Chapter 10 - Artificial Insemination
10.2 Bovine

This page is part of the Guidance Document Repository (GDR).

Looking for related documents?
Search for related documents in the Guidance Document Repository

This module describes the requirements to qualify donor for export eligible bovine semen, for domestic use and for owner's use only. On farm and isolation requirements are described when applicable.

Export Eligible Semen

On farm requirements for bovines entering a centre for the production of semen for export:

1. The herd of origin must not be subject to any quarantine, and the animals must be subject to the following tests with negative results, unless otherwise specified, within a 60-day period before entry into the isolation facility of the centre:

  • Tuberculosis — intradermal purified protein derivative (PPD) bovine tuberculin — caudal fold read at 72 hours. Any reaction must be reported to the CFIA veterinarian.
  • Brucellosis — (serum) fluorescence polarization assay (FPA)) or test prescribed by OIE for international trade.
  • Leptospirosis — (serum) microscopic agglutination test (MAT) — serotypes L. pomona, L. sejroe, L. hardjo, L. canicola, L. grippotyphosa and L. icterohaemorrhagiae. Bulls with a test result of 1:100 or 1:200 must be retested after a minimum interval of 14 days and a stable or declining titre obtained to be considered negative and eligible for entry into the isolation facility of the centre. The sampling dates and titres must be recorded on the health certificate that accompanies the animal to the AI centre.
  • Bluetongue — (serum) competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA)
  • Johne's disease — (serum) ELISA
  • Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) — (serum) ELISA
  • Epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer — Type 2 (EH02) — (serum) AGID
  • Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) — (serum) Immunoperoxidase and serum neutralization (SN). Animals under age six months must be retested by immunoperoxidase and SN after reaching that age. The SN test determines the serological status of the prospective donor bull. Seropositive and seronegative animals are allowed to enter into the isolation facility of the centre.

Optional Test

Note: an IBR test is mandatory for entering into an isolation facility of a bovine semen production centre that is approved for semen export to the European Community.

ix. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) — (serum) ELISA

This test is performed at the request of the Artificial Insemination centre; a negative test is required for animals entering into an IBR negative facility.

EBL testing the dam

2. In addition, when possible, the uterine dam of the prospective donor bull should be subjected to an ELISA test for EBL, subsequent to the weaning of the prospective donor, with negative results.

This test of the uterine dam is required to export semen to the EC Member States when semen is collected from a donor bull before reaching age 24 months, and a negative result to an ELISA test is required after reaching that age. This test is not required when the prospective donor bull originates from a Canada Health Accredited Herd for EBL (CHAH—EBL).

3. A CFIA/ACIA 1634 Certificate of Health for Entry into a Semen Production Centre must accompany the animal to the isolation facility of the centre. (Refer to 10.1 Artificial Insemination - General Information paragraph 11 for distribution).

Isolation Health Requirements for bovines entering a centre for the production of semen for export:

4. All qualifying and testing procedures associated with the assessment of the isolation health status of semen donor bulls are to be performed by a veterinarian who is authorized to perform these functions as an accredited veterinarian. Before performing any inspection or test in an isolation facility, the accredited veterinarian must have reviewed this section with a CFIA district veterinarian, and have been trained on site to collect and process samples for campylobacteriosis and trichomoniasis testing.

5. All animals presented for entry as additions to the resident herd of a semen production centre must undergo a minimum period of 30 days in an isolation facility maintained by the centre; the isolation period may begin when all animals are present in the isolation facility.

6. An animal is to be considered eligible for entry into isolation only if a certificate of health completed by an accredited veterinarian as stated in article 3, accompanies the animal to the isolation facility. An identification check is conducted on each animal against the certificate of health presented by the centre. The certificate of health must show that the animal has met the appropriate on farm requirements that correspond to the status of the centre he is expected to enter after the isolation procedure.

7. Two blood samples are collected from each animal at the beginning of the isolation period. One sample is for the BVD-SN test and the other for the IBR-ELISA test. The sample for BVD-SN sample must bear the donor identification, collection date and the letter "A". It will be kept frozen under the control of the accredited veterinarian to serve as an "acute" sample in order to submit paired samples for BVD-SN at the end of the isolation period. Concerning the IBR-ELISA sample, the sample is immediately sent to the laboratory as no paired samples are required for the IBR-ELISA test that will be performed at the end of the isolation period.

8. The initial tests of preputial samples for Campylobacter fetus subsp venerealis infection and trichomoniasis (Tritrichomonas foetus) are conducted after at least 7 days in isolation. Preputial fluid examinations should not be conducted until at least 7 days have elapsed following natural service or semen collection by means of an artificial vagina. Module 3.4 gives specific information on collection and processing of the sample.

