National Farm - Level Mink Biosecurity Standard - Producers' Guide
Appendix A - National Farm-Level Biosecurity Standard Glossary

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Access point:
A visually defined entry point(s) through which traffic, such as farm staff, equipment, and delivery trucks will enter the premises, the CAZ. and/or the RAZ.
Additional biosecurity measures:
A level of biosecurity required for mitigating situations wherein recommended practices cannot be followed (i.e. recommended may be an all in/all out system). Where this is impossible, as for a multi-age premises, implement extra biosecurity precautions.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR):

Refers to both natural and synthetic substances such as antibiotics and disinfectants that can kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. AMR occurs when an antimicrobial substance, or agent, is no longer effective in killing or inhibiting the growth of a particular microorganism. Antimicrobial substances are widely used in human and veterinary medicine for the treatment and prevention of microbial infections and are used for feed efficiency and to promote growth in animals in the agri-food industry.

The probability of an organism developing resistance increases with the length of exposure time to an antimicrobial agent. Bacterial strains can develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Resistant bacterial strains survive and reproduce, transferring resistance to future generations and possibly to other microorganisms.

Approved:
When used in reference to chemicals such as pesticides, the term means approved by the appropriate regulatory authority for the specific usage mentioned in the text.
Best practice:
A management practice, technique, or technology that, when adopted, results in improvement and increased sustainability of the operation.
Biosecurity program:
A set of preventive measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of microbial pathogens or infectious diseases. Biosecurity programs are intended to minimize the introduction and spread of pathogens or diseases to, or from, farms by implementing on-farm practices for access, animal health, and operational management.
Carcass:
The remains of mink harvested for pelts. (Refer also to dead mink.)
Carrier:
Mink or other animals that carry a pathogen without clinical signs with the ability to transmit the pathogen to other animals.
Clean:
Free of any visible accumulation of organic matter and debris.
Controlled access point (CAP):
A visually defined entry point with a restrictive barrier to control entry of traffic, such as farm staff, equipment, and feed trucks that will enter the premises, the controlled access zone (CAZ) and/or the restricted access zone (RAZ). It contains a transition area (TA) where procedures designed to minimize microbial pathogen spread can occur.
Controlled access zone (CAZ):
The area of land and buildings constituting the mink production area of the premises that is accessible through a securable controlled access point.
Dead mink:
Mink that are found dead or are euthanized for a medical condition. (Refer also to carcass.)
Debris:
Any material that may be capable of harbouring disease-causing organisms or pests such as discarded equipment, building material or machinery, manure, discarded bedding, dead mink, and soil.
DIN:
A drug identification number that is provided by Health Canada to products (drugs) following the successful registration process. Disinfectants are regulated by Health Canada and considered drugs – approved disinfectants in Canada will have a DIN on their label.
Disinfection:
The application of a physical or chemical process to a surface for the purpose of destroying or inhibiting the activity of disease-causing micro-organisms.
Disposal (carcasses and dead mink):
The final removal of mink carcasses and dead mink by means approved by the appropriate regulatory authorities; examples of approved methods may include rendering, composting, incineration, or burial.
Downtime:
A period of time when a shed or area within a shed is empty, starting with a shed or area being emptied of mink and ending with the placement of mink into the shed or area. It allows for the natural reduction in numbers of disease-causing micro-organisms within the shed area. The effective period can be reduced by cleaning at the beginning of the period.
Essential visitors:
Service personnel who enter the controlled access zone (CAZ) and/or restricted access zone (RAZ), other than personnel concerned with day-to-day mink production on the premises. Essential visitors include veterinarians, service and delivery people, suppliers, and regulators.
Feed kitchen:
An on-farm facility that is used for producing mink feed and that may supply multiple mink producers.
Feral cats:
Cats (Felis catus – domestic housecat) that have reverted to living in a wild state.
Feral mink:
Escaped mink or mink descended from farmed mink that are now living in the wild.
Gate:
A moveable barrier used to control access to an area such as a fence to close a gap or across a laneway to restrict entry.
Hand sanitation station:
A sink, or hose or tap with water and hand soap for washing hands or a container provided for the dispensing of a hand sanitizer, such as alcohol-based hand-sanitation products.
Herd:
A group of mink managed as a distinct population.
Infected mink:
Mink that have acquired a pathogen.
Infection:
Entry and development or multiplication of an infectious agent in the body of mink, humans, or other animals and birds.
Isolation:
The practice of keeping mink physically separate from other mink – a practice that is usually performed for new, recaptured, or sick mink. The isolation period may be temporary or permanent.
Lockdown: Lockdown
is established to prevent the escape of a disease from the farm or to limit a disease from entering the farm. In times of disease emergencies or disease outbreaks, a farm may restrict access to the farm premises by closing and locking gates, or by placing barricades to stop vehicles, locking doors to the CAZ and RAZ, and disallowing any visitors to the farm. Only necessary deliveries would be allowed onto the farm, with complete sanitation of delivery vehicles entering and exiting from the farm.
Microbial pathogens:
Biological agents, such as a bacteria (including mycoplasmas), viruses, fungi, or protozoa that have the potential to cause disease.
Mink:
All farmed mink reared or kept in captivity for breeding, the production of fur, or to supply breeding mink.
Mink shed:
Any structure that encloses mink for fur-farming purposes.
Non-essential visitors:
People and their equipment that do not require access to the CAZ and RAZ. These include, but are not limited to, guests, friends, and family.
Notifiable disease:
A disease that is required by law to be reported to a federal or provincial regulatory authority.
On-farm:
Pertaining to activities carried out on the farm.
Pathogen:
An agent capable of causing disease.
Pest:
Any insect, animal (excluding companion animals), or bird that may potentially come in contact with farmed mink that is undesirable, due to the risks of the transmission of microbial pathogens.
Potable:
Water that is suitable for human consumption, meeting the requirements of the Canadian Drinking Water Standards.
Premises:
A parcel of land with a continuous property boundary and defined by a legal land description or, in its absence, by geo-referenced coordinates, on which, or on any part of which, farmed mink are raised, kept, assembled, or disposed of. Interchangeable with the terms farm or farm site.
Producer guidance:
Examples and best practices to facilitate achievement of the standard.
Protocols:
Effectively a code of conduct, defined procedure to be followed.
Reportable disease:
Animal diseases identified under federal and provincial Acts and Regulations, which are controlled or regulated to prevent their spread.
Reputable breeder and/or suppliers:
The ability to substantiate the characteristics and quality of their production system (i.e. verifiable quality assurance). When purchasing live animals, consider the validation of health status, herd health history, and test results to support health status.
Restricted access zone (RAZ):
An area inside the CAZ that is used, or intended for use, to house mink, including fenced shed areas or enclosed sheds, and where personnel and equipment access is more restricted than in the CAZ. The RAZ is sometimes referred to as the production area or restricted area (RA) in other mink production documents and guides.
Sanitation procedures:
Procedures to reduce the number, infectivity, and survivability of microbial pathogens to promote health. This may be achieved by thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces such as equipment, pens, and boots, or by applying personal hygiene such as handwashing or hand sanitizers.
Sanitation station:
A designated area outside the CAZ or RAZ where vehicles and equipment can be washed and disinfected. The station would be equipped to provide water for washing and to dispense detergent and disinfectant for the cleaning and disinfection (C&D) process.
Security fence:
A permanent barrier that is used to enclose an area, such as a CAZ or RAZ, to control entry or exit. It is also known as a perimeter fence or guard fence.
Shed:
Any structure that encloses mink.
Shed area:
Fenced or unfenced area that mink sheds occupy.
Standard operating procedure (SOP):
Documented procedure based on generally accepted good practices that describe in detail the steps followed to meet an objective; for example, a SOP that details the shed cleaning and disinfection procedure.
Target outcome:
The goal that all keepers of mink aim for to protect their mink from the introduction and spread of disease.
Transition area (TA):
An area where biosecurity procedures can occur for movement between the farm-site entry area (parking), CAZ , and RAZ.
Unconsumed feed:
Leftover feed, or feed distributed to mink, that remains uneaten during the feeding period and is still of acceptable quality.
Vector:
Any living carrier that has the potential to transport an infectious agent from an infected individual to a susceptible individual, its food, or immediate surroundings.
Verify:
Refers to the confirmation, through the provision of objective evidence, that specified requirements have been fulfilled.
Zone:
A defined geographical area with boundaries and implemented biosecurity procedures that create a defined health status.
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