095 samples planned for 2015-16, a total of 2964 (95.8%) were received and tested. CFIA laboratories conducted approximately 8500 separate tests on these samples.

Chemistry testing was conducted to assess the levels of veterinary drug residues and heavy metals within domestic fish and seafood products; determined levels of pesticides within imported minor crops, nuts and seeds; and identified the presence of undeclared allergens within bakery products, as well as the sulfite levels in imported whole fruits. Microbiological testing was conducted to monitor the presence of viruses within fresh and frozen berries, and for microbial pathogen contamination within fresh fruits and vegetable products, ready-to-eat fish products and raw molluscan shellfish.

The majority of the samples were determined to be compliant and free of pathogen and chemical contamination. Seven samples taken from domestic establishments producing fresh-cut ready-to-eat fruits and vegetables were reported to be unsatisfactory for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in environmental food contact surfaces and final product testing. These results triggered CFIA follow-up investigations and testing activities as well as the issuance of corrective action requests to the establishments and other appropriate risk management actions. One sample of imported coriander was reported as non-compliant for the detection of Salmonella and prompted a class II recall decision to the consumer level. Six samples of bakery products were reported as unsatisfactory for the detection of various undeclared allergens including egg, milk, peanut and sesame seeds and fifteen samples of imported whole fruits were reported as unsatisfactory for the detection of sulfites, a compound to which some individuals may be hypersensitive and experience allergic-like reactions. These results were forwarded to CFIA Operations for investigation and follow-up as needed.

T 43b: Targets: Validated methods developed and implemented to support increased testing in the non-meat food areas.

RA 43b:

CFIA microbiology labs conducted method validation studies in preparation for the increased testing planned under the FSO initiative. These studies included the validation of a sensitive detection method for Vibrio in shellfish samples. The validation work was completed in 2015/16 and the method has been submitted to the Microbiological Methods Committee for publication in the Health Canada Compendium of Analytical Methods. It is anticipated that CFIA labs will implement this new method for testing of routine samples in 2016/17. This method offers a considerable reduction in the amount of time required to analyse samples. As an expansion of this method, CFIA labs are also validating a next generation technology method which has the potential to offer same-day test results. This novel method will reduce the time required to analyse shellfish samples for Vibrio in half (from 3 to 4 days to 1 to 2). Validation studies continued in 2015/16, and the work will be completed in 2016/17.

To prepare for additional Virology samples in different types of foods, CFIA labs finalised method verification studies that were initiated in 2014/15. Throughout 2015/16, CFIA labs implemented an internationally accepted virology test method for shellfish samples and completed the optimization of an in-house developed method for virus testing in all other commodities to be ready to accept all planned samples in 2016/17.

CFIA food chemistry labs began several method validation extensions in preparation for increased FSO monitoring for contaminants in new food matrices in 2016/17. These validations included heavy metal and pesticide testing in minor crops, nuts and seeds, and expanding the scope of pesticide analysis to the full range of analytes in fish and seafood products. Additionally, the validation for pesticide testing in imported minor crops, nuts and seeds was completed.

ER 44: Expected Result: Foreign Country Assessments

Increased Foreign Country Assessments of priority areas

T 44: Targets: Establish baseline of foreign country assessments and show increase of foreign country assessments.

RA 44:

CFIA performed an on-site assessment for shellfish in Mexico in March 2016. CFIA continued to engage with the Competent Authority of Korea (for shellfish) who is insisting on having an arrangement before an assessment and will send a proposal to CFIA. CFIA also engaged the Competent Authority of Chile (for shellfish) requesting that they complete our assessment tool in order to enable us to perform an on-site assessment in 2016-17.

CFIA continued to engage the Competent Authority of Guatemala (for berries), to perform an on-site assessment of their food safety systems. This assessment could not be performed, apparently due to the elections in Guatemala. In the meantime CFIA completed its desk review based on the available information. We also engaged the Competent Authority of Mexico (for fresh fruit and vegetables) and sent them an assessment tool for completion in order to perform an on-site assessment in 2016-17.

