National Microbiological Baseline Study in Broiler Chicken
December 2012 – December 2013

Tables

Table 1 Number of planned, received and tested samples during the study

Sample type Table Note 1 Location Planned samples Received samples Tested samples Performance Table Note 2
Caeca Abattoir 4,732 4,722 4,541 96.0%
Whole carcass Abattoir 1,688 1,707 1,646 97.5%
SLBL breasts Abattoir 1,163 1,104 1,062 91.3%
SOBI thighs Abattoir 597 630 613 102.7%
Weep Abattoir 97 80 77 79.4%
Whole carcass Retail 427 412 404 94.6%
SLBL breasts Retail 881 862 841 95.5%
SOBI thighs Retail 438 419 406 92.7%
Total Table Note 3 10,023 9,963 9,615 95.9%

Table Notes

Table Note 1

SLBL: skinless and boneless; SOBI: skin-on and bone-in.

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Table Note 2

Performance means the proportion of tested samples relative to the number of planned samples.

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Table Note 3

Includes 25 abattoir and three retail chicken parts that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table 2 Unweighted prevalence of Salmonella in broiler chicken lots by province/region

Province Lots Positives P (%) 95% CI
British Columbia 743 143 19.2 16.4 – 22.1
Alberta 584 104 17.8 14.7 – 20.9
Midwest 596 104 17.4 14.4 – 20.5
Ontario 1,032 354 34.3 31.4 – 37.2
Quebec 997 288 28.9 26.1 – 31.7
Maritimes 395 118 29.9 25.4 – 34.4
Canada 4,347 1,111 25.6 24.3 – 26.9

Table 3a Distribution of Salmonella concentrations (MPN/g) Table Note 4 in broiler chicken caeca (Combined results from three and five dilutions Table Note 5)

Range No. of samples Percent of total Cumulative number Cumulative percent
<0.3 10 2.0% 10 2.0%
0.3-0.99 32 6.4% 42 8.4%
1-10 70 13.9% 112 22.3%
11-110 64 12.7% 176 35.1%
>110 326 64.9% 502 100.0%

Table Notes

Table Note 4

Most probable number per g of caecal content.

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Table Note 5

Because the proportion of samples >110 MPN/g significantly increased during the course of the study, the number of dilutions was increased to five during the month of June 2013 until the end of the study.

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Table 3b Distribution of Salmonella concentrations (MPN/g) Table Note 6 in broiler chicken caeca (Results from five dilutions >110 MPN/g Table Note 7)

Range No. of samples Percent of total Cumulative number Cumulative percent
111-1,000 63 32.1% 63 32.1%
1,001-11,000 85 43.4% 148 75.5%
>11,000 48 24.5% 196 100.0%

Table Notes

Table Note 6

Most probable number per g of caecal content.

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Table Note 7

Because the proportion of samples >110 MPN/g significantly increased during the course of the study, the number of dilutions was increased to five during the month of June 2013 until the end of the study.

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Table 4 Unweighted prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler chicken lots by province/region

Province Lots Positives P (%) 95% CI
British Columbia 726 300 41.3 37.7 – 44.9
Alberta 573 145 25.3 21.7 – 28.9
Midwest 579 131 22.6 19.2 – 26.0
Ontario 1,012 203 20.1 17.6 – 22.5
Quebec 973 153 15.7 13.4 – 18.0
Maritimes 390 93 23.8 19.6 – 28.1
Canada 4,253 1,025 24.1 22.8 – 25.4

Table 5 Distribution of Campylobacter concentrations (CFU/g) Table Note 8 in broiler chicken caeca

Range No. of samples Percent of total Cumulative number Cumulative percent
<50,000 3,370 75.8% 3,370 75.8%
50,000-100,000 4 0.1% 3,374 75.9%
100,001-1,000,000 12 0.3% 3,386 76.2%
1,000,001-10,000,000 93 2.1% 3,479 78.3%
10,000,001-100,000,000 465 10.5% 3,944 88.7%
100,000,001-1,000,000,000 458 10.3% 4,402 99.0%
1,000,000,001-10,000,000,000 16 0.4% 4,418 99.4%
Undetermined counts Table Note 9 27 0.6% 4,445 100.0%

Table Notes

Table Note 8

Colony forming unit per g of caecal content.

