General Producer Guide - National Avian On-Farm Biosecurity Standard
Glossary

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Access point: A visually defined entry point(s) through which all traffic, such as workers, equipment, feed trucks, etc., will enter the CAZ and/or the RAZ.

Additional Biosecurity Measures: A level of biosecurity to be practised to mitigate situations where recommended practices cannot be followed. For example, where an "all in/all out" system is impossible (as in the case of a multi-age premises), additional biosecurity measures should be practised.

Anteroom: A room or area of a building which immediately precedes the restricted access zone (RAZ), providing a transition area from the controlled access zone (CAZ).

Approved: When used in reference to chemicals, such as rodenticides, it means approved by the appropriate regulatory authority for the specific usage mentioned in the text.

Beneficial practice: A management practice, technique or technology that, when adopted, results in improvement and increased sustainability of the operation.

Biosecurity program: A risk reduction program that conforms to Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) national standards and which is designed to prevent and control the introduction and spread of pathogens.

Clean: Free of any visible accumulation of organic matter and debris or other residues.

Complex: A collection of buildings and/or outdoor ranges that is or may be used directly for production.

Controlled access point: A visually defined entry point(s) through which all traffic, such as workers, equipment, feed trucks, etc., will enter the CAZ and/or the RAZ. It includes a transition area where procedures designed to minimize the spread of pathogens can occur.

Controlled Access Zone (CAZ): The area of land and buildings constituting the poultry production area of the premises that is accessible through a securable controlled access point. It excludes any residence and any other outbuildings that are not directly related to poultry production (e.g. machine sheds, storage sheds, workshops, etc.).

Debris: Any material that may be capable of harbouring disease-causing organisms or pests such as discarded equipment or machinery, manure, dead birds or parts of dead birds, egg white, egg yolk, egg shells, feathers and soil.

Disease response plan: A predetermined set of steps that is followed in the case of a significant disease occurrence. This response may be at the premises level by the production people, at the provincial level by the industry or provincial ministry, or at the national level in the case of reportable disease.

Disinfection: The application of a physical or chemical process to a surface for the purpose of destroying or inhibiting the activity of disease-causing micro-organisms.

Disposal (carcasses): Final removal of a bird carcass from the premises (by means of serviced rendering collection, composting, incineration, or burial).

Downtime: A period of time between flocks, starting with a barn being emptied of birds and ending with the placement of new birds. It allows for the natural reduction in numbers of disease-causing micro-organisms within the barn. The effective period can be reduced by cleaning at the beginning of the period.

Endemic Diseases: Diseases that are regularly reoccurring or whose causative agent is constantly present with a region or population.

Enhanced Biosecurity: At times when a disease outbreak is suspected on the premises or has been identified in the vicinity, additional biosecurity measures may be required, and increased emphasis placed on existing biosecurity procedures.

Essential Visitors: Any person required to enter the RAZ, other than personnel concerned with day-to-day poultry production on the premises. Visitors include veterinarians, service and delivery people, suppliers, and regulators.

Exotic Diseases: Infectious diseases that normally do not occur in the region, either because they have never been present there or because they were eradicated and then kept out by government control measures or agricultural practices.

Facility: Synonymous with "premises" (see below). May be used to refer to production areas on a premises.

Flock: A group of poultry managed as a distinct population.

Flock Area: Area or range that (outdoor) poultry occupy.

Fomite: Any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms. This may include but is not limited to equipment, farm vehicles and articles of clothing or shoes.

Isolation (or "segregation"): The status or practice of a bird, birds, or flock being kept physically separate from others (including direct and indirect contact). Usually performed for sick or returning animals.

Non-Essential Visitors: People and their equipment who do not require access to the CAZ and RAZ. These include, but are not limited to, guests, friends, and family.

Non-Premises Vehicles: Vehicles (cars, trucks, tractors, etc.) not owned or operated by the premises and not designated to the premises.

Pathogens: Biological agents, such as a bacteria or virus, that have the potential to cause diseases.

Potable: Suitable for drinking.

Poultry: All birds reared or kept in captivity for breeding, the production of eggs or meat for consumption, for production of other commercial products, for restocking supplies of game birds, or for breeding these categories of birds.

Poultry barn: Any structure that encloses poultry flocks, including sheds, runs, etc.

Premises (facility): A parcel of land with a continuous property boundary and defined by a legal land description or, in its absence, by geo-referenced coordinates, on which or on any part of which poultry are grown, kept, assembled, or disposed of.

Premises Vehicles: Vehicles (cars, trucks, tractors, etc.) owned and operated by the premises and primarily designated to the premises.

Producer Guidance: Examples and beneficial practices to facilitate achievement of the Standard.

Protocols: Effectively a code of conduct, defined procedure to be followed.

Range: A RAZ, allowing birds to roam freely within the confines of a perimeter.

Rendering: Using an off-farm service for the pickup and disposal of mortalities.

Reportable Disease: A disease that must be immediately reported to the CFIA. Reportable diseases in poultry are avian influenza, virulent/exotic Newcastle disease, pullorum disease (Salmonella pullorum), and fowl typhoid (Salmonella gallinarum). These diseases are sometimes referred to as "foreign animal diseases."

Restricted Access Zone (RAZ): An area inside the CAZ that is used, or intended to be used, to house poultry, including semi-confined and range production, and where personnel and equipment access is more restricted than within the CAZ. The RAZ is sometimes also referred to as the "production area" or "restricted area" (RA) in other poultry production documents and guides.

Spiking Males: Sexually mature male poultry introduced into a breeding flock to maintain fertility by boosting mating frequency.

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP): Documented procedure based on generally accepted good practices that describe in detail the steps followed to meet an objective (for example, a SOP that details the barn cleaning and disinfection procedure).

Storage (carcasses): Temporary placement of bird carcasses into a sealable, leakproof container until disposal.

Target Outcome: The goal that all keepers of poultry, regardless of the size of their flock, should aim for to protect their flocks from the introduction and spread of avian diseases.

Transition Area: An area where biosecurity procedures can occur for movement between the CAZ and the RAZ.

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