CFIA also organized a one day work shop to engage subject matter experts in order to inform Foreign Country Assessment program design, with a focus on developing countries.

ER 45a: Expected Result: Standard Setting

Development of new and/or updated standards is initiated in 100% of cases where there is an identified need to do so in order to address food safety risks

T 45a: Targets: 100% of cases where there is an identified need to update standards to address food safety risks

RA 45a:

In 100% of identified cases, updated/new standards were initiated to address food safety risks.

ER 45b: Expected Result: Standard Setting: Number and type of involvement activities associated with standard setting initiatives

T 45b: Targets: To be determined (Will depend on the number and type of standards being developed)

RA 45b:

Participation in FAO working group to update biotoxin TEFs (toxic equivalency factors)

Participation in FAO/WHO expert meeting on the updated evaluation of non-dioxin-like Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Completed the Guidance Document on Ready-to-Eat Smoked Fish and Multi-Ingredient Products Containing Smoked Fish.

Continued guidance development for Clostridium botulinum and eviscerated salted fish.

Completed a first draft of the Guideline on Reducing the Risk of Clostridium botulinum in Plant and Mushroom Products Stored in Oil.

In support of the modernization of current regulatory requirements for infant formulas listed under Division 25 of the Food and Drug Regulations, an Issue Analysis Summary document and work plan was developed.

ER 45c: Expected Result: Standard Setting

Number of risk assessments developed in support of standard setting initiatives

T 45c: Targets: To be determined (Will depend on the number and type of standards being developed)

RA 45c:

Risk profiles and risk assessments were initiated for emerging pathogens in sprouted seeds/beans, chia/flax seed and bivalve shellfish.

ER 45d: Expected Result: Standard Setting

Number of detection methods developed and enhanced in support of standard setting initiatives

T 45d: Targets: To be determined since it will depend on the number and type of standards being developed

RA 45d:

Advancements were achieved in the development and validation of methods for foodborne pathogens in produce, seafood and infant formula (e.g., Listeria, Salmonella, Vibrio, Cronobacter, etc.)

Continued evaluation of the impact of high pressure processing (HPP) on pathogens in produce (e.g., Listeria, Salmonella)

Performed testing and characterization of foodborne protozoan parasites, viruses and Listeria in approximately 600 samples of fresh produce collected over the fiscal year

ER 46: Expected Result: Health Risk Assessments

Timely response to emerging food and nutrition safety incidents including foodborne illness outbreaks

T 46: Targets: 90% of health risk assessment provided to CFIA within standard timelines to manage food safety incidents

RA 46:

100% of HRAs were provided to CFIA within standard timelines and provided is advice as required.

NOTES:

Progress was made towards the development of Regulations to permit the sale of Human Milk Fortifiers (HMFs). The Food Directorate and Office of Legislative and Regulatory Modernization prepared drafting instructions for the regulatory amendments to the Food and Drugs Act and Regulations. This will ensure that all HMFs are assessed by Health Canada prior to sale.

HC continued the chemical food safety ranking of identified and emerging risks using hazard/commodity combination modeling. Food Safety Hazard Quotients are continually developed based on risk ranking exercises.

Internal Audits and Evaluations

[A.]Internal Audits Completed in 2015-16
Title of Internal Audit Internal Audit Type Status Completion Date
Audit of Major IT Application (SAP) Internal Services Completed January 2016
Audit of CFIA Staffing Framework Table Note 14 Internal Services In Progress June 2016 Table Note 18
Audit of CFIA External Stakeholder Complaints Process Table Note 15 Program In Progress 2016/2017
Audit of Centres of Administration Table Note 16 Program Planned Table Note 19 2017/2018
Audit of IM/IT Internal Services Planned Table Note 19 2017/2018
Audit of Recordkeeping in the Agency Internal Services Deferred 2017/2018
Audit of Operations Emergency Management: Prevention and Preparedness Table Note 17 Program Deferred 2018/2019
Audit of Fleet Management Internal Services Deferred 2018/2019

Table Notes

Table Note 14

Project title modified from Audit of Staffing

Return to table note 14  referrer

Table Note 15

Project title modified from Audit of Complaints and Appeals Process

Return to table note 15  referrer

Table Note 16

Project title modified from Audit of Issuance and Administration of Licenses to Regulated Parties.

