6.5 Fat and Fatty Acids: Saturates, Trans, Polyunsaturates, Omega-6 Polyunsaturates, Omega-3 Polyunsaturates, Monounsaturates [B.01.001, B.01.001.1(1)]
"Fat" is defined as total lipid fatty acids expressed as triglycerides.
"Saturated fatty acids" are defined as all fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
"Trans fatty acids" are unsaturated fatty acids that contain one or more isolated or non-conjugated double bonds in a trans-configuration.
"Monounsaturated fatty acids" are cis-monounsaturated fatty acids.
"Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids" means:
- 9-cis, 12-cis octadecadienoic acid or linoleic acid;
- 6-cis, 9-cis, 12-cis octadecatrienoic acid;
- 8-cis, 11-cis, 14-cis eicosatrienoic acid or di-homo--linolenic acid;
- 5-cis, 8-cis, 11-cis, 14-cis eicosatetraenoic acid or arachidonic acid;
- 7-cis, 10-cis, 13-cis, 16-cis docosatetraenoic acid; or
- 4-cis, 7-cis, 10-cis, 13-cis, 16-cis docosapentaenoic acid.
"Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids" means:
- 9-cis, 12-cis, 15-cis octadecatrienoic acid or alpha-linolenic acid;
- 8-cis, 11-cis, 14-cis, 17-cis eicosatetraenoic acid;
- 5-cis, 8-cis, 11-cis, 14-cis, 17-cis eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA;
- 7-cis, 10-cis, 13-cis, 16-cis, 19-cis docosapentaenoic acid; or
- 4-cis, 7-cis, 10-cis, 13-cis, 16-cis, 19-cis docosahexaenoic acid or DHA.
"Polyunsaturated fatty acids" are cis-methylene interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Sodium content is based upon the total sodium present in the food regardless of the origin of the nutrient. Unlike most other mineral nutrients, sodium does not have a Recommended Daily Intake. Calculation of the % Daily Value is based on the Reference Standard value of 2400 mg [table to B.01.001.1(2)].
Like sodium, potassium content is based upon the total potassium present in the food and does not have a Recommended Daily Intake. The % Daily Value is calculated by using the Reference Standard of 3500 mg [table to B.01.001.1(2)].
For labelling purposes, the total amount of declared carbohydrates must include sugars (e.g., monosaccharides such as glucose, and disaccharides such as sucrose), starch, dietary fibre, sugar alcohols (e.g., isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, maltitol syrup, mannitol, sorbitol, sorbitol syrup, xylitol, erythritol), glycerol and polydextrose.
The amount of carbohydrate may be determined by subtracting the content of protein, fat, ash and moisture from the weight of the product.
The Policy for Labelling and Advertising of Dietary Fibre-Containing Food Products Health Canada, February 2012) defines dietary fibre as follows:
"Dietary fibre consists of:
- 1) carbohydrates with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more that naturally occur in foods of plant origin and that are not digested and absorbed by the small intestine; and
- 2) accepted novel fibres.
Novel fibres are ingredients manufactured to be sources of dietary fibre and consist of carbohydrates with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more that are not digested and absorbed by the small intestine. They are synthetically produced or are obtained from natural sources which have no history of safe use as dietary fibre or which have been processed so as to modify the properties of the fibre contained therein. Accepted novel fibres have at least one physiological effect demonstrated by generally accepted scientific evidence."
The substances in part 1 of this definition are all edible plant materials that have a history of use as food and have been processed or cooked using conventional processes. They include fruits, vegetables, pulses, seeds, nuts, cereals, legumes, etc.
Substances in part 2 of the definition include substances obtained from agricultural crop by-products and from raw plant materials, substances of animal or bacterial origin, chemically modified substances, synthetic products, etc. These substances are not historically used as food fibre sources. In addition, novel fibres may also include products used at higher than traditionally used levels in the diet.
The Food Directorate of Health Canada conducts premarket assessment of novel fibre sources based on Health Canada's Food Directorate Guideline No. 9, "Guideline Concerning the Safety and Physiological Effects of Novel Fibre Sources and Food Products Containing Them," (revised November, 1997) and the Policy for Labelling and Advertising of Dietary Fibre-Containing Food Products (Health Canada, February 2012).
The safety of novel fibre sources must be established before they may be used as ingredients in foods. As well, the physiological effect(s) of novel fibre sources as dietary fibre must be established before they may be claimed to be a source of dietary fibre in foods.
If a proposed fibre source is a "Novel Food," subject to notification under Division 28 of the Food and Drug Regulations, a novel food application must be completed according to the Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods and submitted to Health Canada preceding or concurrent with a novel fibre application.
