AAC Penhold


Denomination: 'AAC Penhold'
Previously Proposed Denomination: 'HY1319'
Botanical Name: Triticum aestivum
Applicant/Holder: Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current Research and Development Centre
1 Airport Road
P.O. Box 1030
Swift Current, Saskatchewan
S9H 3X2
Breeder: Richard Cuthbert, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, Saskatchewan
Agent in Canada: Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada
Office of Intellectual Property and Commercialization
6000 C&E Trail
Lacombe, Alberta
T4L 1W1
Tel: (403) 782-8126
Application Date: 2013-05-21
Application Number: 13-8045
Grant of Rights Date: 2015-08-07
Certificate Number: 5090
Grant of Rights Termination Date: 2035-08-07

Variety Description

Varieties used for comparison: 'AAC Ryley', 'SY985' and '5700PR'

Summary: The intensity of anthocyanin colouration of the coleoptile of 'AAC Penhold' is very strong whereas it is weak to medium on 'AAC Ryley' and '5700PR' and very weak on 'SY985'. The flag leaves of 'AAC Penhold' are shorter than those of 'AAC Ryley' and longer than those of '5700PR'. The flag leaves of 'AAC Penhold' are narrower than those of 'AAC Ryley' and '5700PR'. The glaucosity of the flag leaf sheath of 'AAC Penhold' is strong whereas it is medium on the reference varieties. The glaucosity of the culm of 'AAC Penhold' is strong whereas it is medium on 'AAC Ryley' and 'SY985'. At maturity, the plants of 'AAC Penhold' are shorter than those of the reference varieties. The spikes of 'AAC Penhold' are shorter than those 'AAC Ryley' and '5700PR'.


PLANT: common medium red spring type, intermediate growth habit at the 5 to 9 tiller stage, heads emerge mid-season, matures mid-season

SEEDLING: very strong intensity of anthocyanin colouration of coleoptile, glabrous lower leaf sheaths and blades

FLAG LEAF: high frequency of plants with recurved/drooping flag leaves, weak anthocyanin colouration of auricles, strong glaucosity of sheath, weak glaucosity of lower side of leaf blade, glabrous blade and sheath

CULM NECK: absent to very sparse density of hairiness of uppermost node, strong glaucosity, straight
STRAW: thin pith in cross section

SPIKE: medium to strong glaucosity, tapering to parallel-sided shape in profile, medium density, tan colour at maturity, erect attitude
AWNS: equal to length of spike, light brown
LOWER GLUME: glabrous
LOWER GLUME SHOULDER: narrow to medium width, straight shape
LOWER GLUME BEAK: medium to long, straight to slightly curved

KERNEL: medium red colour


DISEASE REACTIONS: resistant to Leaf Rust (Puccinia triticina), resistant to moderately resistant to Stem Rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and Common Bunt (Tilletia laevis and T. tritici), moderately resistant to Fusarium Head Blight (Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium species) and moderately resistant to moderately susceptible to Loose Smut (Ustilago tritici)

Origin & Breeding History: 'AAC Penhold' (experimental designation 'HY1319', 'C0401-HH45E') is derived from the cross '5700PR' / 'HY644-BE' // 'HY469' made in 2004 at the Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Swift Current, Saskatchewan. The F1 seed were multiplied at the Plant and Food Research Centre, Lincoln, New Zealand. About 12,000 F2 seeds were inoculated with Common bunt and grown as individual plants in a rust epiphytotic nursery. Disease-free, strong straw and early maturing individual plants were selected, threshed and assessed for kernel characteristics. Seed of the selected F3 lines was grown in a contra-season nursery in New Zealand where selections were made based on maturity, plant height and straw strength. In the F4 generation, seed of the selected F3 lines was inoculated with Common bunt and grown in an epiphytotic nursery where lines were selected which expressed resistance to Fusarium head blight, Common bunt, leaf rust and stem rust. Heads were threshed individually and examined for seed attributes. The F5 bulks were grown out in New Zealand and selections were made and harvested individually on a row basis. F6 and F8 lines were planted and screened in various locations in Western Canada (Swift Current, Indian Head and Lethbridge) and assessed for agronomic performance and disease resistance characteristics. The F5 and F7 generations were grown in nurseries in New Zealand. Selected F8 lines were screened for resistance to mixtures of loose smut and common bunt. In 2009, the experimental line C0401-HH45E was evaluated in the High Yield Wheat 'B' test and entered in the High Yield Wheat Cooperative test from 2010 to 2012 as 'HY1319'.

Tests & Trials: Tests and trials were conducted at the Semiarid Prairie Agricultural Research Centre, Swift Current, Saskatchewan in 2012 and 2013. Plots consisted of 4 rows, each 5 metres long with an inter-row spacing of 23 cm with 4 replications per variety arranged in an RCB design. There were 40 leaf and 20 spike measurements. Plant height measurements were recorded as an average in each replicated plot. Means are based on a two year average. Differences are significant at the 5% probability level based on LSD values.

Comparison tables for 'AAC Penhold' with reference varieties 'AAC Ryley', 'SY985' and '5700PR'

Flag leaf length (cm)

  'AAC Penhold' 'AAC Ryley' 'SY985' '5700PR'
mean (LSD=6.8) 26.9 30.1 28.8 24.6
std. deviation 2.87 3.34 4.30 2.36

Flag leaf width (mm)

  'AAC Penhold' 'AAC Ryley' 'SY985' '5700PR'
mean (LSD=2.5) 17.7 19.7 16.8 19.7
std. deviation 1.2 1.8 1.7 1.3

Plant height (cm)

  'AAC Penhold' 'AAC Ryley' 'SY985' '5700PR'
mean (LSD=7.7) 80.7 94.1 90.1 87.0
std. deviation 7.4 8.1 8.0 5.6

Spike length (excluding awns) (cm)

  'AAC Penhold' 'AAC Ryley' 'SY985' '5700PR'
mean (LSD=6.6) 88.9 105.2 91.0 99.2
std. deviation 5.2 7.4 6.0 6.2

Click on image for larger view
AAC Penhold
Wheat: 'AAC Penhold' (top left) with reference varieties '5700PR' (top right), 'SY985' (bottom left) and 'AAC Ryley' (bottom right)

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