National Cervid Farm-Level Biosecurity Standard

Table of Contents

Quick reference guide
Summary of principles, strategies and target outcomes

Principle 1: Management of farm, facilities and equipment

Goal: Minimize the effect that farm, facilities and equipment have as contributors to disease transmission.

Strategy 1.1: Assess the biosecurity risks of the area where the farm is located or to be located.

Target outcome: Producers understand the risks of the areas they have chosen or are choosing for their farm and manage the risks appropriately.

Strategy 1.2: Assess and identify areas of risk on the farm

Target outcome: Areas of risk on the farm are identified and managed to reduce risks.

Strategy 1.3: Create a diagram of the farm layout

Target outcome: A farm diagram is used to identify farm layout, infrastructure and risk areas.

Strategy 1.4: Clean and disinfect facilities, equipment and vehicles

Target outcome: Cleaning and disinfection methods that are effective in reducing the risk of disease transmission are established and are used for facilities, equipment and vehicles entering, exiting and on the farm.

Strategy 1.5: Design and maintain facilities to reduce disease risks

Target outcome: Facilities are designed and maintained in good repair to reduce access by pests, facilitate cleaning and disinfection, and reduce the accumulation of pathogens and populations of pests. Considerations for biosecurity should be included when selecting a location and designing or renovating facilities.

Strategy 1.6: Reduce risk posed by equipment and vehicles

Target outcome: Vehicle and equipment access to and movement within the farm premises is managed to reduce the risk of disease transmission.

Strategy 1.7: Manage manure

Target outcome: Accumulations of manure, particularly in winter housing, and around feeding and watering areas are regularly removed and moved in a manner that limits exposure to the herd. Manure is managed and disposed of to reduce the opportunity for the build-up of pathogen and pest populations and potential contamination of production areas and pastures. Dedicated tools and equipment are used for manure handling, or cleaned and disinfected, prior to other uses.

Strategy 1.8: Manage feed, water and bedding

Target outcome: Management practices are in place to ensure that feed, water, and bedding are of sufficient quantity and quality, and mitigation measures are in place to reduce the risks posed by pathogens and pests.

Strategy 1.9: Manage deadstock

Target outcome: Deadstock, unless anthrax is suspected, are removed immediately from livestock rearing areas and moved in a manner that limits cross-contamination with the herd. Placentas and aborted material and other tissues are managed as deadstock. The deadstock disposal area is located away from the production area and is secured against pets and wildlife. Disposal respects local regulations and is done in a manner that limits disease exposure to the herd.

Principle 2: Animal health management practices

Goal: Maximize the health, well-being and productivity of the herd by implementing a herd health program, managing cervid movements and minimizing contact with other animals.

Strategy 2.1: Sourcing cervids

Target outcome: Animals are sourced from suppliers with herds of known health status or the health status of new animals aligns with the resident herd.

Strategy 2.2: Separate herd additions and returning cervids of undetermined health status from the resident herd (isolation).

Target outcome: Animals brought onto the farm (herd additions and returning animals) are separated from the resident herd and isolated until their disease status has been determined or is resolved.

Strategy 2.3: Minimize contact with other livestock, domestic animals, and pests

Target outcome: Cervid farms are managed to maintain habitat for many desirable species of flora and fauna while minimizing disease risks. Cervids in the resident herd are housed, moved and pastured in such a manner that the risk of contact with other livestock and domestic animals of undetermined health status and pests is minimized. An integrated pest control program should be maintained.

Strategy 2.4 Develop and implement a herd health program

Target outcome: A herd health program is implemented, and serves as the basis for monitoring herd health and proactively identifying and minimizing the risk of disease transmission. The program describes the health regimens and practices used for daily care and disease prevention and control.

Strategy 2.5: Manage and treat sick animals

Target outcome: Animals showing signs of disease may be treated within the herd or moved into an isolation area away from the healthy herd and treated as necessary.

Strategy 2.6: Develop a response plan for disease outbreaks

Target outcome: A disease response plan is developed and implemented to guide response activities when disease is suspected, identified or there is deterioration in health status. The plan should identify triggers for activating the response plan, requirements for enhanced biosecurity and, if warranted self-imposed whole farm isolation procedures (biocontainment).

Principle 3: Management of people

Goal: Minimize the potential risk posed by all farm visitors and farm personnel through the establishment of protocols, training and communication.

Strategy 3.1: Train farmworkers about biosecurity

Target outcome: All farm workers and family members are trained in and consistently implement the farm's biosecurity practices. The farm biosecurity protocol is communicated to visitors and service providers and they comply with it.

Strategy 3.2: Determine the risks posed by people

Target outcome: The potential risks posed by visitors and farm personnel for disease transmission are determined.

Strategy 3.3: Develop and implement risk management practices for all people entering the farm

Target outcome: People working on, providing service to or visiting the farm are guided by defined risk management practices.

Strategy 3.4: Manage zoonotic disease risks

Target outcome: Family members, farm workers, visitors and service providers understand the risks posed by zoonotic diseases and take precautions to protect themselves other people and animals.

Principle 4: Protocols and record-keeping

Goal: Establish protocols and maintain records to facilitate managing, improving and validating the biosecurity program and health status of the herd.

Strategy 4.1: Protocols for animal health and farm management practices

Target outcome: Important biosecurity protocols are readily available to staff, family and service providers as needed, to facilitate reference, training, review and consistent implementation.

Strategy 4.2: Herd and individual animal health records

Target outcome: Herd health and individual animal health records are maintained and reviewed to ensure optimum health and productivity of the herd.

Strategy 4.3: Farm management records

Target outcome: Records of farm management activities, including biosecurity measures, are maintained and reviewed.

Strategy 4.4: Education and training activities

Target outcome: Records of education and training of farm workers are maintained and reviewed to ensure they have the requisite knowledge and skills to successfully conduct their duties.

Chapter 1: Introduction and background

1.1 What is biosecurity?

BiosecurityFootnote 1 is used to protect the health of animals from infectious diseases. It is a set of principles and practices that are used to reduce the risks posed by pathogens and pests. The biosecurity standard provides measures that cervid producers may take to minimize the introduction of pathogens and pests onto a farm, their spread within the operation, and release off the farm.

Biosecurity may be defined as a set of practices used to minimize the presence of pests and the transmission of pathogens in animal and plant populations including their introduction (bio-exclusion), spread within the populations (bio-management), and release (bio-containment).

Biosecurity relies on the consistent use of a combination of procedural measures and physical barriers designed to disrupt the transmission of pathogens. These measures and barriers target opportunities for pathogen transmission that occur during routine animal care (e.g. contact with potentially contaminated equipment or materials), risks posed by less frequent activities (e.g. introduction of new animals to the herd) and changing risks (e.g. increased movement of animals and people onto and off of a property). To be effective, biosecurity measures must be applied consistently day to day, and on an ongoing basis.

The threat of infectious disease is always present. In the context of most farm operations, completely eliminating all threats is usually impractical and not achievable. Therefore, at the farm level, it is more appropriate to view biosecurity in terms of risk management, rather than risk elimination.

Biosecurity requires balancing the:

  • risk of disease transmission;
  • consequences of disease occurring; and
  • measures required to minimize disease.

The level of disease risk that is considered acceptable is likely to vary among cervid producers based on their business goals, species raised, management practices, products marketed and individual risk tolerances. These factors should be taken into account when developing premises-specific biosecurity plans. Ideally, plan development should be accomplished with the assistance of a veterinarian familiar with the cervid industry and the internal and external disease threats. Biosecurity plans must be practical, achievable and sustainable. Because the consequences of disease are many and far reaching, cervid producers should not look at their own biosecurity and risk tolerance without consideration of the industry as a whole.

