- Plants in Canada are regulated on the basis of the traits expressed and not on the basis of the method used to introduce the traits. Plants with novel traits may be produced by conventional breeding, mutagenesis or recombinant DNA techniques. Please refer to the specific Decision Documents for more details on specific approvals. Information on novel trait introduction methods can be found in Decision Documents for each specific PNT (plant with novel traits) that has been approved for environmental release - accessed by direct web linkage in the table.
- Unless exempted, a Permit to Import is required under the Plant Protection Act by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency to import plants with novel traits into Canada, regardless of their end-use. Plants exempted from this requirement are those that have been determined, following a pest risk assessment, not to pose a plant pest risk by the CFIA, and include the plants listed in this table.
- OECD Unique Identifier: The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Working Group on Harmonization of Regulatory Oversight in Biotechnology has developed guidance for a unique identifier for transgenic plants. The purpose is for the use as a "key" to access information in OECD's database of products of modern biotechnology which have been approved for commercial application. (N/A denotes Not-applicable). For more information see: OECD Environmental Directorate, Environment, Health and Safety Division, 2 rue Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France
- Living Modified Organism (LMO): is defined by
the Cartegena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on biological Diversity as any living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic
material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
- "Living organism" means any biological entity capable of transferring or replicating genetic material, including sterile organisms, viruses and viroids.
- "Modern biotechnology" means the application of:
- In vitro nucleic techniques, including recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and direct injection of nucleic acid into cells or organelles, or
- Fusion of cells beyond the taxonomic family, that overcome natural physiological reproductive or recombination barriers and that are not techniques used in traditional breeding and selection.
- There may be a number of reasons why there has been no approval for environmental release or livestock feed use, or determination of "no objection" for food use. These include (i) the applicant does not intend the PNT to be deliberately released into the environment; (ii) the applicant does not intend the PNT to be used for livestock feed; (iii) the applicant may not wish to use the crop as food; (iv) the application is still under review; and (v) Health Canada or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has not received an application to review.
- Authorization for Unconfined Release into the Environment: "Yes" denotes that the
CFIA has authorized the unconfined release of the PNT into the environment for the purpose of cultivation, on an unrestricted basis. Production in
a contained facility (e.g. greenhouse, hot house, etc.) is not subject to an
assessment and authorization for unconfined release into the environment. "Yes" does not indicate the commercial status of
* - Authorization is conditional on the implementation of an effective insect resistance management plan to reduce or delay the potential development of B.t. resistance in target insect populations.
**- Unconfined release into the environment is authorized in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba.
- DD: Denotes that a Decision Document, containing a summary of the safety evaluation, has been issued for environmental release and/or livestock feed authorization. Information on novel trait introduction methods can be found here.
- Authorization for use as livestock feed: "Yes" denotes that the CFIA has authorized the use of the PNT for livestock feed. "Yes" does not indicate the commercial status of the PNT.
- Variety Registration: "Yes" denotes that at least one variety of this plant has been registered. See Variety Registration website for list of registered variety names. Note, not all crop species are subject to variety registration. "Yes" does not indicate the commercial status of the PNT.
- Food Safety Authorization: "Yes" denotes that Health Canada has determined it has no objections to the PNT being used as human food. See Health Canada's Novel Foods website. "Yes" does not indicate the commercial status of the PNT.
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