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Table Note 9

Counts reported as too numerous to count or spreaders reported as greater than values within the 300,000 to 3,000,000,000 CFU/g range.

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Table 6 Unweighted prevalence of Salmonella on fresh abattoir chicken

Sample type Table Note 10 Samples Positives P (%) 95% CI
Whole carcass 1,643 278 16.9 15.1 – 18.7
SLBL breasts 1,056 299 28.3 25.6 - 31.0
SOBI thighs 612 194 31.7 28.0 – 35.4
Parts 1,668 493 29.6 27.4 – 31.7
All products 3,333 780 23.4 22.0 – 24.8

Table Note

Table Note 10

Parts mean the total of SLBL breasts and SOBI thighs tested. All products correspond to all fresh abattoir samples tested including a few parts (22) that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table 7 Distribution of Salmonella concentrations (MPN/mL) Table Note 11 on fresh abattoir chicken

Range No. of samples Table Note 12 Percent of total Cumulative number Cumulative percent
<0.03 164 21.0% 164 21.0%
0.03-0.29 414 53.0% 578 74.0%
0.3-2.99 163 20.9% 741 94.9%
3.00-10.99 29 3.7% 770 98.6%
>11 11 1.4% 781 100.0%

Table Notes

Table Note 11

Most probable number per mL of rinse fluid.

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Table Note 12

Samples include whole carcasses, SLBL breasts, SOBI thighs and a few parts (9) that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table 8a Enumeration of Salmonella in caeca, fresh abattoir and fresh retail chicken meat products (MPN/mL of rinse fluid)

Sample type Table Note 13 Location Quantifiable samples Table Note 14 Median Mean log Geo mean Geo mean 95% CI
Caeca Abattoir 493 NA NA NA NA
Whole carcass Abattoir 276 0.092 -0.92 0.12 0.10 - 0.15
SLBL breasts Abattoir 300 0.092 -0.94 0.12 0.10 - 0.14
SOBI thighs Abattoir 195 0.092 -0.98 0.10 0.08 - 0.13
Parts Abattoir 495 0.092 -0.95 0.11 0.10 - 0.13
All products Abattoir 780 0.092 -0.94 0.11 0.10 - 0.13
Whole carcass Retail 85 0.036 -1.13 0.07 0.05 - 0.11
SLBL breasts Retail 262 0.074 -1.03 0.09 0.08 - 0.12
SOBI thighs Retail 130 0.092 -1.04 0.09 0.07 - 0.12
Parts Retail 392 0.074 -1.03 0.09 0.08 - 0.11
All products Retail 477 0.074 -1.05 0.09 0.08 - 0.10

Table Notes

Table Note 13

Parts mean the total of SLBL breasts and SOBI thighs tested; all products correspond to all fresh abattoir or retail samples tested including a few (9) parts that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table Note 14

These descriptive statistics also include many positive samples confirmed by culture for which the MPN values were either below the LOD or greater the MPN upper limit; they were respectively replaced by 0.5 times the limit of detection (LOD) and the upper limit value.

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Table 8b Enumeration of Salmonella in caeca, fresh abattoir and fresh retail chicken meat products (MPN/g of sample)

Sample type Table Note 15 Location Quantifiable samples Table Note 16 Median Mean log Geo mean Geo mean 95% CI
Caeca Abattoir 493 110 2.13 133.7 102.9 – 173.7
Whole carcass Abattoir 276 0.02 -1.49 0.03 0.03 - 0.04
SLBL breasts Abattoir 300 0.04 -1.28 0.05 0.04 - 0.06
SOBI thighs Abattoir 195 0.04 -1.34 0.05 0.04 - 0.06
Parts Abattoir 495 0.04 -1.30 0.05 0.04 - 0.06
All products Abattoir 780 0.03 -1.37 0.04 0.04 - 0.05
Whole carcass Retail 85 0.01 -1.69 0.02 0.01 - 0.03
SLBL breasts Retail 262 0.03 -1.35 0.04 0.04 - 0.06
SOBI thighs Retail 130 0.03 -1.42 0.04 0.03 - 0.05
Parts Retail 392 0.03 -1.37 0.04 0.04 - 0.05
All products Retail 477 0.02 -1.43 0.04 0.03 - 0.04

