The National Sheep On-Farm Biosecurity Standard
Appendix A – Glossary of Terms

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Terms in bold in the text are defined in the glossary:

All-in-all-out
A production system in which the whole flock (all-in-all-out) or groups of lambs/sheep of similar disease risk (modified all-in-all-out) are housed and moved as a single unit(s) and are removed from the farm as a unit.
Ascarids or gastrointestinal nematode
A parasitic nematode (family Ascaridae) that typically lives in the intestines of vertebrates.
Asymptomatic disease
A disease that does not show any sign but the animal may be shedding infectious pathogens in secretions (e.g. respiratory aerosols, lacrimal discharges, saliva) or excretions (e.g. faeces, urine, uterine fluids, skin).
Barn
A farm building used for storing farm products and sheltering livestock
Biosecurity
A health plan or measures designed to protect a population from infectious agents.
Biosecurity Protocols
Those measures specific to a sheep operation used to prevent the introduction and the spread of disease within an animal population and from that sheep operation.
Cleaning
Involves washing with detergent in order to remove all organic matter, and includes both a dry (scraping and brushing) and wet clean.
Commingling
The act of mixing sheep, either with other sheep from different farms or production facilities or with other animal species, resulting in direct or close indirect contact among them.
Community pastures
A community pasture is a public grazing area shared by more than one producer and not owned by a single producer.
Cross-contamination
The distribution of potentially-infectious material from one animal to another, or between facilities, equipment or vehicles by animals, people or things (see also fomites).
Disease outbreak
When the incidence of illness from disease rises quickly and often to a high level within a short period of time. Sometimes the disease was not previously present in the flock, and sometimes it is an increase in a disease already present.
Disinfecting; also, disinfection
The use of a disinfection agent, i.e. a chemical that can kill pathogens, on areas being cleaned.
Emerging Disease
A new infection resulting from the evolution or change of an existing pathogen or parasite resulting in a change of host range, vector, pathogenicity or strain; or the occurrence of a previously unrecognised infection or disease.
Endemic disease
Continued presence of a disease in a specific population or area usually at the same level — often a low level. Also called enzootic disease.
Ewe
A female sheep that is part of the breeding flock i.e. has been exposed to the ram for breeding purposes
Farm Personnel )
Includes all full-time and part-time staff plus any family members who work at the operation.
Feedlot
As used in the Standard, feedlots are operations that purposely acquire lambs or cull adults from off–farm for the purpose of feeding but not breeding. All animals are sent to slaughter.
Fomites
Any physical entities on which infectious material can be transmitted. They would include animals, people, their footwear and clothing, any equipment and tools brought into or used within a zone, dogs and cats, pests and vermin, and vehicles. Animals that act as fomites are themselves not infected but act as a mechanical transfer of infectious material.
Foreign Animal Diseases - FADs
Diseases not present in Canada and listed by the CFIA as reportable. Federally Reportable Diseases for Terrestrial Animals in Canada
Guardian animals and working animals (Gardiens d'animaux et animaux de travail)
Includes dogs (e.g. guardian dogs, herding dogs), llamas, donkeys, horses etc that have contact with and are used to manage the sheep for purposes such as moving the sheep, or guarding the sheep from predators.
Infectious diseases
Diseases caused by an infectious disease agent e.g. parasite, bacterial, virus, fungus, prion.
Isolation
The action of restricting an animal to a location that is physically separate from other livestock. The purpose of isolating an animal is usually to prevent it from transmitting a disease to another animal, either because it is known to be diseased or because its disease status is currently unknown. It may also be to protect an animal from contacting disease from infected flock members. The location is known as an isolation facility.
Known health status
The information that should be made available about a flock or an individual animal when offered for sale or intended for commingling, including disease history and the results of any diagnostic testing; flock health management practices; vaccination program detail sufficient to determine compatibility with the home flock; and housing and movement detail sufficient to identify any potential recent disease exposure.
Lamb
A female (ewe) or male (ram or castrated) that is less than 12 months of age and is not part of the breeding flock.
Loading area (Aire de chargement)
An area that is designated for the loading and unloading of animals. This is not just the ramp but it also includes any holding area used for this purpose.
Location
A single location is defined as a property used to manage sheep (or livestock) that is self-contained and not divided by land or public roadway (e.g. concession road, highway – but not private laneway or walking path).
Maternal flocks
Flocks that include breeding ewes that produce added and/or replacement lambs for the flock.
Organic material
As used in the Standard, organic material is any substance that is derived from animal or vegetal matter.
Other livestock (Autre animaux d'élevage)
Domestic livestock animals, specifically goats, cattle (dairy, beef, veal), horses, bison, water buffalo, farmed deer / elk, alpacas, llamas, swine, poultry, turkeys, ducks, geese.
Pastures
Fenced areas used for livestock grazing at any time of year. Can include multi–use fields (e.g. graze after haying or aftermath feeding).
Pathogens
A bacterium, virus, parasite, prion, fungus or other micro–organism that can cause disease
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (Équipement de protection personnelle)
Gloves, clothing, footwear, head and face coverings, breathing apparatus and all cleansing agents, disinfectants and materials that limit, reduce or restrict contact by a pathogen to a human, by physical, airborne or any other means.
Practice
A repeatable method of carrying out a task or activity for a specific end result, including the use of equipment and products
Protocol
This includes any formal process that a producer used to define how they manage their operations on a day to day basis. The protocol may be formally documented but it may also be non-documented process that is strictly followed. The intent is to focus on the process rather than the documentation.
Ram
A male sheep of any age that is intact and has been or is being used for breeding purposes.
Reportable disease (Maladie à déclaration obligatoire)
Reportable diseases are defined under regulations enforced by CFIA. In cases of a suspected or confirmed case of a reportable disease outbreak, and in most cases of a FAD, zoonotic or emerging disease, CFIA is responsible for ensuring that required procedures are followed. A list of reportable diseases is available on the CFIA website. Federally Reportable Diseases for Terrestrial Animals in Canada
Sheep
A ewe, ram, castrated ram, or lamb.
Sheep operation
The buildings, dry lots / paddocks / corrals, and pastures used at any time of the year to manage sheep; includes any structures that are used in managing the sheep operation that don't have sheep, e.g. equipment shed, handling shed or pen, records room, clothing storage area, manure storage, feed storage. The sheep operation may have one or more than one location. It includes guardian or working animals (e.g. dogs, donkeys, llamas) and equipment (e.g. handling facilities, ATV etc) used to manage the sheep.
Vector
Anything, including an organism such as an arthropod (e.g. a tick, mosquito, fly, flea, or mite), that does not cause disease itself but that transmits a pathogen by conveying pathogens from one host to another.
Vermin (together with Wildlife)
Includes all non-livestock and non domestic animals and insects that may pose a health risk (disease and/or predatory) to the sheep flock.
Visitors
Any non-personnel that come to the operation.
Zoonotic disease
An infectious disease that can be transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. by a vector) from non-human animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to non-human animals.
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