Biosecurity is not a new concept. Many daily activities that cervid producers perform include biosecurity measures. Many biosecurity measures are not difficult or expensive to implement.

1.2 Why is biosecurity important in the cervid industry?

Animal health, welfare and food safety are intricately linked. Society demands that farm raised animals are well cared for, free of disease and the products obtained are safe and of high quality. Freedom from disease and a high herd health status are important in Canada's cervid industry which raises elk, red deer, white-tailed deer, fallow deer, mule deer and reindeer. High herd health status facilitates market access, which is important for promoting the wide variety of cervid products which include meat antler velvet, hard antler, trophy animals, and breeding stock.

The impacts of infectious disease in cervids can be significant and devastating. Disease can range from mild illness to death, from sporadic cases to extensive disease outbreaks. Even mild disease can result in chronic or permanent damage, decreased production (e.g. reproduction, product, and growth), increased financial costs, welfare concerns and potential risks to human health. Farms and facilities with poor biosecurity may become a significant risk to the industry. Every cervid producer should have a biosecurity plan which is implemented and reviewed on an ongoing basis. The benefits of biosecurity may include:

  • Protecting human and animal health by:
    • enhancing animal health and welfare by reducing the negative outcomes of disease which may include: decreased production, decreased function, permanent disability and occasionally death;
    • reducing the transmission of endemic, newly emerging, and foreign animal diseases within the cervid and other livestock industries;
    • reducing the transmission of zoonotic diseases (diseases that can be spread from animals to people) including salmonellosis, clostridial diseases, ringworm, and tuberculosis; and
    • reducing the need for and use of antimicrobials and fostering good antimicrobial stewardship.
  • Protecting producers and the economy by:
    • reducing direct costs for the treatment of disease;
    • reducing indirect costs due to poor production;
    • reducing indirect costs to the cervid industry from reduced domestic and international market access;
    • improving domestic and international demand for cervid products among retailers and consumers through increased confidence in Canadian cervid products; and
    • increasing prices that producers receive for their animals and products, driven by increased confidence in the superior quality and safety of Canadian cervid products.
  • Protecting the environment by:
    • minimizing the contamination of farmland due to shedding of pathogens and parasites; and
    • reducing disease transmission by environmental contamination at the interface of wild and farmed animals.

1.3 Purpose of a national standard

This document has been developed to serve as a national voluntary standard that supports a nationally consistent approach to managing infectious diseases in the cervid industry. It contains guidelines and recommendations to assist cervid producers in minimizing infectious disease risks and in developing farm-specific biosecurity plans. It is a resource to create awareness, to educate, to provide a common understanding of biosecurity practices and to serve as a guide for continuous industry improvement. The standard recognizes the importance of the cervid industry in Canada and signifies an ongoing commitment by industry and government to protect the health and welfare of farmed cervids. The standard is also intended to serve as a resource to guide industry and government programming in biosecurity, and to complement existing disease management, animal welfare, and food safety programs and practices. This document is not intended to be adopted by federal, provincial, or territorial governments to be used for law or regulation.

1.4 Process for development of the standard

Under Growing Forward (2009-2013), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) provided funding to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) to develop and approve, in collaboration with industry, National Farm-Level Biosecurity Standards for priority agri-commodities as prioritized by a Federal, Provincial and Territory (FPT) Committee of biosecurity officials. These included beef, dairy, equine sheep, goats, mink, bees, potatoes, and grains and oilseeds. National Standards also currently exist for the avian and swine sectors. Under Growing Forward 2 (2013-2018), the CFIA continues the development of National Farm-Level Biosecurity Standards for prioritized commodities which includes the cervid industry, along with the equine, fruit & tree nut, and the greenhouse, nursery & floriculture sectors.

The National Cervid Farm-Level Biosecurity Standard was developed through a coordinated set of activities over several years:

  • The Canadian Cervid Alliance, (CCA) after being approached by the CFIA, agreed to partner with the Agency in the development of a National Farm-Level Biosecurity Standard;
  • The formation of a biosecurity advisory committee of industry stakeholders/experts to guide the development process (see duties below);
  • A literature review and analysis of biosecurity gaps (relative to existing programming) to guide standard development;
  • The development of an outcomes-based biosecurity standard and a producer guide which provides more detailed information on how outcomes may be achieved;
  • Consultation and refinement of the standard and guide with industry stakeholders on and through the biosecurity advisory committee to achieve finalized documents; and
  • Endorsement by the Canadian Cervid Alliance and the CFIA of the document as the National Farm-Level Biosecurity Standard for the Cervid Industry.

1.4.1 Role of the cervid biosecurity advisory committee (CerBAC)

The CerBAC guided the development of a National Farm-Level Biosecurity Standard and Producer Guide for the Cervid Industry. Committee members:

  • Participated in drafting the standard by representing the broad interests of their organization;
  • Identified biosecurity risks and challenges faced by the industry;
  • Advised on biosecurity programming and best practices;
  • Communicated with their organization to share knowledge and obtain feedback to ensure the standard is science-based, practical and addressed the risks and challenges faced by the industry;
  • Encouraged the adoption and implementation of biosecurity practices across the industry; and
  • Participated in conference calls and face-to-face meetings as required.

This standard represents a consensus amongst diverse stakeholder groups. Consensus results in a decision that everyone agrees advances cervid biosecurity but does not imply unanimous endorsement of every aspect of the standard.

1.4.2 Composition of the advisory committee

The CerBAC is comprised of stakeholders representing the broad scope of the cervid industry, including producers, industry associations, veterinarians, academia, and federal (CFIA and AAFC) and provincial governments (see Appendix 2 for CerBAC membership).

What the standard is and is not

The standard is The standard is not
Voluntary Mandatory
A set of risk-based management guidelines, addressing disease in a broad context, warranting thought and consideration in most cervid operations across Canada A list of "must-do(s)," designed for a specific disease, to be achieved regardless of regional and operational differences
Based upon target outcomes, each of which can be achieved in a variety of ways A prescriptive set of practices
Specific to biosecurity practices used by the Canadian cervid industry Taken from another sector or country, and re-designed for the Canadian cervid farming sector
Practical and science-based, developed with consideration for the transmission of infectious pathogens across the range of cervid production systems Idealistic, developed without consideration for the feasibility of implementation
A collaborative project, developed by producers, subject matter experts, advisory groups, and leaders in industry and government The work of one stakeholder

Chapter 2: Principles of disease transmission

Understanding the determinants of infectious disease is necessary for their prevention and control. Infectious diseases in cervids result from a complex interaction of three factors referred to as the disease triad:

  • An animal that is susceptible to disease (the host);
  • A pathogen such as a bacterium, virus, prion, fungus or parasite capable of causing disease (the agent); and
  • An opportunity for the host and agent to come into contact (the environment).
The disease triad

The disease triad. Description follows.

Description for The disease triad

The disease triad is represented by three circles that overlap in the centre of the image. The top circle represents Cervid (Host), the circle to the left represents Pathogen (Agent), the circle to the right represents Environment. In the centre where the three circles meet is a picture of a scale tipping towards the Pathogen (Agent) circle. The left corner of the image has text and an arrow pointing to the centre of the scale. The text reads: Disease may occur when a host, agent, and the environment combine and sufficient factors tip the balance resulting in disease. The right corner of the image has text and an arrow point to the Environment circle. This text reads: Other cervids and animals, the facility, food, water, soil, insects, equipment and humans.

Figure 1: The disease triad illustrates the relationship between a cervid (the host), a pathogen (the agent), and the environment. Disease may occur when a susceptible animal, a pathogen, and an environment favourable for disease development combine. There are many factors that influence whether disease will occur including the health of the animal, adequate nutrition, external stresses, the number of pathogens present and the ability of the pathogen to cause disease. No one element is responsible for the expression of the disease, but the 3 elements of presence of a pathogen, susceptible host and negative environmental factors combine and tip the scale to favour the expression of a disease. Understanding the elements necessary for disease to occur provides the ability to influence and manage their impact to minimize disease.

Tipping Points for Disease Expression

Tipping Points for Disease Expression. Description follows.

Description for Tipping Points for Disease Expression

The image has both a left and a right margin. Below the left margin is a title. The text reads: Impact on host by stressors (summation of agent and environment). To the left of the left margin is an arrow, that gets wider as it runs from the top to the point at the bottom. On the left margin is a scale from. From top to bottom the text reads: Negligible, Low, Medium, High.

Below the right margin is a title. The text reads: When disease is expressed. On the right margin is a scale. The text reads from top to bottom: Diseased, Healthy, Diseased is further divided, from top to bottom as Clinical Disease, Subclinical Disease. These are indicated by three vertical co-linear coloured line: red (clinical disease, top), yellow (sub-clinical disease, bottom) and green (healthy, bottom).

In the centre of the image is a triangle pointed upwards serving as a fulcrum on which is balanced a double ended red dotted arrow running from bottom left margin (High) to top right (Clinical Disease).

Figure 2: Tipping point for disease – The cumulative impact of potential stressors (such as exposure to a significant accumulation of a parasite in addition to poor nutrition, recent transport, or overcrowding) on an animal can overwhelm the animal's ability to resist infection resulting in disease. The disease may be sub-clinical (the animal is infected yet appears healthy) or clinical (the animal is infected and appears sick) depending on the degree of the impact of the stressors, characteristics of the disease agent and the health status of the animal prior to exposure).

There are many host, agent and environmental variables that influence whether an animal will become diseased. Infection prevention and control programs rely on approaches that target these environmental and host factors. Three broad approaches to the prevention and control of infectious diseases include:

  • Decreasing exposure of animals to pathogens: This is the most important approach; if contact between animals and pathogens is prevented, infection and resulting disease will not occur. Animals exposed to a pathogen may not become infected, or if infected may, or may not, show clinical signs of disease. There must be a sufficient number of viable organisms (an infectious dose) that can bypass the animal's defence systems and then multiply to cause disease. Many of the biosecurity practices focus on reducing exposure, including separating healthy animals from animals that are ill or of undetermined health (and therefore may be carrying a pathogen), minimizing contact between individuals or groups over fences and pens, and cleaning and disinfecting equipment. Maintaining stocking density at the appropriate level can reduce animal-to-animal contact, and contamination of feed, pens and pastures, thereby reducing the accumulation of pathogens. For certain diseases, this includes managing biological vectors such as insects and other pests.
  • Decreasing susceptibility of animals to disease: There are factors that can be managed to reduce susceptibility to disease including: providing proper nutrition, managing underlying disease, reducing stress, providing shelter, implementing effective parasite control, managing pain, and the appropriate use of antibiotics and other medications). There are other factors that affect an animal's susceptibility to disease that cannot be influenced to a significant degree: age, sex, genetics, and pregnancy.
  • Increasing resistance to disease: Vaccination is the primary method used to improve resistance to certain, specific infectious diseases.

Chapter 3: Overview and use of the biosecurity standard

3.1 How to use the biosecurity standard:

This document provides guidelines and recommendations that may be implemented. The complex and variable nature of the cervid industry, regional differences, and other factors prevent the development of one set of specific guidelines and recommendations that are optimal for all cervid species and production systems.

A Producer Planning Guide accompanies the National Standard. This Guide identifies additional details and biosecurity intervention measures for producers to consider as they work to implement the National Standard on their farms. The National Standard and the Producer Planning Guide work together to provide an integrated framework for use by cervid producers.

3.2 Overview of the structure of the biosecurity standard:

The National Standard consists of four sections, each relating to an on-farm biosecurity Principle.

  • Management of farm, facilities and equipment
  • Animal health management practices
  • Management of people
  • Written protocols and record-keeping

A general goal has been identified for each biosecurity principle. To support meeting the goals, target outcomes, organized by similar activities (strategies) have been developed to provide overall direction for reducing disease risks. The target outcome approach provides the flexibility for producers to design biosecurity plans that will work on their farms. Best practices for each target outcome provide practical guidance on how producers may achieve the desired result.

Chapter 4: The biosecurity standard

Principle 1: Management of farm, facilities and equipment

Goal: Minimize the effect that farm, facilities and equipment have as contributors to disease transmission.

Strategy 1.1: Assess the biosecurity risks of the area where the farm is located or to be located.

Target outcome:

Producers understand the risks of the areas they have chosen or are choosing for their farm and manage the risks appropriately.

Description:

The location of a farm can affect the risk of disease exposure, particularly the proximity to other farms raising similar species, other livestock operations, wild animal habitat and the presence of diseases that may affect the particular species that you are planning to raise. If constructing a new facility, areas that are less densely populated by cervids can reduce the risk of exposure to pathogens. However, in less densely populated livestock areas, access to veterinary services, feed suppliers and other farm services may be reduced. Assess your needs and balance the potential benefits of a location with the accessibility to farm services.

Best practices:
  • Determine, to the extent possible:
    • previous land use of the area; and
    • if land use includes previous or current livestock production, consider the risk of cervid pathogens diseases on neighboring premises and within that region.
  • Determine the proximity to potential sources of disease from other cervid and livestock producers, livestock auctions, renderers and deadstock operators to minimize potential disease exposure;
  • Construct new operations at a sufficient distance from other cervid farms and livestock farms to minimize potential disease spread;
  • Determine the proximity to veterinary clinics, feed and equipment suppliers; and
  • Consider the proximity to wild animal habitat.

Strategy 1.2: Assess and identify areas of risk on the farm

Target outcome:

Areas of risk on the farm are identified and managed to reduce risks.

Description:

Biosecurity plans are based on a risk assessment of the farm's operations, the people on the farm, providing service or visiting the farm facilities. An accepted approach to risk assessment is to consider the diseases of concern to the farm, and to document how those diseases are known to be transmitted. Then, identify where risk points exist in cervid operations, human activities, presence of known vectors such as pests, and facilities and how they are maintained. Risk points in this context are where disease pathogens could be transmitted, both directly to cervids and also indirectly to cervids via other means.

There are some areas on a farm and some activities that pose a greater potential risk of disease spread. Identifying these areas and activities allows practices to be implemented for reducing potential contamination to minimize opportunities for transmission to the herd during day-to-day activities. They allow the separation of areas requiring elevated biosecurity, for example locations where animals congregate or where treatments and handling procedures occur. Locations where pathogens may be present pose a higher risk; for example, isolation areas for sick animals or animals of undetermined health status.

Activities requiring a higher degree of biosecurity may include: breeding, vaccination, other proactive health treatments, and disease observation. If the areas are designed correctly, biosecurity practices can be implemented with minimal disruption to normal production activities.

Lower-risk areas include facilities that support animal production or are indirectly involved in animal production (for example areas where service providers and farm workers circulate, laneways, parking areas, and equipment sheds). It may also include pastures not currently occupied with animals, depending on history of use.