Table Notes

Table Note 15

Parts mean the total of SLBL breasts and SOBI thighs tested; all products correspond to all fresh abattoir or retail samples tested including a few (9) parts that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table Note 16

These descriptive statistics also include many positive samples confirmed by culture for which the MPN values were either below the LOD or greater the MPN upper limit; they were respectively replaced by 0.5 time the limit of detection (LOD) and the upper limit value.

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Table 9 Unweighted prevalence of Campylobacter on fresh abattoir chicken

Sample type Table Note 17 Agar plating n Agar plating P (%) Enrich. n Enrich. P (%) Comb. Tests n Comb. Tests P (%) Comb. Tests 95% CI
Whole carcass 1,646 19.0 1,645 23.2 1,646 27.4 25.2 – 29.6
SLBL breasts 1,062 21.3 1,008 34.2 1,062 39.0 36.0 – 41.9
SOBI thighs 613 25.8 568 33.1 613 39.2 35.3 – 43.0
Parts 1,675 22.9 1,576 33.8 1,675 39.0 36.7 – 41.4
All products Table Note 17 3,343 21.0 3,243 28.4 3,343 33.3 31.7 – 34.9

Table Note

Table note 17

Parts mean the total of SLBL breasts and SOBI thighs tested; all products correspond to all fresh abattoir samples tested including a few (22) parts that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.
Enrich.: Enrichment, Comb. test: Combined test

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Table 10 Distribution of Campylobacter concentrations (CFU/mL) Table Note 18 on fresh abattoir chicken

Range No. of samples Table Note 19 Percent of total Cumulative number Cumulative percent
<1 2,642 79.0% 2,642 79.0%
1-10 346 10.3% 2,988 89.4%
10.01-100 243 7.3% 3,231 96.6%
100.01-1,000 77 2.3% 3,308 99.0%
>1,000 9 0.3% 3,317 99.2%
Undetermined counts Table Note 20 26 0.8% 3,343 100.0%

Table Notes

Table Note 18

Colony-forming unit per mL of rinse fluid.

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Table Note 19

Samples include whole carcasses, SLBL breasts, SOBI thighs and a few parts (22) that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table Note 20

Undetermined counts due to spreaders reported as greater than values within 2 to 160 CFU/mL range.

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Table 11a Enumeration of Campylobacter in caeca, fresh abattoir and retail chicken meat products (CFU/mL of rinse fluid)

Sample type Table Note 21 Location Quantifiable samples Table Note 22 Median Mean log Geo mean Geo mean 95% CI
Caeca Abattoir 1,075 NA NA NA NA
Whole carcass Abattoir 450 5.5 0.75 5.65 4.62 - 6.92
SLBL breasts Abattoir 414 1.0 0.30 1.98 1.70 - 2.31
SOBI thighs Abattoir 240 6.0 0.74 5.55 4.21 - 7.32
Parts Abattoir 654 2.0 0.46 2.89 2.50 - 3.34
All products Abattoir 1,112 3.0 0.58 3.81 3.37 - 4.30
Whole carcass Retail 153 1.0 0.51 3.23 2.32 - 4.51
SLBL breasts Retail 364 0.5 0.05 1.13 1.00 - 1.28
SOBI thighs Retail 173 2.0 0.48 3.01 2.25 - 4.02
Parts Retail 537 0.5 0.19 1.55 1.36 - 1.77
All products Retail 691 1.0 0.26 1.83 1.61 - 2.08

Table Notes

Table Note 21

Parts mean the total of SLBL breasts and SOBI thighs tested. All products correspond to all fresh abattoir or retail samples tested including a few (9) parts that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table Note 22

These descriptive statistics also include positive samples confirmed by culture for which counts were either below the LOD or greater than a specific value; they were respectively replaced by 0.5 LOD and such specific value.