Novel food ingredients (under Division 28 of the Food and Drug Regulations) reviewed and found safe for human consumption by Health Canada are listed on Health Canada website in the Novel Food Decisions page.
If the physiological effect of a novel fibre source has not been demonstrated, the ingredient is considered an unproven novel fibre. If safe, it may be used in foods but it cannot be claimed to be a source of dietary fibre, and its amount of dietary fibre must not be included as part of the total dietary fibre declaration in the Nutrition Facts table.
If a novel fibre source has been reviewed by the Food Directorate of Health Canada and found acceptable as a dietary fibre source (safety and physiological effect demonstrated), the manufacturer will receive a "letter of no objection". If applicable, the letter will indicate any restriction on the use of the novel fibre source. These "letters of no objection" are generic, unless otherwise specified. Generic dietary fibres include products with history of use as fibre sources, or which have been manufactured through conventional processes, or have been previously reviewed and accepted by Health Canada. The amount of dietary fibre from the accepted novel fibre sources can be included as part of the total dietary fibre declaration in the Nutrition Facts table.
Manufacturers who are considering the use of novel fibre sources and require further guidance are advised to contact the Submission Management and Information Unit within the Food Directorate, Health Canada.
Acceptable dietary fibre sources, including generic and brand name products, are listed in the Table below. They may be used in all unstandardized foods except infant formula unless otherwise specified. The addition of dietary fibre sources is not permitted in standardized foods unless a provision for their addition is made in the Food and Drug Regulations or other standards.
|Dietary Fibre Name||Description|
|Acacia Gum (Gum Arabic)||Dried exudate from stems and branches of Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal species, processed by water dissolution, purification, concentration and drying|
|Barley bran||Obtained from dehulled or hull-less barley grain using standard dry milling techniques, which may include steaming or tempering|
|Beta-glucan concentrate from oat or barley||Chemically extracted from oat or barley grain, followed or not by partial hydrolysis|
|Corn bran||Corn grain pericarp separated by conventional dry- or wet- corn milling process - Maximum permitted in high fibre cereal is 46.7%|
|Fructooligosaccharides or oligofructose||Mixture of fructose oligomers obtained by partial hydrolysis of traditional inulin sources, or enzymatically produced from sucrose|
|Galactooligosaccharides||Mixture of galactose oligomers enzymatically produced from lactose derived from whey|
|High amylose corn starch||Obtained from milling process of high amylose corn grain, followed or not by hydrothermal treatment. Amylose content in high amylose corn varies from 50 to 90%.|
|Inulin from chicory root, Jerusalem artichoke tuber or Blue agave head||Standard inulin and long chain inulin obtained by hot water extraction and/or by conventional separation processes|
|Isomaltooligosaccharides||Mixture of glucose oligomers enzymatically produced from starch and modified through transglycosylation reaction|
|Modified wheat starch||Fibersym® RW and FiberRite® RW (MGP Ingredients, Inc.)|
|Oat bran||Derived from dehulled oat kernels (oat groat) and providing at least 13% total dietary fibre, of which at least 30 percent must be soluble fibre|
|Oat hull fibre||Outer layer of oat grain processed by hydro-thermal high pressure treatment, by alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment, or by other conventional treatments|
|Partially hydrolyzed guar gum||Sunfiber® (Taiyo International, Inc.)|
|Pea hull fibre||Outer seed coat of field peas obtained by mechanical separation, by extraction of pea soluble material, or by other conventional processes|
|Polydextrose||Obtained by condensation of a melt consisting of approximately 90% glucose and 10% sorbitol in the presence of catalytic amounts of citric acid or phosphoric acid|
|Polysaccharide complex (glucomannan, xanthan gum, sodium alginate)||PGX® / PolyGlycopleX® (InovoBiologic)|
|Psyllium seed husk||Dried seed coat of Plantago ovata or Plantago arenaria separated from the seed through a mechanical process Purity: ≥=95%; Total fibre: ≥=80%; Protein: ≤=3%; Light extraneous matter: ≤=4.5%; Heavy extraneous matter: ≤=0.5%; Combined extraneous matter: ≤=4.9%. Recommended warning statements on the label of psyllium-containing products - "This product may cause allergic reaction in people sensitive to inhaled or ingested psyllium" - For products containing dry or incompletely hydrated psyllium husk, in Directions for Use section, indicate necessity to consume the product with enough fluid in order to avoid throat obstruction|
|Sieved barley meal||Beta-glucan concentrated via air classification of dry-milled barley grain|
|Soy cotyledon||Derived from processing dehulled and defatted soybean flakes in mild alkaline conditions|
|Sugar beet fibre||Obtained from sugar beet pulp by pressing, steam drying and milling - Maximum use level in foods is 7%|
|Wheat flakes, starch-reduced||Obtained from the amylolytic digestion of milled wheat kernel used for ethanol production|
|Wheat bran||Outer layer of wheat grain obtained during wheat flour milling process|
|Whole or edible parts (for example, flour, pulp and peel) of traditional fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts, seeds, etc.||Processed through conventional procedures|
Dietary Fibre Analysis
For assessing compliance, CFIA has adopted the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) 2009.01 method as of April 1st, 2012. Health Canadas Fibre Policy also provides a list of acceptable and validated methods that may be used to quantify fibre.
