The National Sheep Producer Biosecurity Planning Guide
2 Developing your Biosecurity Plan

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Securing a farm is about knowing the risks of disease transmission and the ways in which animals can be exposed to disease, and taking steps to minimize those risks. Prevention through biosecurity is the most cost-effective protection from animal diseases. Building or updating your biosecurity plan will involve reviewing your current practices, farm layout and facilities to identify where gaps in your disease prevention might occur in order to adopt practices that will reduce those risks.

The information provided in the following sections is broken down into 4 main categories, referred to as Principles:

1. Animal Health Management Practices
activities that are directly related to your sheep and how they are handled, including health practices.
2. Record Keeping
information that needs to be recorded, reviewed and used so that your biosecurity plan can be integrated into your farm management practices.
3. Farm, Facilities and Equipment
activities that are directly related to your farm layout, buildings, pens and storage areas, and the tools and equipment you use on farm.
4. People
activities that are directly related to your family, farm workers, service providers and visitors of all kinds.

You will find that these Principles are used to categorize the practices and resource materials throughout the Guide, and will be used to help you work your way through the preparation of a plan.

In Section 2.3 of the Guide you will find a set of checklists, one for each Principle that you can use to assess your current biosecurity practices and identify any gaps you might have. The Guide also contains resource materials that will help you make decisions about what to include in your plan and how to carry it out.

When you are ready to review your current biosecurity plan, or to begin developing a plan for your sheep operation, use the following steps:

  1. Choose a Principle
  2. Fill out the self assessment checklist for that Principle
  3. If any topics or practices are new to you or if you need information, refer to the section(s) identified in the checklist
  4. Identify possible gaps in your biosecurity practices
  5. Develop a biosecurity plan for that Principle by preparing protocols for each of the risk management practices you select for your plan. Risk management practices are listed for each Principle in Sections 3 to 6.

As a plan section is prepared for each Principle, repeat the cycle until all four Principles have been reviewed and a full plan is prepared.

Producers who have an ongoing relationship with a flock veterinarian are encouraged to work together with him/her in developing a biosecurity plan. Additionally, other specialists and advisers may be useful; a list of such resources is provided in Appendix 2.

2.1 Diseases of Concern

The first step in preparing a biosecurity plan is to identify and understand the diseases of concern for your farm. Knowing and understanding the diseases of concern for your farm and assessing where the risks of disease transmission are likely to be will help you decide which biosecurity practices to include in your plan and determine the results you should expect.

When identifying diseases of concern for your farm, it will help to become familiar with the diseases that are prevalent in the sheep industry in Canada and in your region.

Diseases that might be a concern on sheep farms in Canada are included in the following table. Enter in the column to the right whether each is of Low, Moderate or High importance on your farm. The table is not intended to list all diseases of sheep; rather it includes those that could have a sizable impact on a sheep farm, and those that could occur in Canada. You are encouraged to read through the list and learn about any you may not be familiar with. Then you can indicate your level of concern about managing the disease or keeping it off your farm in the column on the right side of the chart. Also, there is room at the bottom of the chart for you to add diseases that are not listed in the chart and that you are concerned about. These entries will be useful as you consider adding risk management practices to your biosecurity plan that are targeted on the diseases of concern for your operation.

Infectious Causes of Abortion
Disease Category / Name Zoonotic (Yes(Y) / No(N)) Other Susceptible Species Sources of infection to sheep Your need to exclude/manage (L-M-H)

Campylobacter jejuni & C. fetus fetus

Y

Birds

Manure, feces, birth products, carrion birds, contaminated lambing grounds. Shed in feces of carrier ewes.

Chlamydophila abortus (formerly Chlamydia psittaci)

Y

Goats, llamas, alpacas

Birth products; contaminated pasture, bedding; sexual transmission from ram; carrier ewes. Invades through mucous membranes (mouth, eyes, genital) and causes abortion at next pregnancy.

Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)

Y

All animals; goats, cattle, cats, dogs

Birth products and fluids and feces; can be spread as an aerosol either from lambing ewes or dried bedding / manure. Also shed in milk.

Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis)

Y

Goats

Oocysts (eggs) shed in the feces of cats (usually kittens) from eating infected mice or sheep placenta. Cat feces contaminate feed (grain, forage) and pasture. Mice serve as a reservoir of infection for the cats.  Mice eat infected placenta.

Border Disease (Hairy Shakers)

N

Cattle, goats

The virus is very similar to Bovine Virus Diarrhoea virus (BVDV). Persistently infected (PI) sheep or cattle shed the virus in feces, urine, and saliva contaminating the environment and infect naïve pregnant ewes causing abortion or birth of PI lambs.

Infectious Diseases of Young Lambs
Disease Category / Name Zoonotic (Yes(Y) / No(N)) Other Susceptible Species Sources of infection to sheep Your need to exclude/manage (L-M-H)

Neonatal diarrhea (rota/ coronavirus, enteropathogenic E coli)

N

Kids, calves, crias

Shed in feces of sheep but build up in environment until the infectious load in lamb rearing area is high enough to cause significant disease in lambs < 2 weeks of age.

Neonatal diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidia

Y

Kids, calves, crias

The oocysts (eggs) of this protozoal parasite are shed in the feces and contaminate the lambing, and lamb rearing environment. If a sufficient load, cause disease in lambs 2 days to 6 weeks of age. The oocysts are very long-lived.

Pulpy Kidney / Enterotoxemia (Clostridium perfringens type D)

N

Goats

The bacterial spores are shed in feces and contaminate the ground and feed. If the animal lacks immunity and the feed source is rich (lush pasture, heavy grain), the ingested spores will grow in the gut producing a toxin which rapidly kills the lamb (sudden death in otherwise healthy lambs). The spores are very long-lived.

Coccidiosis (Eimeria ovinoidalis, Eimeria crandallis)

N

None

The oocysts (eggs) shed in the feces of infected lambs and recovered adults will build up in the environment (barn, drylot, pasture) until load is high enough to cause disease in lambs 3 weeks to 6 months of age. Fecal contamination of feed is associated with more severe levels of disease. The oocysts are very long-lived.

Pneumonia

N

Goats

These bacteria normally inhabit the throat of healthy sheep (Mannheimia haemolytica, Mycoplasma ovipneumonia). Environmental stresses (crowding, ammonia from wet bedding, temperature fluctuations, humidity, mixing of groups, etc), will allow severe disease to occur.

Orf / Soremouth / Contagious Ecthyma (parapox virus)

Y

Goats, llamas, alpacas

The virus lives in scabs which drop off and contaminate the pens, feeders, wool. The virus can live for months to years in a dry environment. Some animals remain chronically infected (e.g. polls of rams) and serve as reservoirs of infection.

Salmonellosis

Y

All animals

Rodent and bird feces contaminate feed. Diarrhea from infected animals contaminate environment.

Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasites

N

Goats, llamas, alpacas

(Haemonchus, Teladorsagia, Trichostrongylus, Nematodirus). Eggs passed in feces of infected animals contaminate grazing pastures. Introduced animals can bring in new infections and anthelmintic resistant parasites.

Anthelmintic resistant (AR) GIN parasites

N

Goats, llamas, alpacas

Failure to kill GIN parasites after deworming due to the parasite's resistance to that dewormer is an emerging problem. Inappropriate deworming practices can cause this resistance. AR tends to develop more rapidly in goats making their presence a particular risk. New introductions are also a risk for bringing AR parasites onto a farm.

Chronic Wasting Diseases of Adult Sheep (Thin Ewe Syndrome)
Disease Category / Name Zoonotic (Yes(Y) / No(N)) Other Susceptible Species Sources of infection to sheep Your need to exclude/manage (L-M-H)

Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) (Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis)

Unknown

Goats, cattle, deer, llamas, alpacas

Bacteria shed in feces, colostrum, and milk infect lambs when ingested. Bacteria are long-lived and contaminate the environment, including the teats of nursing ewes. Shedding animals may not have symptoms of disease for several years. Also is transmitted from dam to the lamb while in the womb.

Scrapie

N

Goats

Infected ewes will shed in birth fluids and placenta at lambing if offspring is genetically susceptible. The prions contaminate the lambing grounds and infect other susceptible lambs and sheep. Also shed in milk and urine. Prions are very persistent in the environment.

Caseous lymphadenitis; CL;CLA (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis)

N

Goats, llamas, alpacas

The bacteria from abscesses can survive for days (water), weeks (feed) to months (soil, feeders, shearing equipment). It invades through skin, and cuts in the oral cavity. The bacteria come from broken abscesses and from the lungs when abscess material is coughed up - contaminating pasture and feed.

Maedi visna (Ovine Progressive Pneumonia)

N

Goats

The virus is shed in respiratory secretions which can be aerosolized, and in colostrum, and milk. The virus infects sheep of any age through the mucous membranes (respiratory tract, digestive tract, conjunctiva, semen and in the womb). 

Lameness Caused by Infectious Organisms
Disease Category / Name Zoonotic (Yes(Y) / No(N)) Other Susceptible Species Sources of infection to sheep Your need to exclude/manage (L-M-H)

Foot scald

N

Goats

The bacteria (Fusobacterium necrophorum) are ubiquitous in the environment. Dirty, wet, traumatic conditions (wet, muddy pasture, yards or pens) will cause invasion of the soft tissues between the toes with this bacteria.

Footrot

N

Goats

The bacteria (Dichelobacter nodosus) cannot live off the sheep's foot for more than a week but infected sheep contaminate pastures. Grazing sheep become infected when the bacteria are present and conditions are wet or dirty. Sheep can be carriers and may be lame or appear normal.

Infectious Neurological Diseases
Disease Category / Name Zoonotic (Yes(Y) / No(N)) Other Susceptible Species Sources of infection to sheep Your need to exclude/manage (L-M-H)

Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)

Y

Goats, cattle

Fecal-oral through silage and other feeds. The bacteria is shed in manure and found in rodents. It grows well in cool conditions in fecal contaminated wet feed at normal to high pH conditions. Also causes abortion and pink eye.

Rabies

Y

All domestic mammals. Fox, skunks, bats

Usually wildlife contact-most commonly fox and skunks. Unvaccinated farm cats and dogs pose a particular risk because of close contact with livestock and humans.

Tetanus (lockjaw)

Y

All animals

The spores can live for decades in the soil. An animal with a wound or kidding injury has the wound contaminated with spore containing soil. The bacteria grow in the wound and produce a toxin which is absorbed by the nerves.

Deer meningeal worm (Paralaphostrongylus tenuis)

N

Goats, llamas, alpacas

A parasite whose host is the deer and which cycles through land snails and slugs. Sheep become infected by inadvertently eating the infected snails and slugs. The parasite invades the central nervous system causing disease.

Infectious Diseases of the Skin and Eyes
Disease Category / Name Zoonotic (Yes(Y) / No(N)) Other Susceptible Species Sources of infection to sheep Your need to exclude/manage (L-M-H)

Pink eye (Mycoplasma conjunctivae & Chlamydophila pecorum)

N

Goats, not cattle

Sheep can be carriers of the bacteria, shed then in the lacrimal secretions so that when groups are mixed or new animals are introduced, outbreaks occur.

Chorioptic mange (Chorioptes bovis)

N

Goats, cattle, llamas, alpacas

Causes dermatitis usually on the pasterns and fetlocks but most importantly on the scrotum of rams-where the inflammation can cause sub-fertility. Transmission is by direct contact between animals and contaminated tools, equipment and bedding.

Biting and Sucking Lice

N

None

Nits (eggs) and lice are transmitted by direct contact between animals, contaminated tools, shearing equipment and bedding.

Keds

N

None

Ked eggs, pupae and adults are transmitted by direct contact between animals, contaminated tools, equipment and bedding.

Ringworm (Club Lamb Fungus)

Y

Goats, cattle

The fungus prefers dark moist conditions and is easily transmitted by direct contact, grooming tools and equipment, shared pens at shows. The spores are very long-lived.

Fly-Strike

Y

All animals

The green-bottle fly (Lucilia seracata) is attracted to decaying material and will lay its eggs on live animals that are wet or dirty. Animals with diarrhea, wounds, foot rot, long tails or wool are very susceptible to maggot infestation which causes illness and death. Poor management of deadstock may attract more flies.

Mastitis
Disease Category / Name Zoonotic (Yes(Y) / No(N)) Other Susceptible Species Sources of infection to sheep Your need to exclude/manage (L-M-H)

Staphylococcus mastitis (Staphylococcus aureus)

Y

All animals

The bacteria are commonly present in skin infections (including people). Can be transmitted through milking, lambs nursing, teat wounds, dirty hands, poor udder preparation for milk, lack of teat dipping.

Other infectious diseases of concern on your farm:
Disease Category / Name Zoonotic (Yes(Y) / No(N)) Other Susceptible Species Sources of infection to sheep Your need to exclude/manage (L-M-H)

Cysticercus ovis (sheep measles)

N

Goats

C. ovis is the intermediate stage of the dog tapeworm, Taenia ovis. The dog, or wild canid becomes infected from scavenging sheep carcasses or being fed uncooked sheep meat. The tapeworm eggs shed by the dog contaminate feed and pasture. The intermediate stage cysts are found in the meat of the sheep and cause carcass condemnation.

Fascioloides magna (deer fluke)

N

Wild deer in Manitoba and NW Ontario

This fluke has its adult stage in deer, and its intermediate (larval) stage in snails. The larval are inadvertently grazed by sheep-not the parasite's normal host. The adult fluke is very large and migrates through the liver, damaging blood vessels and causing the sheep to bleed to death internally. No eggs are passed by the sheep in the manure.

Some of the diseases listed in the chart are the subject of industry programs that may provide information and services to help with managing them. At the time of preparation of the Standard and the Guide, these include a national Voluntary Scrapie Flock Certification Program and a voluntary program to address maedi-visna in Ontario and Québec, Canadian Sheep and Lamb Food Safe Farm Practices Program and various flock health programs including the Western Canadian Flock Health Program in Saskatchewan and Alberta and the Ontario Sheep Health Program in Ontario. Contact your provincial sheep organization for these and other initiatives that may be underway or planned in your area.

2.2 Risk Assessment

Clearly identifying the risks specific to your sheep farm is a critical step in determining what biosecurity practices need to be included in the farm plan. Self-assessment checklists are provided in the following section, and can be used to ensure that all potential risks are considered on your farm.

In practice, identifying specific risks on your sheep farm combines the knowledge of how diseases of concern are transmitted from one animal to another or from fomites to sheep, and documenting all of the transmission points on your farm: 

  • Some diseases move by direct contact between animals, by physical contact and aerosol spread, and others are transmitted during breeding activities.
  • Some move by contact with feces, urine or other excretions/secretions, and can be transmitted by direct contact with these substances, or by indirect contact with contaminated equipment and tools or consumption of contaminated feed, water, bedding or other shared material.

2.3 Self-Assessment Checklists

Checklists are provided below for each of the four biosecurity Principles, and each is followed by a chart for you to record your thoughts about any gaps or improvements that you might have discovered in filling out the checklist. To use a checklist, place a check mark or a brief comment in one of the boxes to the right of each statement, and when you have completed the chart, review your responses to identify areas that are being handled well under your current practices, or topics that might require additional attention. The Section References column identifies the sub-section of the Guide in which you will find information and resource material about each practice.

2.3.1 Animal Health Management Practices

Self-evaluation Checklist
Biosecurity practices for animal health management Always/ frequently Some- times Never N/A Section References

The sheep needed to maintain and grow my flock are produced on my farm.

3.1.2

Artificial insemination is used to replace sheep and rams.

3.1.2

Embryo transfer is used to replace sheep and rams.

3.1.2

I purchase new sheep from a limited number of sources.

3.1.2

When I purchase new sheep, I know the health status of the individual animals and of the source flock.

3.1.2

My sheep purchases are supported by documentation on the health and disease status of the animals.

3.1.2; 3.2.1

When my sheep participate at a show or a fair, I take measures to reduce the risk of disease transmission from other sheep.

3.1.3; 3.3.2

When my sheep use common or community pastures I follow specific biosecurity protocols.

3.1.3

I avoid commingling my animals with animals from other farms during transportation.

3.1.2; 3.1.3; 3.1.5; 3.3.5

All newly-acquired sheep that are brought to my farm are isolated for a period of time determined by the specific diseases of concern for my farm.

3.1.1; 3.1.2; 3.3.1.; 3.3.2; 3.3.3

All sheep that return to my farm (e.g. after going to a show, and loaned sheep or rams) are isolated for a period of time determined by the specific diseases of concern for my farm.

3.1.1; 3.1.3; 3.3.1; 3.3.2; 3.3.3; 3.3.6

I have an isolation area.

3.1.2; 3.1.3; 3.1.4; 3.3.1; 3.3.3; 3.3.6

Sheep in an isolation area are monitored daily for signs of illness.

3.1.1; 3.1.4; 3.3.1; 3.3.3

Sheep in an isolation area do not have direct contact or indirect contact (feed, water, shared equipment) with my main flock.

3.1.4; 3.3.1; 3.3.3

Sheep in an isolation area are enclosed and sheltered and do not share common airspace with my main flock.

3.1.4; 3.3.1; 3.3.3

The equipment used for treatment, handling and other husbandry chores in the isolation area is only used for that purpose.

3.1.4; 3.3.1; 3.3.4; 3.3.6; 3.3.8; 3.3.9; 3.3.10

When the equipment used for treatment, handling and other husbandry chores in the isolation area is used for the main flock, the equipment is cleaned and disinfected between uses.

3.1.4; 3.3.2; 3.3.3; 3.3.4; 3.3.6; 3.3.8; 3.3.9; 3.3.10

Dedicated clothing and footwear are used when working with sheep in the isolation area.

3.1.4; 3.3.1; 3.3.8

My employees work with the main flock before handling sheep in the isolation area(s).

3.1.4; 3.3.3

I have a protocol in effect for releasing sheep from isolation. (Note: such a protocol may include testing, vaccinating or treating for diseases of concern.)

3.1.1; 3.1.4; 3.1.7; 3.3.1

More susceptible animals in the flock are separated from older and/or diseased animals.

3.1.5; 3.3.3

Separation of animals by susceptibility applies to sheep movement through the farm, handling order, and worker contact with the animals.

3.1.6; 3.3.3

I use a flock health program to manage disease on my farm.

3.1.1; 3.2.3

My flock health program includes written protocols for disease control measures (e.g. vaccination, parasite control, disease testing, biosecurity) to be followed during specific production activities.

3.1.1; 3.1.7; 3.2.3

I use written treatment protocols for the management of sick animals.

3.1.1; 3.2.1

I follow written protocols for the use of all prescribed drugs, including withdrawal times.

3.1.1; 3.2.1

I routinely inspect and maintain my facilities to avoid pest and predator invasion.

3.1.8

Pest and insect management is in place.

3.1.8

I follow a protocol to prevent contact between wildlife and my sheep.

3.1.8

I follow a health plan for the dogs on the farm (working, guardian and pet) that includes vaccination against rabies and treatment for tapeworms.

3.1.8; 3.1.9

Female cats are spayed to reduce the risk of toxoplasmosis

3.1.8

Based on the self evaluation:

  1. What animal health management gaps have I identified on my farm?
  2. What steps can I take to correct these gaps?

2.3.2 Record Keeping

Self-evaluation Checklist
Biosecurity practices for record keeping Always / frequently Some-times Never N/A Section Reference

I maintain farm records for my sheep operation that include health records for each individual animal in the flock.

3.1.1; 3.2.1

My farm records include production records for each sheep including reasons for death or culling.

3.2.1

My farm records include production records for the flock overall.

3.2.1

My farm records include all disease occurrences and their treatment.

3.1.1; 3.2.1

My farm records include a record of prophylactic treatments (e.g. deworming) and vaccinations.

3.1.1; 3.2.1

My farm records include a record of mortalities, necropsies and any laboratory results.

3.1.1; 3.2.1; 3.3.10

Biosecurity training of farm workers is maintained in employee or farm records.

3.2.2

My farm records can be used to provide health and disease records for individual animals and for the flock to potential purchasers of live sheep.

3.2.1

I maintain an emergency response plan for use in case of a disease outbreak on the farm or in the area.

3.2.3; 3.3.1

Based on the self evaluation:

  1. What record-keeping gaps have I identified on my farm?
  2. What steps can I take to correct these gaps?

2.3.3 Farm, Facilities and Equipment

Self-evaluation Checklist
Biosecurity practices for farm, facilities and equipment Always / frequently Some-times Never N/A Reference

I have a map or diagram of my farm that shows facilities, working areas, pastures and pathways.

3.3.1

Biosecurity zones on my farm are identified.

3.3.1; 3.3.5

I use signs at access control points to describe my biosecurity protocols.

3.3.1; 3.3.5

I provide a dedicated parking area for farm workers and visitors that is separate from animal management and housing areas.

3.3.1; 3.3.5; 3.4.3

I have perimeter fencing around my sheep operation.

3.1.5; 3.3.1

My farm has specified practices for cleaning and disinfection.

3.3.2; 3.3.5

My farm workers are familiar with the cleaning and disinfection processes on my farm.

3.2.2; 3.3.2; 3.3.4; 3.3.5

Perimeter and interior fencing on my farm is inspected and maintained

3.1.5;

Pens and other livestock areas on my farm are cleaned and disinfected when risk events (e.g. abortion outbreak) occur.

3.1.1; 3.3.2; 3.3.3

Specified risk areas on my farm (e.g. isolation areas for newly-introduced or sick sheep, etc.) are cleaned and disinfected after each use.

3.3.1; 3.3.2; 3.3.3

Barn facilities and pens on my farm are designed and laid out to facilitate good biosecurity practices.

3.3.1; 3.3.3

I provide dedicated equipment and tools for use in specific risk areas, such as the isolation area.

3.3.4; 3.3.6; 3.3.8

My equipment and tools are cleaned and disinfected between uses.

3.3.2; 3.3.4; 3.3.6; 3.3.8; 3.3.9; 3.3.10

Equipment and tools on my farm are identified for dedicated use (eg manure movement, feed handling).

3.3.3; 3.3.4; 3.3.6; 3.3.7; 3.3.8; 3.3.9; 3.3.10

Feeders and feeding areas are kept clean of manure, old feed and other contaminants.

3.3.2; 3.3.4; 3.3.7

Water bowls and water troughs are cleaned regularly.

3.3.2; 3.3.4; 3.3.7

Equipment used to move and handle deadstock is cleaned and disinfected immediately after each use.

3.3.2; 3.3.4; 3.3.10

Vehicles from my farm are used to transport sheep to and from the farm.

3.1.2; 3.1.3; 3.3.5

Livestock transportation vehicles are cleaned between uses.

3.1.2; 3.1.3; 3.3.2; 3.3.5

Sheep movement pathways on my farm are cleaned immediately following use by higher-risk sheep.

3.1.6; 3.3.1; 3.3.2; 3.3.3; 3.3.-

Manure is removed regularly and stored securely.

3.3.6

I keep samples of feed batches for testing and tracking purposes.

3.3.7

I store feed in a location that is secure from access by pests and animals.

3.3.1; 3.3.7

I provide quality water and test it at least annually for its safety for livestock.

3.3.7

Clean bedding is stored in a manner that keeps it free from contamination from animal products (e.g. feces).

3.3.7

Soiled bedding is removed regularly and disposed of away from the flock.

3.3.7

Shearing protocols are followed on my farm that include sequence, cleanliness and care of nicks and abrasions.

3.3.8

Needles and scalpels are only used once and then discarded into a suitable container.

3.3.9

Deadstock is immediately removed and stored in an area away from the flock, facilities, food and water, and secure from scavengers, dogs, cats and pests.

3.1.8; 3.3.1; 3.3.7; 3.3.10

Based on the self evaluation:

  1. What farm, facilities and equipment gaps have I identified on my farm?
  2. What steps can I take to correct these gaps?

2.3.4 People

Self-evaluation Checklist

Biosecurity practices for people

Always / frequently

Some-times

Never

N/A

Reference

My family members and farm workers understand what zoonotic diseases are and understand how to protect themselves against zoonotic disease risks.





3.2.2; 3.3.2; 3.4.4; 3.4.5

I hold regular biosecurity education sessions and on-the-job training with my farm workers.





3.2.2; 3.2.3; 3.3.1; 3.3.2; 3.3.3; 3.3.4; 3.3.5; 3.3.6; 3.3.7; 3.3.8; 3.3.9; 3.3.10; 3.4.4

All farm workers on my sheep farm understand the biosecurity practices that apply to their work.





3.2.3; 3.3.2; 3.3.4; 3.3.5; 3.3.6; 3.3.7; 3.3.8; 3.3.9; 3.3.10; 3.4.3; 3.4.4; 3.4.5

I plan visits to my farm by service providers and visitors in advance.





3.3.1; 3.3.2; 3.3.5; 3.3.8; 3.4.1; 3.4.2; 3.4.3

I do a risk assessment when planning a visit by a service provider or visitor to my farm.





3.3.1; 3.3.5; 3.3.8; 3.4.1; 3.4.2; 3.4.3

Service providers and visitors know and understand the biosecurity practices that apply to their activities on my farm.





3.3.1; 3.3.2; 3.3.4; 3.3.5; 3.3.8; 3.3.10; 3.4.1; 3.4.2; 3.4.3; 3.4.4; 3.4.5

I have specific practices that are designed to address the risks presented by visitors to my farm that have previously visited a foreign country and may have been in contact with a pathogen.





3.3.2; 3.4.1; 3.4.2; 3.4.3

Visitors and service providers on my farm are identified and my farm workers are aware of their presence and the purpose of their visit.





3.4.3; 3.4.4

Based on the self evaluation:

  1. What people gaps have I identified on my farm?
  2. What steps can I take to correct these gaps?
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