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Table 11b Enumeration of Campylobacter in caeca, fresh abattoir and retail chicken meat products (CFU / g of sample)

Sample type Table Note 23 Location Quantifiable samples Table Note 24 Median Mean log Geo mean Geo mean 95% CI
Caeca Abattoir 1,075 8.60E+7 7.86 7.28E+7 6.62E+7 - 8.02E+7
Whole carcass Abattoir 450 1.22 0.10 1.26 1.03 - 1.54
SLBL breasts Abattoir 414 0.22 -0.36 0.44 0.38 - 0.51
SOBI thighs Abattoir 240 1.33 0.09 1.23 0.94 - 1.63
Parts Abattoir 654 0.44 -0.19 0.64 0.55 - 0.74
All products Abattoir 1,112 0.67 -0.07 0.85 0.75 - 0.95
Whole carcass Retail 153 0.22 -0.14 0.72 0.52 - 1.00
SLBL breasts Retail 364 0.11 -0.60 0.25 0.22 - 0.28
SOBI thighs Retail 173 0.44 -0.17 0.67 0.50 - 0.89
Parts Retail 537 0.11 -0.46 0.34 0.30 - 0.39
All products Retail 691 0.22 -0.39 0.41 0.36 - 0.46

Table Notes

Table Note 23

Parts mean the total of SLBL breasts and SOBI thighs tested. All products correspond to all fresh abattoir or retail samples tested including a few (9) parts that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table Note 24

These descriptive statistics also include positive samples confirmed by culture for which counts were either below the LOD or greater than a specific value; they were respectively replaced by 0.5 LOD and such specific value.

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Table 12a Distribution of generic E. coli concentrations (CFU/mL) Table Note 25 on fresh abattoir chicken (Whole carcass)

Range No. of samples Percent of total Cumulative number Cumulative percent
<5 264 16.1% 264 16.1%
5-10 219 13.3% 483 29.4%
11-100 776 47.2% 1,259 76.6%
101-1,000 353 21.5% 1,612 98.1%
>1,000 31 1.9% 1,643 100.0%

Table Note

Table Note 25

Colony-forming unit per mL of rinse fluid.

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Table 12b Distribution of generic E. coli concentrations (CFU/mL) Table Note 26 on fresh abattoir chicken (SLBL breasts)

Range No. of samples Percent of total Cumulative number Cumulative percent
<5 168 16.6% 168 16.6%
5-10 158 15.6% 326 32.2%
11-100 554 54.7% 880 86.9%
101-1,000 127 12.5% 1,007 99.4%
>1,000 6 0.6% 1,013 100.0%

Table Note

Table Note 26

Colony-forming units per mL of rinse fluid.

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Table 12c Distribution of generic E. coli concentrations (CFU/mL) Table Note 27 on fresh abattoir chicken (SOBI thighs)

Range No. of samples Percent of total Cumulative number Cumulative percent
<5 29 5.0% 29 5.0%
5-10 33 5.7% 62 10.7%
11-100 257 44.5% 319 55.2%
101-1,000 227 39.3% 546 94.5%
>1,000 32 5.5% 578 100.0%

Table Note

Table Note 27

Colony-forming unit per mL of rinse fluid.

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Table 13a Enumeration of generic E. coli on fresh abattoir chicken meat products (CFU/mL of rinse fluid)

Sample type Table Note 28 Quantifiable samples Median Mean log Geo mean Geo mean 95% CI
Whole carcass 1,379 45 1.70 50.6 47.2 - 54.4
SLBL breasts 845 30 1.54 34.3 31.8 - 37.1
SOBI thighs 549 90 1.98 96.1 85.2 - 108.3
Parts 1,394 45 1.71 51.5 47.9 - 55.3
All products 2,795 45 1.71 51.4 48.8 - 54.0

Table Notes

Table Note 28

Parts mean the total of SLBL breasts and SOBI thighs tested. All products correspond to all fresh abattoir samples tested including a few parts (22) that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table 13b Enumeration of generic E. coli on fresh abattoir chicken meat products (CFU/g of sample)

Sample type Table Note 29 Quantifiable samples Median Mean log Geo mean Geo mean 95% CI
Whole carcass 1,379 10.0 1.05 11.3 10.5 - 12.1
SLBL breasts 845 6.7 0.88 7.6 7.1 - 8.3
SOBI thighs 549 20.0 1.33 21.3 18.9 - 24.1
Parts 1,394 10.0 1.06 11.4 10.7 - 12.3
All products 2,795 10.0 1.06 11.4 10.9 - 12.0

Table Note

Table Note 29

Parts mean the total of SLBL breasts and SOBI thighs tested. All products correspond to all fresh abattoir samples tested including a few parts (22) that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table 14 Unweighted prevalence of Salmonella on fresh retail chicken

Sample type Table Note 30 Samples Positives P (%) 95% CI
Whole carcass 404 85 21.0 17.1 - 25.0
SLBL breasts 834 262 31.4 28.3 - 34.6
SOBI thighs 405 130 32.1 27.6 - 36.6
Parts 1,239 392 31.6 29.0 - 34.2
All products 1,646 477 29.0 26.8 - 31.2

Table Note

Table Note 30

Parts mean the total of SLBL breasts and SOBI thighs tested. All products correspond to all fresh retail samples tested including a few (3) parts that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table 15 Distribution of Salmonella concentrations (MPN/mL) Table Note 31 on fresh retail chicken

Range No. of samples Table Note 32 Percent of total Cumulative number Cumulative percent
<0.03 133 27.9% 133 27.9%
0.03-0.29 238 49.9% 371 77.8%
0.3-2.99 83 17.4% 454 95.2%
3.00-10.99 15 3.1% 469 98.3%
>11 8 1.7% 477 100.0%

Table Notes

Table Note 31

Most probable number per mL of rinse fluid.

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Table Note 32

Samples include whole carcasses, SLBL breasts, SOBI thighs and a few parts (3) that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table 16 Unweighted prevalence of Campylobacter on fresh retail chicken

Sample type Table Note 33 Agar plating n Agar plating P (%) Enrich. n Enrich. P (%) Comb. tests n Comb. Tests P (%) Comb. tests 95% CI
Whole carcass 404 22.0 402 34.3 404 37.9 33.1 - 42.6
SLBL breasts 841 17.6 793 40.7 841 43.3 39.9 - 46.6
SOBI thighs 406 27.3 382 34.6 406 42.6 37.8 - 47.4
Parts 1,247 20.8 1,175 38.7 1,247 43.1 40.3 - 45.8
All products 1,654 21.1 1,579 37.6 1,654 41.8 39.4 - 44.2

Table Note

Table Note 33

Parts mean the total of SLBL breasts and SOBI thighs tested. All products correspond to all fresh abattoir samples tested including a few parts (1) that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.
Enrich.: Enrichment, Comb. test: Combined test

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Table 17 Distribution of Campylobacter concentrations (CFU/mL) Table Note 34 on fresh retail chicken

Range No. of samples Table Note 35 Percent of total Cumulative number Cumulative percent
<1 1,303 78.9% 1,303 78.9%
1-10 231 14.0% 1,534 92.9%
10.01-100 84 5.1% 1,618 98.0%
100.01-1,000 16 1.0% 1,634 99.0%
>1,000 4 0.2% 1,638 99.2%
Undetermined counts Table Note 36 13 0.8% 1,651 100.0%

Table Notes

Table Note 34

Colony-forming units per mL of rinse fluid.

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Table Note 35

Samples include whole carcasses, SLBL breasts, SOBI thighs and a few parts (22) that were not SLBL breasts or SOBI thighs.

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Table Note 36

Undetermined counts due to spreaders reported as greater than values within 2 to 160 CFU/mL range.

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