"Sugars" means all monosaccharides and disaccharides [B.01.001].
Sugar alcohols include isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, maltitol syrup, mannitol, sorbitol, sorbitol syrup, xylitol and erythritol. Declarations of sugar alcohol content should not include the amount of water present in maltitol syrup and sorbitol syrup.
The declaration for starch does not include dietary fibre. Starch may be analysed directly, or calculated by difference. If analysed directly, the carbohydrate components may not necessarily add up to 100%.
The protein rating of a food is based on the protein content in a Reasonable Daily Intake of that food as per Schedule K in Part D of the Food and Drug Regulations. (Also see Table 6-4 and 6.3.1 of this Guide.)
Protein Rating is calculated by multiplying the quantity of protein present in a Reasonable Daily Intake of the food by the quality of the protein, which is the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) of the food.
Protein Rating = Protein in a Reasonable Daily Intake x Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER)
Established PER's are listed in Table 6-13. Those not already established must be determined through rat feeding studies.
Example - Calculating the Protein Rating of White Bread
Percent (%) Protein = 8.4
Reasonable Daily Intake = 150 g (5 slices)
Protein in a Reasonable Daily Intake = 0.084 X 150 g = 12.6 g
PER = 1.0
Protein Rating = 12.6 X 1.0 = 12.6
Example - Calculating the Protein Rating of Whole Egg
Percent (%) Protein = 12.8
Reasonable Daily Intake = 100 g (2 eggs)
Protein in a Reasonable Daily Intake = 0.128 X 100 g = 12.8
PER = 3.1
Protein Rating = 12.8 X 3.1 = 39.68
|Food||Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) 1,2|
|Beans, navy (dry)||1.51|
|Beef or veal, muscle||2.7|
|Chick peas, cooked||2.32|
|Gelatin or hydrolysed collagen||0|
|Lentils, cooked (all other lentils)||0.3|
|Lentils, whole green||1.3|
|Macaroni & cheese||2.1|
|Muscle Meats (bison, lamb, etc)||2.7|
|Peas, split yellow||1.42|
Notes: 1. The official method for determining the protein efficiency ratio is from Health Canada's Health Protection Branch Method FO-1, October 15, 1981.
2. Revised as per January 24, 1996 Health Canada, Nutrition Evaluation Division document, "Guidance for Protein Quality Evaluation of Foods".
3. Samples within each market class from the largest volume processors catering to the Canadian consumer market were composited and conventionally cooked.
Declarations of vitamins and mineral nutrients in the Nutrition Facts table are based on the combined total of both the naturally occurring nutrient content and any added nutrient content of a food. Vitamins and mineral nutrients are declared as percentages of the Daily Value per serving of stated size.
Only those vitamins and mineral nutrients which are included in Tables 6-1 and 6-2 of this chapter are permitted to be included in the Nutrition Facts table.
Vitamin A is measured using Retinol Equivalents (RE). The contribution of both retinol and beta-carotene is used to determine the total vitamin A content of a specific food.
Vitamin A can be calculated from its content of retinol and beta-carotene and its derivatives, based on the following formula:
total vitamin A (RE) = µg of retinol + ( µg of beta-carotene ÷ 6)
International Units (IU) were formerly used to express the vitamin A content of a food. To convert International Units (IU) of vitamin A into Retinol Equivalents, the following formulae are used:
retinol÷3.33 = RE
IU beta-carotene ÷ 10 = RE
The following table may be used to convert IU of retinol and IU of beta-carotene to RE
|IU of retinol =||RE =||IU of beta-carotene|
* Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin A for persons of two years of age and older is 1000 RE.
** Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin A for persons less than two years of age is 400 RE.
Vitamin D is measured in micrograms (µg). It was formerly expressed in International Units (IU).
The amount of vitamin D may be calculated based on the following relationship:
1 µg of either
ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin
= 40 IU vitamin D
The following table contains IU of vitamin D converted to µg, along with a calculation of the % Daily Value of vitamin D for adults and children.
2 years of age*
< 2 years of age**
* Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin D for persons of two years of age or older is 5 µg.
** Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin D for persons less than two years of age is 10 µg.
The amount of vitamin E is based on the content of d-alpha-tocopherol expressed in milligrams. Alpha-tocopherol occurs naturally (d-alpha tocopherol or RRR-alpha tocopherol1 ) or can be added as the synthetic form (dl-alpha-tocopherol or all racemic alpha-tocopherol2). In addition, esterified forms (acetates, succinates, of alpha-tocopherol) are used to increase the stability of the vitamin.
Vitamin E (mg) is calculated on the basis of the following:
d-alpha-tocopherol = 1 mg vitamin
1 mg dl-alpha-tocopherol = 0.74 mg vitamin E
Vitamin E was formerly expressed in International Units (IU). IU are still used in D.01.010 and D.01.011 of the Food and Drug Regulations, controlling the level of vitamin E that may be added to foods. IU are calculated on the basis of the following:
1 IU vitamin E = 0.67 mg vitamin E
The following table gives conversions of IU of vitamin E converted to mg, along with a calculation of the % of the Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin E for adults and children.
1. d-alpha-tocopherol = RRR-alpha-tocopherol =
natural vitamin E
2. dl-alpha-tocopherol = all rac-(racemic) alpha-tocopherol = synthetic vitamin E
2 years of age*
< 2 years of age**
* Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin E for persons of two years of age or older is 10 mg.
** Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin E for persons less than two years of age is 3 mg.
The amount of vitamin C is based on the content of L-ascorbic acid and L-dehydroascorbic acid and their derivatives, calculated in milligram equivalents of L-ascorbic acid and expressed in milligrams.
The amount of thiamine and its derivatives is based on the content of thiamine expressed in milligrams.
The amount of riboflavin and its derivatives is based on the content of riboflavin expressed in milligrams.
Although previously expressed in milligrams (mg), niacin is now determined in Niacin Equivalents (NE). The conversion formula is as follows:
NE = mg niacin and/or nicotinic acid + mg tryptophan ÷ 60
The content of tryptophan in a food can be estimated if the protein content of the food is known. Tryptophan constitutes 1.5 percent of egg protein, 1.3 percent of protein from milk, meat, poultry or fish, and 1.1 percent of the protein from mixed and other sources.
Calculation Example - % of the RDI of niacin in a mixed protein source
A 60 g serving of food contains 4.26 mg of niacin and 7.5 g of protein from a mixed source:
- NE from niacin alone = 4.26 NE
- Calculate the amount of tryptophan (which is 1.1%
of the protein)
1.1% x 7.5 g protein = 0.082 g tryptophan = 82 mg
- Using the conversion formula above, divide mg of tryptophan by 60
82 mg / 60 mg = 1.36 NE
- Add niacin equivalents from the niacin and the
4.26 NE + 1.36 NE = 5.62 NE
- Calculate the % of the Recommended Daily Intake of
niacin (adults = 23 NE)
(5.62 NE / 23 NE) x 100% = 24 % RDI
- Round the % of the Recommended Daily Intake as per
the table to B.01.401 to arrive at the % Daily Value for declaration in the
Nutrition Facts table
24 % RDI = 25 % Daily Value (rounded)
The amount of vitamin B6 is based on the content of pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine and their derivatives, calculated in milligram equivalents of pyridoxine and expressed as milligrams.
The amount of folacin or folate is based on the content of folic acid (pteroylmonoglutamic acid) and related compounds exhibiting the biological activity of folic acid, calculated in microgram equivalents of folic acid and expressed in micrograms.
The terminology required to be used in the label declaration is "Folate" [item 14(h) of column 2 of the table to B.01.402].
The amount of vitamin B12 is based on the content of cyanocobalamin and related compounds exhibiting the biological activity of cyanocobalamin, calculated in microgram equivalents of cyanocobalamin and expressed in micrograms.
The amount of pantothenic acid or pantothenate is based on the content of d-pantothenic acid and expressed in milligrams. Although pantothenate is also known by other names, e.g., vitamin B5, it must only be declared as "Pantothenate" or "Pantothenic Acid" [item 14(k) of the table to B.01.402].
6.11 Compliance Test to Assess the Accuracy of Nutrient Values (for Nutrition Labelling, Nutrient Content Claims and Health Claims)
See the Web site for the document Nutrition Labelling Compliance Test: Nutrition Labelling, Nutrient Content Claims and Health Claims: CFIA Compliance Test to Assess the Accuracy of Nutrient Values.
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