National Cervid Farm-Level Biosecurity Standard
Appendix 1: Glossary

Biosecurity:
A set of practices used to minimize the presence of pests and the transmission of pathogens in animal and plant populations including their introduction (bio-exclusion), spread within the populations (bio-management), and release (bio-containment).
Cervid:
Pertaining to, or a member of the family Cervidae (the deer family). Species farmed in Canada include elk, red deer, white-tailed deer, fallow deer, sika deer, mule deer, reindeer and moose.
Cleaning:
The physical removal of organic material from a surface. It includes dry cleaning (scraping, brushing, wiping), a wet cleaning procedure (washing the surface with water and a detergent, soap, enzyme or other chemical) and drying of surfaces. It precedes disinfection.
Commingling:
The mixing of groups of animals of the same species or between animals of a different species.
Composted/ Composting:
Is the actively managed process of aerobic decomposition of organic material, primarily by microbes into humus.
Cross-contamination:
The distribution of potentially infectious material from one animal to another, or between facilities, equipment or vehicles by animals, people or things.
Direct contact:
Close physical contact between animals including nose-to-nose, social interaction or breeding.
Disinfectant:
A chemical applied to surfaces to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms.
Disinfection:
The application of a physical or chemical process to a surface for the purpose of destroying micro-organisms.
Emerging disease:
A new disease or syndrome that occurs from the evolution or change of an existing pathogen or parasite resulting in a change of host range, vector, pathogenicity or strain; or the occurrence of a previously unrecognized infection or disease.
Endemic disease:
Is the constant presence of disease or infectious agent in a specific population or area. In animals, it is sometimes referred to as enzootic disease.
Indirect contact:
Transmission of a pathogen that occurs without directly coming into contact with the source (for example: transferring or a pathogen via an aerosol or contaminated object).
Infection:
The invasion and multiplication or reproduction of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, prions and parasites in the tissues of a living animal.
Infectious disease:
Disease caused by pathogens (e.g. parasites, bacteria, viruses, fungi or prions).
Isolation:
the strategy of segregating animals, new or returning animals, and animals that are known to be ill from the resident herd or the general population for a specified time period to ensure an inapparent or subclinical disease/pathogen is not introduced into the resident herd or population.
Morbidity:
Illness or disease; a measure of the frequency of a disease or illness in a population.
Mortality:
Is the measure of the number of deaths in a population.
Outbreak:
The occurrence of more cases of disease than expected in a population of animals.
Pathogen:
Any disease producing agent or microorganism including but not limited to bacteria, fungi, viruses, prion and parasites.
Pest:
Is an organism (plant, animal—domestic or wild—fungus, bacteria etc.), that injures, irritates or damages livestock or crops or poses a risk for the transmission of disease.
Post-mortem examination:
A medical procedure conducted on an animal carcass to determine the cause of death and/or the presence of other physical changes, injuries and/or diseases.
Reportable/ Notifiable diseases:
May be provincial or federal requirements for the reporting of diseases outlined in their animal disease legislation. For additional information, contact the appropriate authorities.
Risk:
The chance of an unfavourable event occurring that affects animal and/or human health.
Risk assessment:
The process of evaluating the potential risk a pathogen and/or organism has of causing an unfavourable event that affects animal health/productivity and/or human health and the impact of the event.
Sub-clinical infection:
When an animal is infected with a pathogen without showing clinical signs of disease. May occur early in infection (during the incubation period) or with a very mild form, or following clinical disease. Sub-clinically infected animals may shed pathogens/pests and pose a risk of transmission.
Vector:
An organism such as a mosquito, fly, flea, tick, rodent, animal or person that transmits pathogens from an infected host (a deer or elk) to another animal. A biological vector is one in which the pathogen develops or multiplies in the vector’s body before becoming infective to the recipient animal. A mechanical vector is one which transmits an infective organism from one host to another but which is not essential to the life cycle of the pathogen.
Zoonotic disease:
A disease that can be shared between animals and humans.
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