Guidelines for the Preparation of Export Certificates for the Canadian pet food industry
Glossary of terms

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Accredited Laboratories:
means laboratories accredited by the Standards Council of Canada (SCC) or any laboratory accredited by The Canadian Association for Laboratory Accreditation Inc. (CALA)
Additional certification:
in the case of imported animal origin ingredients, it means a attestation (other than the export certificate issued by the competent authority of the exporting country to Canada) that attests to the Third country's import requirements. It's a supporting document for the certifying veterinarian.
Animal by-products:
means entire bodies or parts of animals, products of animal origin or other products obtained from animals, which are not intended for human consumption.
Animal Digest:
material which results from chemical and/or enzymatic hydrolysis of clean and un-decomposed animal tissue that includes poultry digest. The animal tissues used may be hair, horns, teeth, hooves and feathers.
Canned pet food:
means heat-processed pet food contained within a hermetically sealed container.
Edible:
means fit for use as human food.
Exporting country:
means a country from which commodities are sent to another country called Importing country.
Flavouring innards:
means a liquid or dehydrated derived product of animal origin used to enhance the palatability values of pet food. Also called a digest which refers to animal protein such as muscle and soft tissue that undergo a digestive process. These ingredients are hydrolyzed or "digested" to break down the animal protein into peptides in a manner similar to digestion in the body. The resulting digest is in a liquid, a paste or powder.
Hermetically sealed container:
means a container that is designed and intended to be secure against the entry of microorganisms (mostly clostridium botulinum).
Inedible Products:
condemned products that are not fit for human consumption; or non-condemned products treated by the operator as condemned meat products; and products which are by their nature not edible (feathers, hides, hair, manure, intestinal contents, etc.).
Ingredients:
mean all constituents that enter into pet food composition. It includes but not only, raw material, meat and bone meal, fats, vegetables, seeds, vitamins, etc.
Meat:
means the edible part of a carcass that is the muscle associated with the skeleton, tongue, diaphragm, heart, gizzard or mammalian oesophagus, with or without accompanying and overlying fat, together with those parts of the bones, skin, sinews, nerves, blood vessels and other tissues that normally accompany the muscle and are not ordinarily removed in dressing a carcass.
Meat and bone meal:
is defined as processed animal (ruminant, porcine or avian species) protein intended for animal consumption, obtained through thermal processing (rendering).
Meat by-product:
means parts of carcasses of ruminant, porcine and avian species, other than meat, derived from slaughtered animals. It includes lungs, spleen, kidneys, brain, livers, blood, bone, stomachs and intestines freed of their contents. It does not include hair, horns, teeth and hooves.
Microbiological testing:

n = number of samples taken;
m = the threshold value for the number of bacteria; the results to be considered satisfactory if the number of bacteria in all samples does not exceed m;
M = maximum value for the number of bacteria; the result to be considered unsatisfactory if the number of bacteria in one or more samples taken is M or more;
c = number of samples the bacterial count which may be between m and M, the sample still be considered acceptable if the bacterial count of the other sample is m or less

Example: Salmonella n=5, m=0, M=0, c=0
Enterobacteriaceae: n=5, m=10, M=300, c=2

For Salmonella: On each of the 5 samples, the result must be negative (absence of salmonella).
For Enterobactericeae: On 2 of the 5 samples, the result can be between 10 and 300; on the other 3 samples, the result must be 10 or less.

Poultry:
means all domesticated birds used for production of meat.
Processed animal proteins:
  1. According to EU definition: means animal protein derived entirely from Category 3 raw material (ovine meal, bovine meal, poultry, fish meal etc.)
  2. For other countries: Meat and bone meal from animal origin means the solid protein products obtained when animal tissues are rendered.
Lot:
Unless it is specified differently in the certificate, a lot can be considered as the entire shipment of finished products of the same processing method that will be exported even if the entire shipment is composed of different processing lots.
Random Sampling:
If a shipment consists of 10 processing lots, the company is required to take 5 random samples from that whole shipment instead of 5 random samples from each processing lot. If the 5 samples are taken from one of the 10 lots in that shipment, that would not meet the definition of randomness. Moreover, if a shipment is composed of different products from different pet food companies, five random samples must be taken per company.
Raw material:
means unprocessed animal by-product, may also refer to fresh meat that has not been subjected to any treatment irreversibly modifying its organoleptic and physicochemical characteristics. This includes frozen meat, chilled meat, minced meat and mechanically recovered meat.
Ruminant:
means bisons, bovines, camels, caprines, cervids and ovines
Official authorities or Competent Authority:
means the Veterinary Authority or other Governmental Authority of a Member Country having the responsibility and competence for ensuring or supervising the implementation of animal health and welfare measures, international veterinary certification.
OIE:
World Organization for Animal Health
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