Return to table note 16  referrer

Table Note 17

Project title modified from Audit of Emergency Management

Return to table note 17  referrer

Table Note 18

Audit Committee (AC) meetings for December 2015 and March 2016 were cancelled. These audits will be tabled at the next AC meeting, currently scheduled for June 2016.

Return to table note 18  referrer

Table note 19

Audits identified as 'Planned' may be subject to change due to shifting of priorities based on the annual evaluation of risk elements.

Return to table note 19  referrer

[B.]Evaluations in Progress or Completed in 2015-16
Link to Department's Program Alignment Architecture Title of the Evaluation Status Deputy Head Approval Date
Food Safety Program 1.1
Meat and Poultry SP 1.1.1
Meat and Poultry Evaluation In progress October 2016
Food Safety Program 1.1 Food Safety Program Modernization Evaluation: Part One In progress July 2016
Animal Health and Zoonotics Program 1.2
Terrestrial Animal Health SP 1.2.1
National Aquatic Animal Health SP 1.2.2
Animal Health Program Evaluation: Part One In progress March 2018
Animal Health and Zoonotics Program 1.2 Federal Assistance Program Evaluation In progress July 2016

Food Safety Program 1.1
Meat and Poultry SP 1.1.1, Egg SP 1.1.2,
Dairy SP 1.1.3, Fish & Seafood SP 1.1.4,
Fresh Fruit & Vegetable SP 1.1.5,
Processed Product SP 1.1.6,
Imported/Manufactured Products SP 1.1.7

Animal Health and Zoonotics Program 1.2
Terrestrial Animal Health SP 1.2.1,
National Aquatic Animal Health SP 1.2.2,
Feed SP 1.2.3

Plant Resources Program 1.3
Plant Protection SP 1.3.1
Seed SP 1.3.2
Fertilizer SP 1.3.3

Genomics Research and Development Initiative In progress December 2016

Response to Parliamentary Committees and External Audits

Response to parliamentary committees

Nil

Response to the Auditor General (including to the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development)

Nil

Response to external audits conducted by the Public Service Commission of Canada or the Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages

Nil

Status Report on Projects Operating with Specific Treasury Board Approval

Program: Food Safety Program ($ dollars)
Project Original Estimated Total Cost Revised Estimated Total Cost Actual Total Cost 2015-16 Main Estimates 2015-16 Planned Spending Table Note 20 2015-16 Total Authorities Table Note 20 2015-16 Actual Expected Date of Close-Out
Electronic Service Delivery Platform 48,352,695 47,747,450 12,708,669 - 20,764,949 20,764,949 4,010,978 March 2018
Canadian Food Safety Information Network 23,238,740 23,684,048 3,426,531 1,532,963 2,430,963 2,430,963 2,238,072 December 2019

Table Notes

Table note 20

Includes funding received through Carry Forward allocations and Supplementary Estimates

Return to table note 20  referrer

User Fees, Regulatory Charges and External Fees

Reporting on the User Fees Act

General and Financial Information by Fee

User Fees

Food Safety Program

Fee Name: Food Safety Program

Fee Type: Regulating

Fee-setting authority: CFIA Act

Year introduced:

Year last amended: 1998

Performance Standard: Inspection activities are to be provided in accordance with corresponding federal regulations.

Performance Results: Inspection activities were provided in accordance with corresponding federal regulations.

Other Information:

Financial Information, 2015-16 (dollars)

2015-2016 (in dollars)
Forecast Revenue Actual Revenue Full Cost
30,705,205 30,437,352 497,956,063

Financial Information, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 (dollars)

Planning Years (in dollars)
Planning Year Forecast Revenue Estimated Full Cost
2016-17 31,553,592 496,630,408
2017-18 31,553,592 449,816,509
2018-19 31,553,592 448,135,599

Animal Health & Zoonotics Program

Fee Name: Animal Health & Zoonotics Program

Fee Type: Regulating

Fee-setting authority: CFIA Act

Year introduced:

Year last amended: 1998

Performance Standard: Inspection activities are to be provided in accordance with corresponding federal regulations.

Performance Results: Inspection activities were provided in accordance with corresponding federal regulations.

Other Information:

Financial Information, 2015-16 (dollars)

2015-2016 (in dollars)
Forecast Revenue Actual Revenue Full Cost
2,418,409 2,514,060 186,734,255

Financial Information, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 (dollars)

Planning Years (in dollars)
Planning Year Forecast Revenue Estimated Full Cost
2016-17 2,606,259 186,237,133
2017-18 2,606,259 168,681,852
2018-19 2,606,259 168,051,508

Plant Resources Program

Fee Name: Plant Resources Program

Fee Type: Regulating

Fee-setting authority: CFIA Act

Year introduced:

Year last amended: 1998

Performance Standard: Inspection activities are to be provided in accordance with corresponding federal regulations.

Performance Results: Inspection activities were provided in accordance with corresponding federal regulations.

Other Information:

Financial Information, 2015-16 (dollars)

2015-2016 (in dollars)
Forecast Revenue Actual Revenue Full Cost
7,013,108 6,147,791 105,660,677

Financial Information, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 (dollars)

Planning Years (in dollars)
Planning Year Forecast Revenue Estimated Full Cost
2016-17 6,373,251 105,379,388
2017-18 6,373,251 95,446,005
2018-19 6,373,251 95,089,335

International Collaboration & Technical Program

Fee Name: International Collaboration & Technical Agreements

Fee Type: Regulating

Fee-setting authority: CFIA Act

Year introduced:

Year last amended: 1998

Performance Standard:

Performance Results:

Other Information:

Financial Information, 2015-16 (dollars)

2015-2016 (in dollars)
Forecast Revenue Actual Revenue Full Cost
13,024,278 12,181,174 43,097,487

Financial Information, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 (dollars)

Planning Years (in dollars)
Planning Year Forecast Revenue Estimated Full Cost
2016-17 12,627,898 42,982,753
2017-18 12,627,898 38,931,068
2018-19 12,627,898 38,785,587

Internal Services

Fee Name: Internal Services

Fee Type: Other Products and Services

Fee-setting authority: Access to Information Act

Year introduced:

Year last amended:

Performance Standard:

Performance Results:

Other Information:

Financial Information, 2015-16 (dollars)

2015-2016 (in dollars)
Forecast Revenue Actual Revenue Full Cost
3,946 1,545 1,713,508

Financial Information, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 (dollars)

Planning Years (in dollars)
Planning Year Forecast Revenue Estimated Full Cost
2016-17 1,545 1,708,946
2017-18 1,545 1,547,856
2018-19 1,545 1,542,071
Summary of Financial Information for All User Fees and Regulatory Charges 2015-16 (dollars)
Forecast Revenue Actual Revenue Full Cost
Regulatory subtotal 53,161,000 51,280,376 833,448,483
Other products and services subtotal 3,946 1,545 1,713,508
Total, all fee types 53,164,946 51,281,921 835,161,991
Summary of Financial Information for All User Fees and Regulatory Charges, 2016-17, 2017-18 and 2018-19 (dollars)
Planning Year Forecast revenue Estimated full cost
Regulatory subtotal 2016-17 53,161,000 831,229,683
2017-18 53,161,000 752,875,434
2018-19 53,161,000 750,062,028
Other products and services subtotal 2016-17 1,545 1,708,946
2017-18 1,545 1,547,856
2018-19 1,545 1,542,071
Total, all fee types 2016-17 53,162,545 832,938,629
2017-18 53,162,545 754,423,290
2018-19 53,162,545 751,604,100

Reporting on the Policy on Service Standards for External Fees

General Information by Fee

External fee name Service standard Performance results Stakeholder consultation in 2015-16 or prior fiscal years Other information
Fees charged for the processing of access requests filed under the Access to Information Act (ATIA) Response provided within 30 days following receipt of request; response time may be extended pursuant to section 9 of the ATIA. Notice of extension to be sent within 30 days of receipt of request. Of the 356 requests completed under the ATIA last fiscal year,
207 (58%) were completed in under 30 days;
35 (10%) were completed in 31 to 60 days;
85 (24%) were completed in 61 to 120 days; and
29 (8%) were completed in 121 days or more.
The service standard is established by the ATIA and the Access to Information Regulations. Consultations with stakeholders were undertaken by the Department of Justice and the Treasury Board Secretariat for amendments made in 1986 and 1992.

Service Standards for applications for Veterinary Biologics activities

Dossier Review (new submission, change in product formulation or change in label claim)

Canadian Manufacturers
External fee name Service standard Performance results Stakeholder consultation in 2015-16 or prior fiscal years Other information
Review initial submission and prepare response Maximum response time is four months (120 days) Not applicable as no Canadian dossiers completed an initial review during this period. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. To address stakeholder concerns, a phased review system is in place, allowing for initial submission review and response while studies and data are pending.
The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Review supplemental data and prepare response Maximum response time is six weeks Summary data not available for fiscal year 2015-2016 as no dossiers completed an initial review during this period as no dossiers completed an initial review during this period. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. To address stakeholder concerns, a phased review system is in place, allowing for initial submission review and response while studies and data are pending.
The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
American Manufacturers
External fee name Service standard Performance results Stakeholder consultation in 2015-16 or prior fiscal years Other information
Review initial submission and prepare response Maximum response time is four months The Agency reviewed and prepared a response for 50% of the initial submissions within the service standard. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. To address stakeholder concerns, a phased review system is in place, allowing for initial submission review and response while studies and data are pending.
The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Review supplemental data and prepare response Maximum response time is six weeks Summary data not available for fiscal year 2015-2016 as no dossiers completed an initial review during this period. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Manufacturers from other countries
External fee name Service standard Performance results Stakeholder consultation in 2015-16 or prior fiscal years Other information
Review initial submission and prepare response Maximum response time is six months The Agency reviewed and prepared a response for 50% of the initial submissions within the service standard. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Review supplemental data and prepare response Maximum response time is six weeks Summary data not available for fiscal year 2015-2016. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Facility Inspections/Audits
External fee name Service standard Performance results Stakeholder consultation in 2015-16 or prior fiscal years Other information
Canadian manufacturers Annual Conducted 100% of the six required audits/inspections of Canadian manufacturers within the service standard Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Canadian importers Minimum every three years Audited/inspected 100% of the 16 Canadian importers within the service standard. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
American manufacturers Minimum every three years Audited/inspected 100% of one U.S. manufacturer of autogenous vaccines or products under the Food and Drug Administration's Export Reform and Enhancement Act. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. For facilities inspected annually and licensed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS), CCVB may inspect when the product is first licensed in Canada. Subsequent inspections will be arranged as necessary. CCVB may request copies of inspection reports from USDA-APHIS.
The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Other non-Canadian manufacturers Minimum every four years Audited/inspected 100% of one Non-Canadian or non-U.S. manufacturers considered a risk within the service standard. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016.

For internationally-based veterinary biologics manufacturer facilities, CCVB will inspect when the product is first licensed in Canada. Subsequent inspections will be arranged as necessary.

The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.

Issuance of Permits, Licenses and Export Certificates Maximum response time is two weeks The Agency renewed 100% of the annual import permits product licences and establishment licences within the service standard.
The Agency processed applications for 99% of the 116 export certificates, and 90% of 230 permits for emergency use within the service standard.
Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Serial Release
External fee name Service standard Performance results Stakeholder consultation in 2015-16 or prior fiscal years Other information
If not tested Maximum response time is 10 working days For serials not requiring testing, CCVB processed 99% of the 275 test report documentation within the service standard. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016 The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
If tested Maximum response time is 35 days For serials requiring testing, CCVB processed 100% of the six test report documentation within the target determined at the time of serial submission. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Label Review and Approval Maximum response time is four weeks The Agency processed 89% of 103 submissions within the service standard. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Advertising Review and Approval Maximum response time is four weeks
Average response time is two weeks
Not applicable, as the Health of Animals Regulations 135.3 was repealed in 1997 to remove the requirement for pre-approval of advertising Health of Animals Regulation 135.3 was repealed in 1997 to remove the requirement for pre-approval of advertising.
Protocol Review for Efficacy/Safety Studies Maximum response time is 45 days Summary data not available for 2015-16. Other than as components of new product licensing submissions, no efficacy or safety study protocols were submitted for review in 2015-2016. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Production Outline Revisions Maximum response time is four weeks Summary data not available for 2015-16 as no dossiers completed an initial review during this period. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Suspected Adverse Reactions Maximum response time is four weeks Summary data not available for 2015-16 as no dossiers completed an initial review during this period. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Application for Feed Registration and Ingredient Approval
External fee name Service standard Performance results Stakeholder consultation in 2015-16 or prior fiscal years Other information
Timeliness: For 90 percent or more of the applications received Feed Section screens applications within ten days of receiving them. Summary data not available for 2015-16 as no dossiers completed an initial review during this period. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Timeliness: For 90 percent or more of the applications received For products requiring a review of efficacy data, a preliminary review is conducted within 10 days of the screening date, and results are communicated to the applicant. Summary data not available for 2015-16 as no dossiers completed an initial review during this period. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Timeliness: For 90 percent or more of the applications received The laboratory does a desk review of proposed methods of analysis within four weeks of receiving them. If laboratory testing is required, it will be done within 12 weeks of receiving a suitable method and test samples depending on availability of specialized equipment. Summary data not available for 2015-16 as no dossiers completed an initial review during this period. Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Quality The Feeds Regulations are consistently interpreted and applied in registration/approval decisions. 100% Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Quality Information is openly exchanged between clients and evaluation specialists. 100% Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Quality Analytical methods are evaluated for specificity, selectivity, reliability and accuracy, using internationally standardized method validation procedures. 100% Stakeholder consultations were conducted as part of the semi-annual meetings of the Canadian Animal Health Products Regulatory Advisory Committee (CAHPRAC) on June 18, 2015, November 19, 2015 and June 15, 2016. The next stakeholder consultation is scheduled for November 22, 2016.
Destination Inspection Service (Fresh Fruits and Vegetables) The service standard is to respond to 80% of inspection requests within eight working hours of receiving a request and 100% of inspection requests within 24 hours. National Results: 94.5% within 8 hours and 97.9% within 24 hours (National DIS Inspection Results)

The CFIA consults with the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable sector on an ongoing basis, and at least bi-annually with its National Industry Advisory Board, which most recently occurred in March 2016.

DIS service standards and user fees are reviewed every five years. The current DIS user fee came into effect on April 1, 2014.

The most recent consultation on service standards was held from December 13, 2012 to February 21, 2013.

This consultation was conducted online and included posting of the user fee proposal on the CFIA website and providing a link on the Consulting Canadians website, issuing a World Trade Organization notification, engagement with national industry associations and outreach through front-line staff.

The next stakeholder consultation on service standards and user fees will be held April 2019, as per CFIA user fee policy.

Federal Tax Expenditures

The tax system can be used to achieve public policy objectives through the application of special measures such as low tax rates, exemptions, deductions, deferrals and credits. The Department of Finance Canada publishes cost estimates and projections for these measures annually in the Report of Federal Tax ExpendituresEndnote xxiii. This report also provides detailed background information on tax expenditures, including descriptions, objectives, historical information and references to related federal spending programs. The tax measures presented in this report are the responsibility of the Minister of Finance.

Organizational Contact Information

Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA)

1400 Merivale Road,
Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0Y9
Canada
Telephone:  1-800-442-2342 / 1-613-773-2342
Teletypewriter: 1-800-465-7735

Date modified: