National Farm-Level Biosecurity Standard for the Goat Industry
Appendix B: Examples of Modes of Disease Transmission

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Table 1 provides examples of goat diseases, and illustrates some of the various modes of disease transmission. Biosecurity practices may be implemented in order to minimize the risk of disease introduction and spread. Zoonoses are also identified in order to illustrate the risk of disease transmission to humans.
Disease Mode(s) of Transmission Clinical Signs Zoonoses?
Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE) (CAE virus) Colostrum and milk
Aerosol
Body fluids
Equipment contaminated with milk or blood
Dam to fetus (rare)
Adults: chronic wasting, enlarged painful joints, mastitis, progressive pneumonia
Kids: weakness, paralysis, depression
Asymptomatic carriers
No
Caseous lymphadenitis
(Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis)
Direct goat-to-goat contact
Contaminated equipment (shears) and environment (feed, water, and bedding); survival in environment can be prolonged
Aerosol (if abscesses in lungs)
Milk and colostrum (if abscesses in mammary glands)
Abscesses (usually external, but internal possible)
Internal abscesses can lead to other clinical signs, depending on location 
Asymptomatic carriers
Yes
Chlamydiosis/ Ovine enzootic abortion
(Chlamydophila abortus)
Direct contact with aborted material (placenta, fetus) or vaginal secretions
Contaminated environment
Semen
Abortion
Asymptomatic carriers
Yes
Johne's disease/ paratuberculosis
(Mycobacterium paratuberculosis subsp. avium)
Ingestion of feces or material contaminated with feces (milk, feed); can survive in environment for months to years
Colostrum and milk
Chronic progressive wasting
Asymptomatic carriers
No
Q fever
(Coxiella burnetii)
Direct contact with birth material (placenta, aborted fetus, fluids), vaginal secretions
Aerosol
Contaminated environment; can survive in environment for months to years
Semen
Abortion Yes
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