  1. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis examination requires the use of a special medium (TEM) and coordination with the laboratory when scheduling the submission of samples. Sample(s) of preputial washing are to be subject to culture test(s) as follows:
    1. Animals less than 6 months of age kept since 30 days of age only in a single sex group prior to entry in isolation must be tested at least once with negative result.
    2. All animals more than 6 months of age or those that could have been in contact with females after 30 days of age prior to entering isolation must be tested three times at weekly intervals with negative result.
  2. Tritrichomonas foetus examination is by culture of preputial sample followed by direct microscopic examination. The culture examination requires the use of a special transport medium (TFTM) and coordination with the laboratory when scheduling the submission of samples. Sample(s) of preputial washing are to be subject to culture test(s) as follows:
    1. Animals less than 6 months of age kept since 30 days of age in a single sex group prior to entry in isolation must be tested at least once with negative result.
    2. All animals more than 6 months of age or those that could have been in contact with females after 30 days of age prior to entering isolation must be tested at least three times at weekly intervals with negative result.

9. While in the isolation facility and after a minimum of 30 days in isolation, the pre-entry tests must be repeated with negative results, unless otherwise specified, as follows:

  1. Tuberculosis - intradermal PPD bovine tuberculin - caudal fold read at 72 hr. A minimum of 60 days is required between the tuberculosis test done on-farm and this one. In the event of a suspicious or inconclusive tuberculin test during testing in the pre-entry isolation facility, a comparative cervical test must be performed by the CFIA. A caudal reaction confirmed to be negative to M. bovis by comparative cervical test performed by a CFIA veterinarian is considered negative for entry purposes.
  2. Brucellosis - (serum) FPA or test prescribed by OIE for international trade.
  3. Leptospirosis - (serum) - Microagglutination test (MAT), serotypes L. pomona, L. sejroe, L. hardjo, L. canicola, L. grippotyphosa and L. icterohaemorrhagiae. Bulls with a test result of 1:100 or 1:200 must be retested after a minimum interval of 14 days and obtain a stable or declining titre to be considered negative and eligible for entry into the centre.
  4. Bluetongue - (serum) c-ELISA
  5. Johne's disease - (serum) ELISA
  6. Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) - (serum) ELISA
  7. EHD2 - (serum) - AGID
    Supplementary test for bulls entering into a bovine semen production centre approved to export to the European Community: in addition to the AGID test, an additional SN test must be performed during isolation for bulls selected for entry in a centre approved for export to the European Community.
  8. BVD - (serum) - Immunoperoxidase and SN, negative at 1/10 (final dilution)
    Both BVD-SN acute (identified A) and convalescent (identified C) samples are sent together to the laboratory. If no sero-conversion occurs, all animals (seronegative and seropositive) are allowed to enter into the centre. If sero-conversion occurs, all seronegative animals and seropositive animals with rising titres are kept in isolation until a retest done after a minimum period of 21 days shows no sero-conversion in the group. Seropositive animals with stable or declining titers are allowed to enter into the centre. Sero-conversion is defined as four-fold rise in titre. A BVD semen test must be done on every seropositive bulls authorized to enter into a centre before semen is distributed.

Optional Test

Note: this test is mandatory to enter in a bovine semen production centre approved for export of semen to the European Community.

ix) IBR - (serum) ELISA test:
This test is done at the request of the semen production centre; a negative test is required for animals entering into an IBR negative facility.

10. In the event of a suspicious or positive reaction being reported during the pre-entry isolation testing regime, the individual animal is to be removed from the group. The remaining animals shall not be released for entry into the production centre until either the suspect animal has been confirmed negative or has been removed from the isolation and the negative status of the remaining animals reconfirmed by retesting them for the disease in question.

11. Bovine semen collected during the isolation period may be labeled for "Owner Use Only" and released immediately to the owner of the bull, if the centre or the collector has a permit to collect and process owner use semen. When collected during the isolation period, semen is eligible for distribution in Canada; this semen must be stored in a manner that precludes the semen from entering the export stream and must not be released until all campylobacteriosis and trichomoniasis tests results are known. The collection area in the isolation premises must be approved in advance by the district veterinarian for this purpose and documentation on file.

12. Removal of donors from isolation either to enter the resident herd following the tests referred to above or to leave the centre, must be done only with the permission of the district veterinarian. The centre must be in possession of documentation acknowledging the bull is eligible to leave isolation and confirming which facility status it may enter.

13. A bull resident in a semen production centre for distribution in Canada does not qualify to enter the isolation facility of an export semen production centre. Such a resident bull must comply with the pre-entry requirements for export eligible semen in order to enter the isolation facility.

Domestic Use Semen

On farm requirements for bovines entering a semen collection centre for the purpose of the production of semen for distribution in Canada:

Herd of Origin

14. The herd of origin must not be subject to any quarantine, and the animals must be subject to the following tests with negative results, unless otherwise specified, within the 60-day period preceding entry into the isolation facility of the centre. The animal must be tested in Canada for entry into the isolation facility.

Required Tests

  1. Tuberculosis — intradermal purified protein derivative (PPD) bovine tuberculin — caudal fold read at 72 hours. Any reaction must be reported to the CFIA veterinarian.
  2. Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) — (serum) ELISA
  3. Johne's disease — (serum) ELISA
  4. BVD — (serum) Immunoperoxidase. Animals under age six months must be retested after reaching that age.
  5. Bluetongue — c-ELISA

    An ELISA-positive animal may be accepted in the isolation facility if one of the two conditions mentioned below apply:

    • a negative result to a PCR test is conducted on a blood sample.
      Note: this test is done at the expense of the owner in a private laboratory, and the result must be attached to the certificate mentioned in number 15 (below)
      or
    • a longer period is applied to the animal in the isolation facility maintained by the centre; the animal must remain in isolation for a minimum of 60 days, and during this period, no semen from this animal can be collected, except for "Owner use only."

15. A CFIA/ACIA 1634 certificate must accompany the animal to the isolation facility of the centre (Refer to paragraph 11 in Module 10.1 for distribution).

Isolation Health Requirements for bovines entering a centre for the production of semen for distribution in Canada:

16. All qualifying and testing procedures associated with the assessment of the isolation health status of semen donor bulls are to be performed by a veterinarian who is authorized to perform these functions as an accredited veterinarian. Before performing any inspection or test in an isolation facility, the accredited veterinarian must have reviewed this section with a CFIA district veterinarian, and have been trained on site to collect and process samples for campylobacteriosis and trichomoniasis testing.

17. All animals presented for entry as additions to the resident herd of a semen production centre must undergo a minimum period of 30 days in an isolation facility maintained by the centre except for animals admitted with a positive c-ELISA result for Bluetongue without a negative PCR test, that must undergo a minimum isolation period of 60 days; the isolation period may begin when all animals are present in the isolation facility.

18. An animal is to be considered eligible for entry into isolation only if a certificate of health completed by an accredited veterinarian as stated in article 15 accompanies the animal to the isolation facility. An identification check is conducted on each animal against the certificate of health presented by the centre. The certificate of health must show that the animal has met the appropriate on farm requirements that correspond to the status of the centre he is expected to enter after the isolation procedure.

19. All animals presented for entry as additions to the semen production centre must receive an injection of dihydrostreptomycin (25 mg per kg of body weight) or an alternate antibiotic effective against leptospirosis at the dosage recommended by the manufacturer, as a preventive measure.

20. The initial tests of preputial samples for Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis infection and trichomoniasis (Tritrichomonas foetus) may be conducted when animals arrive in isolation. Preputial fluid examinations should not be conducted until at least 7 days have elapsed following natural service or semen collection by means of an artificial vagina. Module 3.4 gives specific information on collection and processing of the sample

  1. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis examination requires the use of a special medium (TEM) and coordination with the laboratory when scheduling the submission of samples. Sample(s) of preputial washing are to be subject to culture test(s) as follows:
    1. Animals less than 6 months of age kept since 30 days of age only in a single sex group prior to entry in isolation must be tested at least once with negative result.
    2. All animals more than 6 months of age or those that could have been in contact with females after 30 days of age prior to entering isolation must be tested three times at weekly intervals with negative result.
  2. Tritrichomonas foetus examination is by culture of preputial sample followed by direct microscopic examination. The culture examination requires the use of a special transport medium (TFTM) and coordination with the laboratory when scheduling the submission of samples. Sample(s) of preputial washing are to be subject to culture test(s) as follows:
    1. Animals less than 6 months of age kept since 30 days of age in a single sex group prior to entry in isolation must be tested at least once with negative result.
    2. All animals more than 6 months of age or those that could have been in contact with females after 30 days of age prior to entering isolation must be tested at least three times at weekly intervals with negative result.

21. Bovine semen collected from a bluetongue negative animal (defined as having had either a c-ELISA negative test or a c-ELISA positive test followed by a PCR negative test) during the isolation period may be either labeled "Owner Use Only" if the centre has the proper permit and released immediately to the owner of the bull or kept in the centre and released for distribution in Canada only when results of the all Campylobacter and trichomoniasis culture tests are negative and the minimum 30-day isolation period is over. Collection of semen from bluetongue positive animals (defined as having had a c-ELISA positive test with no subsequent negative PCR test or a subsequent positive PCR test) is not authorized before the mandatory 60-day isolation period is over. Any semen collection done during the isolation period must be authorized by the district veterinarian.

22. Removal of donors from isolation either to enter the resident herd following the tests and appropriate isolation periods referred to above or to leave the centre, must be done only with the permission of the district veterinarian.

23. A bull resident in a semen production centre for distribution in Canada does not qualify to enter the isolation facility of an export semen production centre. Such a resident bull must comply with the pre-entry requirements for export eligible semen in order to enter the isolation facility of an export eligible semen production centre.

Owner's Use Only Semen

Requirements for bovines collected for owner's use only:

24. Owner's use only semen is intended for use by owners of donor animals in their own herd. Owner's use bovine semen must only be collected and processed by a person or organization holding a Permit to collect and process animal semen for owner use only. This permit is issued by the National Coordinator of the Artificial Insemination program. There is no requirement to be an accredited veterinarian to obtain this permit. Further information may be obtained from the district office.

Date modified: