6.5 Fat and Fatty Acids: Saturates, Trans, Polyunsaturates, Omega-6 Polyunsaturates, Omega-3 Polyunsaturates, Monounsaturates [B.01.001, B.01.001.1(1)]
"Fat" is defined as total lipid fatty acids expressed as triglycerides.
"Saturated fatty acids" are defined as all fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
"Trans fatty acids" are unsaturated fatty acids that contain one or more isolated or non-conjugated double bonds in a trans-configuration.
"Monounsaturated fatty acids" are cis-monounsaturated fatty acids.
"Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids" means:
- 9-cis, 12-cis octadecadienoic acid or linoleic acid;
- 6-cis, 9-cis, 12-cis octadecatrienoic acid;
- 8-cis, 11-cis, 14-cis eicosatrienoic acid or di-homo--linolenic acid;
- 5-cis, 8-cis, 11-cis, 14-cis eicosatetraenoic acid or arachidonic acid;
- 7-cis, 10-cis, 13-cis, 16-cis docosatetraenoic acid; or
- 4-cis, 7-cis, 10-cis, 13-cis, 16-cis docosapentaenoic acid.
"Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids" means:
- 9-cis, 12-cis, 15-cis octadecatrienoic acid or alpha-linolenic acid;
- 8-cis, 11-cis, 14-cis, 17-cis eicosatetraenoic acid;
- 5-cis, 8-cis, 11-cis, 14-cis, 17-cis eicosapentaenoic acid or EPA;
- 7-cis, 10-cis, 13-cis, 16-cis, 19-cis docosapentaenoic acid; or
- 4-cis, 7-cis, 10-cis, 13-cis, 16-cis, 19-cis docosahexaenoic acid or DHA.
"Polyunsaturated fatty acids" are cis-methylene interrupted polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Sodium content is based upon the total sodium present in the food regardless of the origin of the nutrient. Unlike most other mineral nutrients, sodium does not have a Recommended Daily Intake. Calculation of the % Daily Value is based on the Reference Standard value of 2400 mg [table to B.01.001.1(2)].
Like sodium, potassium content is based upon the total potassium present in the food and does not have a Recommended Daily Intake. The % Daily Value is calculated by using the Reference Standard of 3500 mg [table to B.01.001.1(2)].
For labelling purposes, the total amount of declared carbohydrates must include sugars (e.g., monosaccharides such as glucose, and disaccharides such as sucrose), starch, dietary fibre, sugar alcohols (e.g., isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, maltitol syrup, mannitol, sorbitol, sorbitol syrup, xylitol, erythritol), glycerol and polydextrose.
The amount of carbohydrate may be determined by subtracting the content of protein, fat, ash and moisture from the weight of the product.
"Dietary fibre are the endogenous components of plant material in the diet which are resistant to digestion by enzymes produced by humans. They are predominantly non-starch polysaccharides and lignin and may include, in addition, associated substances" (Health and Welfare Canada, 1985). There are two types of fibre: soluble, which will dissolve in water, and insoluble, which will not dissolve in water. The total fibre content of most plant foods consists of both types in varying amounts.
Some sources of insoluble fibre include wheat bran, some vegetables and whole grains. Some sources of soluble fibre include oats, barley, nuts, seeds, beans, lentils, and some fruits and vegetables.
The amount of dietary fibre is one of the 13 core nutrients that must be declared in the Nutrition Facts table [item 10 of the table to B.01.401]. The amount of both soluble fibre and insoluble fibre may be separately declared as additional information [item 10 and 11 in the table to B.01.402].
Novel fibre (or a novel fibre source) is a food that has been manufactured to be a source of dietary fibre, and:
- has not traditionally been used for human consumption to any significant extent; or
- has been chemically processed (e.g., oxidized) or physically processed (e.g., very finely ground) so as to modify the properties of the fibre; or
- has been highly concentrated from its plant source.
This definition was recommended by the Expert Advisory Committee on Dietary Fibre, 1985, reporting to Health Canada.
The safety of novel fibre sources must be established before they may be used as ingredients in foods. As well, the physiological efficacy of novel fibre sources as dietary fibre must be established before they may be claimed to be a source of dietary fibre in foods. If the novel fibre source has not been tested for efficacy, it is considered an unproven novel fibre. If safe, it may be used in foods but it cannot be claimed to be a source of dietary fibre.
If a novel fibre source has been reviewed by the Health Products and Food Branch of Health Canada and found acceptable, either as an ingredient only (safety demonstrated) or as a dietary fibre source (safety and efficacy demonstrated), the manufacturer will receive a "letter of no objection". The letter will indicate any restriction on the use of the novel fibre source. These "letters of no objection" are specific to the brand of the fibre source that was reviewed, unless otherwise specified.
Manufacturers who are considering the use of novel fibre sources and require further guidance are advised to contact the Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada.
In the case of ingredients manufactured to be sources of dietary fibre, such as novel fibre sources, the common name of the fibre ingredient in the list of ingredients should include:
- the name of the plant which is the origin of the fibre; and
- the specific part of that plant.
The term "fibre" may be included as part of the common name, if appropriate (e.g., the product is 90 percent fibre).
The amount of dietary fibre from novel fibre sources must not be included as part of the total dietary fibre declaration in the Nutrition Facts table unless:
- proof of efficacy as dietary fibre in the same type of food has been shown through clinical testing to the satisfaction of the Health Canada, and
- a letter of no objection has been issued by Health Canada. Reference: Health Canada's Food Directorate Guideline No. 9, "Guideline Concerning the Safety and Physiological Effects of Novel Fibre Sources and Food Products Containing Them," revised November, 1994.
All novel fibre foods must be reviewed by Health Canada in order for them to be considered a fibre source. This includes novel fibres which may have already been considered acceptable as a food or food ingredient, but which have not been previously promoted as a source of fibre, have not been traditionally used at higher levels and/or have not been used or added for the previously approved purpose.
Some examples of novel fibres not currently recognized as food ingredients or fibre sources include:
- fibre that has not traditionally been used for human consumption to any significant extent, such as cane sugar stalks, cocoa bean hulls, oat hulls, mucopolysaccharides (e.g., chitin) from shells of shellfish, and wheat straw; and
- fibre that has been chemically processed, (e.g., oxidized), or physically processed (e.g., very finely ground), so as to modify the properties of the fibre, such as bleached oat hulls, finely ground wheat bran, bleached pea hulls (seed coats), and bleached wheat straw
Examples of food additives not currently recognized as fibre sources or ingredients include:
- guar gum
- methylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, microcrystalline cellulose, etc.
- wood cellulose (powdered cellulose) [Use is currently allowed under an Interim Marketing Authorization.]
|Name of Fibre
(see note a)
of Ingredient as Fibre Source
of Ingredient as Fibre Source
Include amount in dietary fibre label declaration?
Claim permitted? - see items 41, 42, 43, 44 of table following B.01.513
Include amount in dietary fibre label declaration?
Claim Permitted Including "Source of Fibre"?
FibregumTM (Colloides Naturels International (CNI))
|Acacia Gum (dried exudates from acacia trees (Acacia senegal and Acacia seyal species))||Yes in confectionary (20-50%), grain based bars (4-20%), and at rate of 1-6% in extruded products, bakery products, beverages, dairy products, and meal substitute||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Apple pomace powder||Yes||No||No||No|
|Barley Beta-Glucan Concentrate, BBG Concentrate, Barley Balance (Parrhelm Foods)||Sieved barley meal||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Barley Beta-Glucan Concentrate (partially
BarlivTM Barley Betafiber (Cargill Inc.)
|Barley Beta-Glucan Concentrate||Yes in foods at levels that would provide a source of dietary fibre||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Corn bran by traditional milling (less than/equal to 65% total fibre)||Corn bran||Yes||Yes||Yes||No|
|Corn bran at greater than 65% total fibre
GPC corn bran (Grain Processing Corporation)
|Corn bran||Yes||Yes in bakery products, snacks, cereal, and
Maximum level permitted in high fibre cereal is 46.7%
|Mustard bran||Mustard bran||Yes but only in condimental amounts||No||No||No|
|Standard inulin from chicory root (obtained by hot water extraction, no organic solvents and/or enzymes used)||Chicory root inulin||Yes||Yes but only if meeting the specifications indicated in note e||Yes||Yes|
|Inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tuber (Fructanex inulin - NEX-XUS Distribution)||Inulin from Jerusalem artichoke tuber||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
13 % total dietary fibre, 30% of fibre as soluble fibre, and 12% moisture
|Oat hulls - ground, bleached
Canadian Harvest® Oat Fiber 300-58 (Opta® Food Ingredients)
|Oat hull fibre
||Yes in grain and bakery products at levels that provide a source of fibre (see note b) and in bar-type meal replacements||Yes||Yes||No|
|Oat Hull, (Grain Millers Inc.)||Oat hull fibre BCS-30||Yes in bakery products, cereals, snacks and spice mixtures at levels ranging from 10-30%||Yes||No||No|
|Oat Hull - ground, bleached
Vitacel HF301CA (J. Rettenmaier USA LLP)
|Oat hull fibre||Yes in nutritional bars and bar-type meal replacement, bakery products and grain blends at levels ranging from 4.0-15%||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Pea Hull Fibres
Hi Fi Lite & Centara (Nutri-Pea Limited)
Exlite Coarse (Parrheim Foods)
Ground pea hull fibre (Best Cooking Pulses)
|Ground pea hull fibre||Yes||Yes
but only in bakery products and cereals
*Centara and BCP may also be used in meat products where a filler/binder is permitted
|Psyllium seed husk (meeting the specifications indicated in note f)||Ground psyllium fibre||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
Fiberice (Farmers Rice Cooperative)
300, 1000, 1010, 1250, 1250, 1255, 1450, and 2000 by Protein Technologies International
|Ground soy cotyledon fibre||Yes||Yes||No||No|
|Sugar beet fibre, Fibrex (Delta Fibre Foods) (> 0.125 mm)||Ground sugar beet fibre||Yes||Yes
but only in bakery products at less than or equal to 7%
|Wheat bran, coarse
Claim for regularity if a reasonable daily intake provides 7 g of fibre from coarse wheat bran
if a serving contains 7 g of fibre from coarse wheat bran
|Wheat bran, medium
(0.5 - 0.75 mm)
|Wheat bran, fine
|Wheat, starch- reduced Fibrotein
(mean PS= 0.6 mm)
|Starch- reduced wheat||Yes||Yes
"as is" or in baked products such as bread, muffins, cookies and in low temperature extrusion breakfast cereals
fruits, vegetables, traditionally- milled cereals (including rare grains acceptable for food use e.g. quinoa), legumes, nuts, seeds (including flaxseed), etc.
|e.g. carrots/ beans||Yes||
but must not be finely ground
- Figures in "Name of Fibre Column" refer to mean particle size as measured by the method of Mongeau, R. and R. Brassard, Cereal Chemistry 59 (5): 413-417, 1982.
- Oat hull fibre has not been approved for use as a bulking agent for use in calorie reduction, i.e., a claim for calorie reduction is not acceptable on a product to which oat hull fibre has been added.
- Dietary fibre from novel fibre sources may not be calculated and declared in the Nutrition Facts table of a food unless proof of efficacy as dietary fibre in the same type of food has been shown through clinical testing to the satisfaction of Health Products and Food Branch and a letter of no objection has been issued. See Food Directorate Guideline No. 9, " Guideline Concerning the Safety and Physiological Effects of Novel Fibre Sources and Food Products Containing Them", revised November 1994.
- Dietary fibre from novel fibre sources may not be calculated and declared in the Nutrition Facts table, regardless of their status in "Regular Foods" unless proof of efficacy as dietary fibre in the context of the meal replacement has been shown through clinical testing to the satisfaction of Health Products and Food Branch and a letter of no objection has been issued. (Policy Respecting Dietary Fibre in Meal Replacements, Health Products and Food Branch, September 1993.)
- Specifications for standard inulin from chicory root (dwb): Appearance: white powder; Total fiber: 90% up to >98% (AOAC 997.08 or AOAC 999.03 method); Sugars: 5-11%; Max 2% if desugared; Degree of polymerization (DP) range: 2-60 (2-44 for late harvest); Average DP: 7-14; Molecules with DP < 10: 30-36%, up to 59% for late harvest; Molecules with DP < 20: 63-71% (up to 88% for late harvest); Molecules with DP ≥ 20: 29-37% (min 12% for late harvest).
- Psyllium seed husk manufacture: Mechanical process
(if fumigated, it should be done in compliance with Division 15 FDR); Purity: ≥95%; Total
fiber:≥ 80%; Protein: 3%; Light extraneous
matter: 4.5%; Heavy extraneous matter: 0.5%; Combined extraneous
matter: 4.9%; Fiber analysis using method of Lee et al., 1995 (Determination of soluble and
insoluble dietary fibre in psyllium-containing cereal products, JAOAC
Int, 78(3), 724-729, 1995).
Recommended warning statements on label - For psyllium-containing products: "Psyllium may cause allergic reaction in some individuals"; For psyllium as fiber supplement: "Avoid inhalation"; For products containing psyllium carry-over: "May contain psyllium"; For products containing dry or incompletely hydrated psyllium husk, in Directions for Use section, indicate necessity to consume the product with enough fluid in order to avoid throat obstruction.
Dietary Fibre Analysis
The amount of total dietary fibre may be determined by one of the following analytical methods; by appropriate methods found in the most recent edition of Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International; or by equivalent methods:
- Mongeau, R. and R. Brassard, Enzymatic gravimetric determination in foods of dietary fibre as the sum of insoluble and soluble fibre fractions: summary of collaborative study. JAOAC Int. 76:923-925, 1993. (AOAC method #992.16. A detailed version is available from Health Products and Food Branch, Health Canada, under the following identification: HPB-FC-12.)
- Prosky, L., Asp, N-G, Furda, I., DeVries, J.W., Schweizer, T.F. and B.F. Harland, Determination of total dietary fibre in foods and food products: collaborative study. JAOAC 68, 677(1985); 69, 259(1986). (JAOAC method #985.29. The method of Prosky et al. will overestimate the fibre content of dried legumes other than soybeans, unless the samples are analysed uncooked or after autoclaving.)
- Englyst, H., M.E. Quigley, G.J. Hudson and J.H. Cummings, Determination of dietary fibre as non-starch polysaccharides by gas-liquid chromatography. Analyst 117:1707-1714, 1992. (This method plus permanganate lignin produces results comparable to methods a) and b) although in some cases the results are lower in spite of the permanganate lignin addition.)
"Sugars" means all monosaccharides and disaccharides [B.01.001].
Sugar alcohols include isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, maltitol syrup, mannitol, sorbitol, sorbitol syrup, xylitol and erythritol. Declarations of sugar alcohol content should not include the amount of water present in maltitol syrup and sorbitol syrup.
The declaration for starch does not include dietary fibre. Starch may be analysed directly, or calculated by difference. If analysed directly, the carbohydrate components may not necessarily add up to 100%.
The protein rating of a food is based on the protein content in a Reasonable Daily Intake of that food as per Schedule K in Part D of the Food and Drug Regulations. (Also see Table 6-4 and 6.3.1 of this Guide.)
Protein Rating is calculated by multiplying the quantity of protein present in a Reasonable Daily Intake of the food by the quality of the protein, which is the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) of the food.
Protein Rating = Protein in a Reasonable Daily Intake x Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER)
Established PER's are listed in Table 6-13. Those not already established must be determined through rat feeding studies.
Example - Calculating the Protein Rating of White Bread
Percent (%) Protein = 8.4
Reasonable Daily Intake = 150 g (5 slices)
Protein in a Reasonable Daily Intake = 0.084 X 150 g = 12.6 g
PER = 1.0
Protein Rating = 12.6 X 1.0 = 12.6
Example - Calculating the Protein Rating of Whole Egg
Percent (%) Protein = 12.8
Reasonable Daily Intake = 100 g (2 eggs)
Protein in a Reasonable Daily Intake = 0.128 X 100 g = 12.8
PER = 3.1
Protein Rating = 12.8 X 3.1 = 39.68
|Food||Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) 1,2|
|Beans, navy (dry)||1.51|
|Beef or veal, muscle||2.7|
|Chick peas, cooked||2.32|
|Gelatin or hydrolysed collagen||0|
|Lentils, cooked (all other lentils)||0.3|
|Lentils, whole green||1.3|
|Macaroni & cheese||2.1|
|Muscle Meats (bison, lamb, etc)||2.7|
|Peas, split yellow||1.42|
Notes: 1. The official method for determining the protein efficiency ratio is from Health Canada's Health Protection Branch Method FO-1, October 15, 1981.
2. Revised as per January 24, 1996 Health Canada, Nutrition Evaluation Division document, "Guidance for Protein Quality Evaluation of Foods".
3. Samples within each market class from the largest volume processors catering to the Canadian consumer market were composited and conventionally cooked.
Declarations of vitamins and mineral nutrients in the Nutrition Facts table are based on the combined total of both the naturally occurring nutrient content and any added nutrient content of a food. Vitamins and mineral nutrients are declared as percentages of the Daily Value per serving of stated size.
Only those vitamins and mineral nutrients which are included in Tables 6-1 and 6-2 of this chapter are permitted to be included in the Nutrition Facts table.
Vitamin A is measured using Retinol Equivalents (RE). The contribution of both retinol and beta-carotene is used to determine the total vitamin A content of a specific food.
Vitamin A can be calculated from its content of retinol and beta-carotene and its derivatives, based on the following formula:
total vitamin A (RE) = µg of retinol + ( µg of beta-carotene ÷ 6)
International Units (IU) were formerly used to express the vitamin A content of a food. To convert International Units (IU) of vitamin A into Retinol Equivalents, the following formulae are used:
retinol÷3.33 = RE
IU beta-carotene ÷ 10 = RE
The following table may be used to convert IU of retinol and IU of beta-carotene to RE
|IU of retinol =||RE =||IU of beta-carotene|
* Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin A for persons of two years of age and older is 1000 RE.
** Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin A for persons less than two years of age is 400 RE.
Vitamin D is measured in micrograms (µg). It was formerly expressed in International Units (IU).
The amount of vitamin D may be calculated based on the following relationship:
1 µg of either
ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin
= 40 IU vitamin D
The following table contains IU of vitamin D converted to µg, along with a calculation of the % Daily Value of vitamin D for adults and children.
2 years of age*
< 2 years of age**
* Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin D for persons of two years of age or older is 5 µg.
** Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin D for persons less than two years of age is 10 µg.
The amount of vitamin E is based on the content of d-alpha-tocopherol expressed in milligrams. Alpha-tocopherol occurs naturally (d-alpha tocopherol or RRR-alpha tocopherol1 ) or can be added as the synthetic form (dl-alpha-tocopherol or all racemic alpha-tocopherol2). In addition, esterified forms (acetates, succinates, of alpha-tocopherol) are used to increase the stability of the vitamin.
Vitamin E (mg) is calculated on the basis of the following:
d-alpha-tocopherol = 1 mg vitamin
1 mg dl-alpha-tocopherol = 0.74 mg vitamin E
Vitamin E was formerly expressed in International Units (IU). IU are still used in D.01.010 and D.01.011 of the Food and Drug Regulations, controlling the level of vitamin E that may be added to foods. IU are calculated on the basis of the following:
1 IU vitamin E = 0.67 mg vitamin E
The following table gives conversions of IU of vitamin E converted to mg, along with a calculation of the % of the Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin E for adults and children.
1. d-alpha-tocopherol = RRR-alpha-tocopherol =
natural vitamin E
2. dl-alpha-tocopherol = all rac-(racemic) alpha-tocopherol = synthetic vitamin E
2 years of age*
< 2 years of age**
* Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin E for persons of two years of age or older is 10 mg.
** Rounding rules have been applied to these figures. The Recommended Daily Intake of vitamin E for persons less than two years of age is 3 mg.
The amount of vitamin C is based on the content of L-ascorbic acid and L-dehydroascorbic acid and their derivatives, calculated in milligram equivalents of L-ascorbic acid and expressed in milligrams.
The amount of thiamine and its derivatives is based on the content of thiamine expressed in milligrams.
The amount of riboflavin and its derivatives is based on the content of riboflavin expressed in milligrams.
Although previously expressed in milligrams (mg), niacin is now determined in Niacin Equivalents (NE). The conversion formula is as follows:
NE = mg niacin and/or nicotinic acid + mg tryptophan ÷ 60
The content of tryptophan in a food can be estimated if the protein content of the food is known. Tryptophan constitutes 1.5 percent of egg protein, 1.3 percent of protein from milk, meat, poultry or fish, and 1.1 percent of the protein from mixed and other sources.
Calculation Example - % of the RDI of niacin in a mixed protein source
A 60 g serving of food contains 4.26 mg of niacin and 7.5 g of protein from a mixed source:
- NE from niacin alone = 4.26 NE
- Calculate the amount of tryptophan (which is 1.1%
of the protein)
1.1% x 7.5 g protein = 0.082 g tryptophan = 82 mg
- Using the conversion formula above, divide mg of tryptophan by 60
82 mg / 60 mg = 1.36 NE
- Add niacin equivalents from the niacin and the
4.26 NE + 1.36 NE = 5.62 NE
- Calculate the % of the Recommended Daily Intake of
niacin (adults = 23 NE)
(5.62 NE / 23 NE) x 100% = 24 % RDI
- Round the % of the Recommended Daily Intake as per
the table to B.01.401 to arrive at the % Daily Value for declaration in the
Nutrition Facts table
24 % RDI = 25 % Daily Value (rounded)
The amount of vitamin B6 is based on the content of pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine and their derivatives, calculated in milligram equivalents of pyridoxine and expressed as milligrams.
The amount of folacin or folate is based on the content of folic acid (pteroylmonoglutamic acid) and related compounds exhibiting the biological activity of folic acid, calculated in microgram equivalents of folic acid and expressed in micrograms.
The terminology required to be used in the label declaration is "Folate" [item 14(h) of column 2 of the table to B.01.402].
The amount of vitamin B12 is based on the content of cyanocobalamin and related compounds exhibiting the biological activity of cyanocobalamin, calculated in microgram equivalents of cyanocobalamin and expressed in micrograms.
The amount of pantothenic acid or pantothenate is based on the content of d-pantothenic acid and expressed in milligrams. Although pantothenate is also known by other names, e.g., vitamin B5, it must only be declared as "Pantothenate" or "Pantothenic Acid" [item 14(k) of the table to B.01.402].
6.11 Compliance Test to Assess the Accuracy of Nutrient Values (for Nutrition Labelling, Nutrient Content Claims and Health Claims)
See the Web site for the document Nutrition Labelling Compliance Test: Nutrition Labelling, Nutrient Content Claims and Health Claims: CFIA Compliance Test to Assess the Accuracy of Nutrient Values.
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