The layout and management practices of individual farms help to decide whether deadstock handling, production waste (for example manure), and other aspects should be managed as higher or lower risk areas.

Best practices:
  • Locate high-risk areas away from higher traffic areas and potential sources of contamination such as manure and deadstock storage/disposal areas;
  • Manage the flow of traffic to minimize cross-contamination between areas of higher and lower risk;
  • Avoid overcrowding animals;
  • Display biosecurity signage, particularly at areas of higher risk, advising it is an area of limited access and additional biosecurity procedures may be required;
  • Schedule activities in a sequence that will minimize disease transmission by people, equipment, vehicles, and materials, and move from younger to older and then sick animals during routine care; and
  • Establish controlled access points, such as gates or doors, and provide the necessary equipment for implementing the required biosecurity measures.

Strategy 1.3: Create a diagram of the farm layout

Target outcome:

A farm diagram is used to illustrate farm layout, infrastructure and risk areas.

Description:

The use of a map or diagram of the farm layout is recommended to facilitate disease risk management. In addition to farm layout and infrastructure, the diagram can highlight areas of specific activity (or activities) where cervids of different disease susceptibility might be exposed to one another; where people, tools, equipment and vehicles might come in contact with cervids; and where pathogens might be present in the facility.

Best practices:

Identify the following areas on a farm diagram:

  • Property boundaries, fence lines, neighbouring livestock and wild animal habitat if present;
  • Entrances to the property, other access points, gates, barriers, and the location of signage;
  • Parking areas, driveways, lanes, and walkways;
  • Home area;
  • Farm buildings including animal shelters, equipment sheds, and farm office;
  • Animal handling areas, loading and unloading facilities;
  • Pastures, pens and isolation areas;
  • Housing and pasture areas for other farm animals;
  • Storage areas for feed, bedding, deadstock and/or compost, wells and other water sources;
  • Receiving and shipping area(s);
  • Location of utilities and resource right of ways and fuel delivery/storage; and
  • Traffic flows for the movements of vehicles, equipment, people and animals as appropriate (for example pasture rotation).

Strategy 1.4: Clean and disinfect facilities, equipment and vehicles

Target outcome:

Cleaning and disinfection methods that are effective in reducing the risk of disease transmission are established and are used for facilities, equipment and vehicles entering, exiting and on the farm.

Description:

Cleaning and disinfection are important activities to minimize the accumulation of pathogens and reduce the risk of disease transmission. Clean the handling facilities, pen areas, feeders, waterers, equipment and vehicles as necessary to remove organic material that can harbour disease pathogens or other contaminants; and disinfect as required to eliminate pathogens.

It is important that facilities be designed to facilitate cleaning and disinfection, and consideration is given to using materials and equipment that can readily be disinfected.

Best practices:
  • Implement a cleaning and disinfection plan for pathogen control on vehicles, equipment, tools and environmental surfaces. Establish cleaning and disinfection protocols and a schedule for cleaning and disinfecting the farm or facility. Common contact surfaces for animals are especially important;
  • Clean and disinfect facilities, equipment and trailers prior to using for new animals, young animals and following illness in the herd; and
  • Clean and disinfect equipment used for invasive procedures between animals.

Strategy 1.5: Design and maintain facilities to reduce disease risks

Target outcome:
Facilities are designed and maintained in good repair to reduce access by pests, facilitate cleaning and disinfection, and reduce the accumulation of pathogens and populations of pests. Considerations for biosecurity should be included when selecting a location and designing or renovating facilities.
Description:

Facilities, including buildings, barns, chutes, fences, and pens, are not generally the means of introducing disease to the herd. Nevertheless, their involvement may lie in the persistent transfer of disease within a herd, where they are repeatedly used to shelter or process cervids, some of which may have disease. Thus, keeping facilities clean helps reduce the possible transfer of disease within a herd.

Best practices:
  • Maintain surfaces in good condition, especially those that cervids can come into direct contact with;
  • Keep feed and bedding storage areas secure;
  • Consider disease risks and the ability to implement biosecurity when selecting locations for either establishing a cervid farm and/or when managing existing operations; and
  • Facility design should always include the consideration of reducing potential injury and stress, especially during handling procedures.

Strategy 1.6: Reduce risk posed by equipment and vehicles

Target outcome:

Vehicle and equipment access to and movement within the farm premises is managed to reduce the risk of disease transmission.

Description:

Vehicles, including cars, trucks, and trailers can serve as mechanical vectors for pathogen and pest transmission, often over long distances. Farm equipment such as quads, feed carts and tools can spread disease within the farm. Service providers such as feed suppliers and livestock transporters often travel between farm premises, and often there is little opportunity to clean and disinfect between sites. These risks can be managed by knowing vehicle use patterns, scheduling deliveries and implementing other biosecurity practices on and off site.

Best practices:
Entering and exiting the farm
  • Limit the unnecessary access of vehicles to the property;
  • Determine the potential risk posed by service vehicles and restrict access of vehicles including feed deliveries, contractors and other suppliers to lower risk areas where contact with animals will not occur;
  • Designate parking areas outside of animal production areas and use farm dedicated transport vehicles;
  • Clean and disinfect vehicles and equipment entering high risk areas; and
  • Minimize access of deadstock and manure haulers to non-production areas where contact with animals and feed is unlikely to occur.
On farm
  • Schedule farm activities such as feeding and the movement of feed carts, quads and other tools from lower risk to higher risk areas (from healthy calves to sick calves).
  • Dedicate equipment and tools for use only with sick animals.

Strategy 1.7: Manage manure

Target outcome:

Accumulations of manure, particularly in winter housing, and around feeding and watering areas are regularly removed and moved in a manner that limits exposure to the herd. Manure is managed and disposed of to reduce the opportunity for the build-up of pathogen and pest populations and potential contamination of production areas and pastures. Dedicated tools and equipment are used for manure handling, or cleaned and disinfected, prior to other uses.

Description:

Many important pathogens (viral, bacterial, e.g. Necrobacillosis, Johne's bacilli and prion e.g. CWD) and parasites are shed in cervid manure, and may be an important source of environmental contamination. The degree of risk posed by pathogens in manure may be greater in intensive management situations, where manure may more readily accumulate and is also protected from natural degradation by weather elements.

Manure that is brought on to the farm from other sources for use as fertilizer also poses a risk.

Best practices:
  • Minimize accumulations of manure and exposure to fecal parasites by managing pasture and production areas; and
  • Isolate manure storage areas from possible contact with cervids.

Strategy 1.8: Manage feed, water and bedding

Target outcome:

Management practices are in place to ensure that feed, water, and bedding are of sufficient quantity and quality, and mitigation measures are in place to reduce the risk by pathogens and pests.

Description:

Feed, water, and bedding (where used) may all pose a risk of introduction of disease. Obtain inputs from safe and reliable sources and protect them from contamination by pathogen and pests when on farm. There may be circumstances, however, in which the safety, reliability, or efficacy of certain inputs may be beyond a producer's control. For example, water may be contaminated by animals (domestic or wild) or other factors, on a seasonal basis or as a result of a specific event.

Producers should observe and be aware of these situations and the resulting risk. Producers can then choose to manage the resultant risk through a range of practices that may include alternate sourcing of inputs, increased monitoring, and vaccination.

Best practices:
  • Provide water from the cleanest source available;
  • Protect surface water sources from contamination and test the water supply if there are concerns to herd health;
  • Consider the grazing history/land use of forage and feed sources;
  • Consider the source and potential risk of grain screenings prior to using as a feed source;
  • Obtain feed from suppliers with protocols to ensure raw materials are harvested, stored, and transported in a manner that mitigates contamination from pathogens and pests and disease spread;
  • Obtain feed ingredients supplements and concentrates from companies with quality control programs;
  • Use feed bunks to minimize contamination of feed and supplements and accumulations of feed that may attract other livestock and pests;
  • Clean feed bunks and water troughs (where used) regularly; and
  • Protect stored feed, harvested feed and supplements from contamination by pests, manure and from spoilage.

Strategy 1.9: Manage deadstock

Target outcome:

Deadstock, unless anthrax is suspected, are removed immediately from livestock rearing areas and moved in a manner that limits cross-contamination with the herd. Aborted material and other tissues are managed as deadstock. The deadstock disposal area is located away from the production area and is secured against domestic and wild animals. Disposal respects local regulations and is done in a manner that limits disease exposure to the herd.

Description:

Preventing direct and indirect contact with deadstock is an important means of controlling disease. Deadstock and aborted fetuses may be associated with the presence of disease. Therefore, efforts should be made to determine the underlying cause. Post-mortem examinations and disease investigations should be conducted when an immediate cause of death or abortion is not readily apparent.

Where reportable and immediately notifiable diseases are a concern, such as anthrax, contact your veterinarian and the appropriate government authorities.

Disposal by natural means is allowed in certain provinces on range or pasture, and is subject to conditions. Other means available for disposing of livestock may include burying, composting, burning, and rendering.

Best practices:
  • Regularly check for deadstock;
  • Remove deadstock as soon as possible from contact with the herd to a deadstock disposal area or temporarily limit access to until disposal;
  • Determine the underlying cause of death;
  • Dispose of deadstock in a manner that prevents contamination of feed and water sources and that prevents access to animals and pests;
  • If deadstock is picked up by a disposal service, restrict access to the property and ensure the service provider maintains a safe distance from the herd and contact with feed and other materials;
  • After using equipment for deadstock disposal, clean and, in some cases, disinfect prior to other uses; and
  • Inactivate potential disease agents in deadstock through composting or other approved methods.

Principle 2: Animal health management practices

Goal: Maximize the health, well-being and productivity of the herd by implementing a herd health program, managing cervid movements and minimizing contact with other animals.

Strategy 2.1: Sourcing cervids

Target outcome:

Animals are sourced from suppliers with herds of known health status or the health status of new animals aligns with the resident herd.

Description:

New animals pose a significant risk for the introduction of disease to resident cervids and premises. It is important to note that animals may be sub-clinically infected which means they appear healthy yet are carrying a pathogen. Measures can be taken to reduce this risk (for example: testing for diseases and veterinary health exams prior to arrival), however, some infected animals may not be identified depending on the tests used and/or the stage of infection.

Best practices:
  • Consider the use of semen and embryos for introducing new genetics as they pose the lowest risk of introducing pathogens;
  • Purchase herd additions from a limited number of suppliers with a known herd health status that is equal to or greater than the resident herd;
  • Know the historical health status of the premises from which animals are purchased;
  • When purchasing animals at sales or auctions, where the possibility of commingling with animals of lesser or undetermined health status occurs, additional emphasis on biosecurity will need to be placed at the home location; and
  • Obtain and review health records for all new animals and consider veterinary certification. Ensure there is a known origin, documented history and proper identification for all new animals and genetics.

Strategy 2.2: Separate herd additions and returning cervids of undetermined health status from the resident herd (Isolation)

Target outcome:

Animals brought onto the farm (herd additions and returning animals) are separated from the resident herd and isolated until their disease status has been determined or is resolved.

Description:

Separating animals that are of undetermined health status or known to be ill from the resident herd to manage disease risks is an important disease control and prevention strategy referred to as isolation.

Isolation includes preventing direct contact between these animals and the resident herd and minimizing indirect contact with potentially contaminated equipment, clothing, and other materials on the site. During the period of isolation, the health status of the animals is monitored and vaccinations, parasite control and other treatments can be administered to bring the incoming animals to the same health status as the resident herd.

There are a number of factors that influence the length of the isolation period—consult your veterinarian to determine an appropriate length of time. The isolation period normally recommended is longer than the time frame for clinical signs to develop following exposure to the diseases of concern. For many diseases, the isolation period should be at least two to three times the length of the incubation period of the diseases of concern.

When animals are determined to be healthy and/or of equivalent health to the resident herd, they can be released from isolation to join the resident herd.

The stress of segregating animals can create both health and welfare issues. When a lone animal is acquired, a modified isolation whereby a healthy or resident animal is placed with the lone animal can reduce the stress of separation. While this increases the risk of disease exposure to one animal, the resident herd is protected and animal welfare is improved. An animal of similar age, species and size should be selected as a herd-mate during this period. Additional considerations for modified isolation must be made during the rutting period.

Best practices:
  • Establish requirements and protocols for animal isolation;
  • Designate isolation areas for incoming animals. Ensure they are separated from animal shelters, pens and the areas used for the routine care and treatment of the resident herd;
  • Isolate new and returning animals until their health status is determined to be equivalent to the resident herd;
  • Consider the use of modified isolation. Note: the companion animal must remain in the modified isolation for the full duration;
  • Monitor the health status of animals daily and maintain records;
  • Assess the risks posed by the new or returning animals (in consultation with your veterinarian) and administer vaccinations and other treatments or diagnostic procedures as necessary;
  • For new and returning animals, implement a parasite control and monitoring program to minimize the parasite burden, contamination of housing areas and pastures and subsequent exposure of resident animals;
  • When performing regular duties in your operation, always visit animals in isolation after visiting healthy animals;
  • Dedicate equipment, tools, clothing and footwear to isolation areas or clean and disinfect after use;
  • Control access to isolation areas and minimize contact with these animals; and
  • Provide care for animals in isolation, including health monitoring, feeding, bedding etc. after caring for the resident herd.

Strategy 2.3: Minimize contact with other livestock, domestic animals and pests

Target outcome:

Cervid farms are managed to maintain habitat for many desirable species of flora and fauna while minimizing disease risks. Cervids in the resident herd are housed, moved and pastured in such a manner that the risk of contact with other livestock and domestic animals of undetermined health status and pests is minimized. An integrated pest control program should be maintained.

Description:

All animals can be a source of pathogens and transmit them within their own populations and to other animal populations. Certain pathogens and pests have the potential to accumulate in the environment and increase the risk of disease in farmed herds.

Contact between different animal populations (domestic or wild) due to inadequate or broken fencing and gates is a significant concern for the transmission of pathogens.

Best practices:
Fencing
  • Enclose the property with clearly visible perimeter fencing capable of preventing the escape of cervids and the entry of domestic and wild animals to the extent practical;
  • Consider enhanced/alternate fencing options in higher risk regions or areas on farms;
  • Consider creating a pass-through at access points with a two-gate system to minimize the opportunity of animals escaping;
  • Routinely inspect the integrity of fences and gates and repair as needed to prevent commingling;
  • Use interior fencing to establish isolation areas, treatment pens, alleyways and corridors for moving and directing animals and people on the property; and
  • Fence feed and standing water sources to minimize access by pests.
Pests
  • Discourage insects and pests by reducing sources of attractants and habitat for them; and
  • Monitor rodent and insect activity. Use rodent and insect bait stations and traps when necessary.

Strategy 2.4: Develop and implement a herd health program

Target outcome:

A herd health program is implemented, and serves as the basis for monitoring herd health and proactively identifying and minimizing the risk of disease transmission. The program describes the health regimens and practices used for daily care and disease prevention and control.

Description:

Many producers already have established routines and procedures for managing the health of their herds, however, depending on the size and structure of the operation, written protocols may not be present. It is recommended that a herd health program be developed in consultation with a veterinarian or other technical and industry specialists to address the specific needs of the operation. A herd health program provides a consistent approach to manage and achieve high herd health while maintaining a focus on the producer’s goals. The use of written documents facilitates consistency, review and training of staff. The herd health program addresses preventive elements such as the provision of high quality food and water, vaccination, parasite control protocols and veterinary care as required. Reactive components of a herd health program address the identification of and response to disease situations.

Best practices:

Components of a herd health program should include:

  • Premises identification and individual cervid identification;
  • Monitoring health:
    • observing and monitoring the health status of the herd
    • diagnostic testing for assessing health status (e.g. serological testing) and post-mortem examinations for unexplained or increased mortality
  • Maintaining animal health:
    • vaccination programs to control or prevent disease prior to or after entry of animals to the herd;
    • treatment should always be conducted under the consultation and supervision of a veterinarian;
    • the proper storage and disposal of veterinary medications and vaccines;
    • parasite control programs including pasture management and the use of medication (deworming: the type of product, timing interval, and monitoring by routine testing); and
    • use medications as per directions; proper use can reduce opportunities for the development of antimicrobial and anti-parasitic drug resistance.
  • Responding to disease:
    • identifying ill health and procedures for response. This may include separation (isolation) of cervids with infectious disease or undetermined disease status (see Strategy 2.5);
    • treatment protocols for common ailments as appropriate. These protocols will include drug withdrawal periods for meat slaughter; and
    • euthanasia protocols for sick animals and/or when animal welfare is compromised.
  • Management of the herd health plan:
    • annual review of the plan including identifying changes in disease status and risk of disease;
    • review of goals for animal health and productivity measures, and monitoring of those measures. For example: mortality rates; reproductive measures, growth rates; and
    • annual staff training and review of recognition of disease, and protocols for treating disease, including when to contact the herd veterinarian.

Strategy 2.5: Manage and treat sick animals

Target outcome:

Animals showing signs of disease may be treated within the herd or moved into an isolation area away from the healthy herd and treated as necessary.

Description:

Management of sick animals may include treatment within the herd, separation (isolation) from the herd and treatment as necessary, or euthanized if recovery is unlikely.

Treatment within the herd may be used for certain cervid species and diseases when separation may result in adverse outcomes and the risk of disease spread is believed to be minimal.

Isolation for sick animals involves preventing direct contact between these animals and the healthy herd and minimizing indirect contact from potentially contaminated equipment, clothing, and other materials on the site. During the period of isolation, the health status of the animals is monitored, diagnostic measures may be taken, and appropriate treatments can be implemented.

There are a number of factors that influence the length of the isolation period—consult your veterinarian to determine an appropriate time period. The objective of isolation is to achieve both a resolution of clinical illness and to minimize the potential for disease transmission. When the animal is deemed to no longer pose a health risk and/or is of equivalent health status, it can return to the general population.

The stress of segregating animals can create health and welfare issues; considerations for this must be taken into account. When a lone animal has been identified as being sick, a modified isolation whereby a healthy or resident animal is placed with the lone animal can reduce the stress of separation. While this increases the risk of disease exposure to one animal, the resident herd is protected and animal welfare is improved. A compatible animal should be selected as a pen mate. Additional considerations for modified isolations must be made during the rutting period.

Sick animals may be an indication of a larger herd health issue.

Best practices:
  • Monitor the health status of animals daily and maintain records;
  • Identify and treat sick animals;
  • Establish requirements and protocols for animal treatment including isolation;
  • If an isolation area is used:
    • ensure it is separated from animal shelter areas, pens and the areas used by staff for the routine care and treatment of the resident herd;
    • upon the detection of a sick animal, isolate until their health status is determined to be equivalent to the resident herd;
    • consider the use of modified isolations; note: the sick and companion animal must remain in isolation until their health is determined and they do not pose a risk to the herd; and
    • treat and manage animals in isolation by scheduling the care and handling of these animals after caring and handling the general herd;
  • Clean and disinfect equipment and tools following use with isolated animals or dedicate equipment and tools to their care; and
  • Apply personal hygiene measures as appropriate to both protect yourself and prevent transmission out of isolation.

Strategy 2.6: Develop a response plan for disease outbreaks

Target outcome:

A disease response plan is developed and implemented to guide response activities when disease is suspected, identified or there is deterioration in health status. The plan should identify triggers for activating the response plan, requirements for enhanced biosecurity and, if warranted, self-imposed whole farm isolation procedures (biocontainment).

Description:

The Standard is focused on prevention of infection—those practices that can be adopted to reduce the risks of disease occurrence in farmed cervids. However, it is important that producers also have a farm-based plan for response to a disease outbreak or the suspicion of an outbreak on their farm or in their region.

A response plan is a pre-determined set of actions and conditions that are enacted when one or more occurrences, called "trigger points", are observed. The trigger points are an early warning that a disease may exist. The plan will include:

  • Identification of potential trigger points;
  • Initial response actions; and
  • Additional biosecurity protocols to be initiated under specific circumstances.
Best practices:

The response plan should be readily accessible.

In developing such a plan, producers will need to identify the types of disease emergencies that may require a response. These "trigger points" may include:

  • An outbreak of a commonly encountered disease that:
    • affects a higher than normal number of animals;
    • results in severe clinical signs of disease or reduced productivity;
    • is associated with higher than normal mortality rates; or
    • is presenting in an unusual manner.
  • An occurrence of a disease not previously encountered within your operation;
  • Any suspicion or confirmation of a notifiable /reportable (provincially or federally) disease on your operation or a neighbouring farm; or
  • Any suspicion or confirmation of a provincially or federally reportable disease on a farm that you have acquired animals from shared equipment or had other contact with.

An initial response may include:

  • Observing and recording animal health clinical signs, herd health status and gathering herd health and medical records;
  • Contacting a veterinarian to obtain a diagnosis and treatment plan;
  • Notifying staff and family members of the health situation;
  • Following the advice of your veterinarian, depending on the disease suspected or identified, there may be a need to notify a broader group (cervid producers, neighbours, service providers, government); and
  • Temporarily halting all movements of animals on and off the site and enhancing biosecurity measures. The duration of the movement restrictions will vary depending on the nature of the disease incident.

Additional or enhanced biosecurity measures may include:

  • Isolating affected animals from the resident herd, and;
  • Restricting access to the isolated animals;
  • Caring for isolated animals last, after tending to all other animals;
  • Dedicating equipment and staff to care of isolated animals, or
  • Cleaning and disinfecting equipment and changing outer clothes, cleaning and disinfecting hands and footwear prior to contact with other animals;
  • Identifying other potentially exposed animals;
  • Increasing the frequency of animal health monitoring as appropriate; and
  • Halting the movement of all equipment, materials and people on and off the site until a tentative diagnosis and instructions have been obtained from a veterinarian.

Principle 3: Management of people

Goal: Minimize the potential risk posed by all farm visitors and farm personnel, through the establishment of protocols, training and communication.

Strategy 3.1: Train farm workers in biosecurity

Target outcome:

All farm workers and family members are trained in and consistently implement the farm's biosecurity practices. The farm biosecurity protocol is communicated to visitors and service providers and they comply with it.

Description:

The success of biosecurity plans requires the involvement and cooperation of family members and farm workers. They all need to understand and be regularly trained in the specific biosecurity protocols that guide their activities on the farm.

Farm service providers need to be informed of the practices established for the farms they service, both to ensure that they can carry them out and so that they can accommodate them within their own operational and biosecurity practices.

Best practices:
  • Ensure staff are trained in the biosecurity practices of your farm. This may include one-on-one training, group sessions and on-the-job demonstrations; and
  • Consider obtaining information and assistance from subject specialists (veterinarians and university extension personnel) and other sources (internet).

Strategy 3.2: Determine the risks posed by people

Target outcome:

The potential risks posed by visitors and farm personnel for disease transmission are determined.

Description:

The movements of people can spread pathogens onto, within and off of your farm. Clothing, footwear and skin that may be contaminated with pathogens and pests can pose a risk to livestock. It is recommended that producers consider the potential risk of all people entering the farm—family members, farm workers, service providers and visitors—and implement measures to manage the risks.

The potential risk posed by people can be determined by considering:

  • Which pathogens/pests they may be carrying—consider previous livestock and farm contact and the biosecurity practices employed; and
  • Opportunities for pathogen transmission to cervids on your farm—consider the area of the farm they will be accessing, particularly contact with animals.

People with recent livestock contact that will be coming into direct contact with animals pose a higher risk than those without recent livestock contact who will not be coming into contact with the animals.

Best practices:
  • Determine the purpose of their visit and areas of the property they need to access, particularly the degree of contact with animals (domestic and wild);
  • Determine what equipment or supplies people may be bringing onto the farm;
  • Determine recent contact with livestock, agricultural premises, or any other circumstance that may pose a biosecurity risk. The level of biosecurity required is partially dependent on previous contacts; and
  • Considerations should include clothing changes, dedicated footwear or cleaned and disinfected footwear and hand washing prior to entry or contact with animals.

Strategy 3.3: Develop and implement risk management practices for all people entering the farm

Target outcome:

People working on, providing service to or visiting the farm are guided by defined risk management practices.

Description:

The biosecurity practices implemented for and by visitors, including service providers, is determined by producers. These practices need to be communicated to visitors. Some visitors and service providers are "biosecurity aware" but many are not.

All people entering the farm should be aware of the risk of their visit and activities while there. They should know and understand the biosecurity practices that are consistent with that risk determination, including the areas into which they are permitted to go.

The risk of each individual, based on where he/she is permitted to go on the farm, will determine the biosecurity practices that will be needed upon entry onto the farm and into the production area.

Best practices:
  • Discuss with visitors prior to arrival about their movement and contact history, and communicate your biosecurity precautions;
  • Schedule visits to ensure qualified staff are available to manage access, reiterate biosecurity precautions, confirm any pre-arrival arrangements (e.g. vehicle washing, clothing changes scheduling of previous sites visited) and escort visitors;
  • Implement a combination of restrictions to access, and the requirement for cleanliness (footwear, clothing, clean hands and personal care) as the basic arsenal for visitors and service providers;
  • Apply a higher level of biosecurity for anyone approaching and/or in direct contact with (touching/handling) the animals, and higher again for those approaching and/or in direct contact with isolated or sick animals;
  • Consider the risks posed by foreign visitors/returning travellers, especially those who have had potential contact with livestock and other animals (domestic or wild);
  • Pre-determined practices/protocols can be designed that apply to each of these classes of risk. Signs and information can be situated at boundaries, on building and pen entries and on special-risk pens to advise visitors what their limits to access are, and when to apply the higher-level practices; and
  • Escort visitors to help ensure that they are following the recommended biosecurity practices.

Strategy 3.4: Manage zoonotic disease risks

Target outcome:

Family members, farm workers, visitors and service providers understand the risks posed by zoonotic diseases and take precautions to protect themselves, other people and animals.

Description:

All livestock may carry pathogens/pests that can be transmitted to, and cause disease in humans. Some of these pathogens/pests may not cause clinical disease in the animals themselves. The risk of such transmission must be communicated to family, staff, and visitors and arrangements made for providing the biosecurity measures, practices and precautions including the necessary equipment.

Some zoonotic diseases are classified as reportable and/or notifiable at the federal or provincial level, and the relevant authorities must be informed.

Note: Animal/human disease traffic is not just one way; human diseases may also be transmitted to animals.

Best Practices:
  • Advise family, staff and visitors of the potential risks of handling live animals, deadstock, manure and other materials;
  • Provide opportunities for handwashing;
  • Wear personal protective clothing such as gloves, coveralls, mask as appropriate;
  • Advise relevant authorities if a reportable/notifiable disease is suspected; and
  • Consult a physician/veterinarian for advice.

Principle 4: Protocols and record-keeping

Goal: Establish protocols and maintain records to facilitate managing, improving and validating the biosecurity program, and health status of the herd.

Strategy 4.1: Protocols for animal health and farm management practices

Target outcome:

Important biosecurity protocols are readily available to staff, family and service providers as needed, to facilitate reference, training, review and consistent implementation.

Description:

Biosecurity protocols allow for ready reference and periodic review, facilitates training, and helps ensure consistency of application. Biosecurity protocols should be updated when there are changes in procedures. Documents should be readily accessible by staff.

Best practices:
  • It is recommended that written farm specific protocols be developed for important biosecurity activities:
  • Written protocols should include, but may not be limited to:
    • biosecurity plan, including farm map;
    • herd health plan;
    • farm management protocols; and
    • emergency farm management plan.
  • Both hardcopies and electronic copies can be beneficial;
  • Protocols should be readily available;
  • If changes are made to protocols, ensure all copies are amended; and
  • Documents should indicate both the date produced and the author.

Strategy 4.2: Herd and individual animal health records

Target outcome:

Herd health and individual animal health records are maintained and reviewed to ensure optimum health and productivity of the herd.

Description:

Animal health records provide more accurate data and enhance the ability to identify disease trends, review previous health issues, and determine the success/failure of treatments within the herd health programs. Records of health events and diagnostic test results are used to initiate interventions and changes to the herd health program, and are important to support herd health status when purchasing or selling animals.

Best practices:
  • Maintain herd health records including morbidity and mortality, and management practices such as vaccinations, parasite treatments and herd health testing;
  • Maintain health records for individual animals including illnesses, diagnostic tests, diagnoses and treatments. Treatment records should include treatment date, type of medication, dose, prescribing veterinarian, route of administration and withdrawal time if applicable;
  • Ensure animals are uniquely identified and records of animal movements (purchases and sales) and health can be linked to each animal; and
  • For some types of operations, maintain records of birth and weaning weights, carcass yield and antler harvest.

Strategy 4.3: Farm management records

Target outcome:
Records of farm management activities including biosecurity measures, are maintained and reviewed.
Description:

Important farm management activities should be recorded. Farm records assist in managing the day-to-day activities on the farm (including the details of specific tasks, who was assigned the task and if the task was completed), as well as help to inform management decisions.

Best practices:

Maintain and review the following farm management records:

  • When cleaning and disinfection of the facility, equipment and other items was performed and how it was conducted including location and the type of disinfectant used;
  • Livestock and pest control activities;
  • Deadstock disposal and manure collection (where applicable);
  • Feed and supplement purchases; and
  • Other biosecurity practices on the farm such as visitor access (i.e. visitor logs) and biosecurity breaches.

Ongoing analysis of these records allows producers to determine whether all required biosecurity activities are being followed and whether there are gaps to address. In addition, biosecurity records and animal health records can be reviewed together to understand whether biosecurity practices have contributed to changes in animal health on the farm.

Strategy 4.4: Education and training activities

Target outcome:

Records of education and training of farm workers are maintained and reviewed to ensure they have the requisite knowledge and skills to successfully conduct their duties.

Description:

Records of education and training assist in ensuring staff have the current knowledge to conduct the farm biosecurity practices.

Best practices:
  • Record and review staff education and training activities on a regular basis; and
  • Review staff education and training records following changes in procedures and when there are changes in the health status of the herd to determine if knowledge and training may have contributed to the change.

Chapter 5: Developing a farm biosecurity plan

Steps in developing a farm specific biosecurity plan

Developing a farm or facility biosecurity plan involves achieving the right balance between disease risk and prevention. Biosecurity can substantially reduce disease risks; however, producers will need to evaluate the expected benefits (such as improved health, productivity and welfare) against the feasibility and costs of implementation, and the impacts associated with the disease occurring.

Step 1: Review management practices (Assess /Plan)

Most animal care and management practices pose a risk for introducing and spreading disease whether it is daily feeding or less frequent service calls.

Step 2: Identify biosecurity goals and best practices (Plan)

Using the biosecurity standard and guide, identify biosecurity goals and best practices that can be implemented to address the biosecurity gaps.

Step 3: Develop a strategy to implement the plan (Implement)

While all biosecurity risks need to be addressed, some will be more critical than others. Prioritize the biosecurity tasks and establish a timeline for their completion identifying short term and long term goals.

Step 4: Review the effectiveness of the biosecurity plan and continuous improvement (Monitor)

The effectiveness of the biosecurity plan is measured by the adoption of its biosecurity practices, their integration into daily routines and the impact to the health status of cervids on the property. When necessary, improvements to the biosecurity plan are designed and implemented.

Appendix 1: Glossary

Biosecurity:
A set of practices used to minimize the presence of pests and the transmission of pathogens in animal and plant populations including their introduction (bio-exclusion), spread within the populations (bio-management), and release (bio-containment).
Cervid:
Pertaining to, or a member of the family Cervidae (the deer family). Species farmed in Canada include elk, red deer, white-tailed deer, fallow deer, sika deer, mule deer, reindeer and moose.
Cleaning:
The physical removal of organic material from a surface. It includes dry cleaning (scraping, brushing, wiping), a wet cleaning procedure (washing the surface with water and a detergent, soap, enzyme or other chemical) and drying of surfaces. It precedes disinfection.
Commingling:
The mixing of groups of animals of the same species or between animals of a different species.
Composted/ Composting:
Is the actively managed process of aerobic decomposition of organic material, primarily by microbes into humus.
Cross-contamination:
The distribution of potentially infectious material from one animal to another, or between facilities, equipment or vehicles by animals, people or things.
Direct contact:
Close physical contact between animals including nose-to-nose, social interaction or breeding.
Disinfectant:
A chemical applied to surfaces to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms.
Disinfection:
The application of a physical or chemical process to a surface for the purpose of destroying micro-organisms.
Emerging disease:
A new disease or syndrome that occurs from the evolution or change of an existing pathogen or parasite resulting in a change of host range, vector, pathogenicity or strain; or the occurrence of a previously unrecognized infection or disease.
Endemic disease:
Is the constant presence of disease or infectious agent in a specific population or area. In animals, it is sometimes referred to as enzootic disease.
Indirect contact:
Transmission of a pathogen that occurs without directly coming into contact with the source (for example: transferring or a pathogen via an aerosol or contaminated object).
Infection:
The invasion and multiplication or reproduction of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, prions and parasites in the tissues of a living animal.
Infectious disease:
Disease caused by pathogens (e.g. parasites, bacteria, viruses, fungi or prions).
Isolation:
the strategy of segregating animals, new or returning animals, and animals that are known to be ill from the resident herd or the general population for a specified time period to ensure an inapparent or subclinical disease/pathogen is not introduced into the resident herd or population.
Morbidity:
Illness or disease; a measure of the frequency of a disease or illness in a population.
Mortality:
Is the measure of the number of deaths in a population.
Outbreak:
The occurrence of more cases of disease than expected in a population of animals.
Pathogen:
Any disease producing agent or microorganism including but not limited to bacteria, fungi, viruses, prion and parasites.
Pest:
Is an organism (plant, animal—domestic or wild—fungus, bacteria etc.), that injures, irritates or damages livestock or crops or poses a risk for the transmission of disease.
Post-mortem examination:
A medical procedure conducted on an animal carcass to determine the cause of death and/or the presence of other physical changes, injuries and/or diseases.
Reportable/ Notifiable diseases:
May be provincial or federal requirements for the reporting of diseases outlined in their animal disease legislation. For additional information, contact the appropriate authorities.
Risk:
The chance of an unfavourable event occurring that affects animal and/or human health.
Risk assessment:
The process of evaluating the potential risk a pathogen and/or organism has of causing an unfavourable event that affects animal health/productivity and/or human health and the impact of the event.
Sub-clinical infection:
When an animal is infected with a pathogen without showing clinical signs of disease. May occur early in infection (during the incubation period) or with a very mild form, or following clinical disease. Sub-clinically infected animals may shed pathogens/pests and pose a risk of transmission.
Vector:
An organism such as a mosquito, fly, flea, tick, rodent, animal or person that transmits pathogens from an infected host (a deer or elk) to another animal. A biological vector is one in which the pathogen develops or multiplies in the vector’s body before becoming infective to the recipient animal. A mechanical vector is one which transmits an infective organism from one host to another but which is not essential to the life cycle of the pathogen.
Zoonotic disease:
A disease that can be shared between animals and humans.

Appendix 2: Membership of the cervid biosecurity advisory committee (CerBAC)

Representative Organization
Glenda Elkow Canadian Cervid Alliance
Alberta elk producer
Ian Thorleifson Canadian Cervid Alliance
Manitoba elk producer
Herman Bulten Canadian Cervid Alliance
Alberta elk and reindeer producer
Connie Seutter President, Canadian Cervid Alliance
Alberta elk producer
Shelley Lefler Canadian Cervid Alliance
Ontario white-tailed deer producer
Mark Hebert Canadian Cervid Alliance
Quebec elk producer
Gaétan Lehoux Canadian Cervid Alliance
Quebec red deer producer
Harvey Petracek Canadian Cervid Alliance
Saskatchewan elk producer
Allen Morhart Canadian Cervid Alliance
Saskatchewan white-tailed deer producer
Randy Wehrkamp Canadian Cervid Alliance
Saskatchewan elk producer
Blaine Weber Canadian Cervid Alliance
Saskatchewan elk producer, Norelkco
Robert Boos Canadian Cervid Alliance
Alberta elk Producer
Trevor Farmer Canadian Cervid Alliance
Manitoba elk producer
Travis Lowe North American Elk Breeders
Canadian Cervid Alliance
Dr. Michel Lemire Private Veterinary Practitioner
Quebec
Dr. Bob Wright Private veterinary practitioner
Ontario
Dr. Martin Wenkoff Private veterinary practitioner
Alberta
Dr. Murray Woodbury Western College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Saskatchewan
Dr. Hernan Ortegon
Dr. Ana Ulmer-Franco
Government of Alberta
Dr. Betty Althouse Government of Saskatchewan
Dr. Cathy Furness
Dr. Paul Innes
Government of Ontario
Sarah-Claude Vanlandeghem
Dr. Chantal Proulx
Dr. Isabelle McKenzie
Olivier Paquet
Government of Quebec
Diane Blandford Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Dr. Daniel Schwartz Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Animal Welfare, Biosecurity and Assurance Programs
Dr. Lorne Jordan Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Animal Welfare, Biosecurity and Assurance Programs
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