National Microbiological Baseline Study in Broiler Chicken
December 2012 – December 2013


Arsenault, J., Letellier, A., Quessy, S., Normand, V., and Boulianne, M. (2007). Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. caecal colonization in broiler chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada. Prev. Vet. Med. 81: 250-264.

CAC (2011). Guidelines for the control of Campylobacter and Salmonella in chicken meat.
CODEX Alimentarius

CFIA (2000). Canadian microbiological baseline survey of young chicken and young turkey carcasses - June 1997-May 1998. Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Food of animal origin division, Ottawa. 

CFIA (2010). Meat hygiene manual of procedures.

Curiale, M.S., Sons, T., McIver, D., McAllister, J.S., Halsey, B., Roblee, B., and Fox, T.L. (1991). Dry rehydratable film for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods: collaborative study. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 74: 635-648.

EFSA (2010). Analysis of the baseline survey on the prevalence of Campylobacter in broiler batches and of Campylobacter and Salmonella in broiler carcasses in the EU, 2008. Part A: Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence estimates. Part A: Campylobacter and Salmonella prevalence estimates. PDF (1.36 MB)

EFSA (2011). Scientific opinion on Campylobacter in broiler meat production: control options and performance objectives and/or targets at different stages of the food chain. EFSA Journal 2011; 9(4) 2105.

FAO/WHO (2011). Salmonella and Campylobacter in chicken meat. PDF (433.27 kb)

Flint, J.A., Van Duynhoven, Y.T., Angulo, F.J., DeLong, S.M., Braun, P., Kirk, M., Scallan, E., Fitzgerald, M., Adak, G.K., Sockett, P., Ellis, A., Hall, G., Gargouri, N., Walke, H., and Braam, P. (2005). Estimating the burden of acute gastroenteritis, foodborne disease, and pathogens commonly transmitted by food: an international review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41: 698-704.

FSA (2009). FSA report for the UK survey of Campylobacter and Salmonella contamination of fresh chicken at retail sale PDF (72 kb)

FSANZ (2010). Baseline survey on the prevalence and concentration of Salmonella and Campylobacter in chicken meat on-farm and at primary processing PDF (617 kb)

FSIS (2008). Most probable number procedure and tables, MLG Appendix 2.03, Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, USDA.

FSIS (2009). The nationwide microbiological baseline data collection program: young chicken survey June 2007 – June 2008 PDF (200 kb)

FSIS (2010). Compliance guideline for controlling Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry PDF (1.36 mb)

FSIS (2010a).  Nationwide raw chicken parts microbiological baseline data collection program. PDF (407 KB)

FSIS (2010b). Isolation, identification, and enumeration of Campylobacter jejuni/coli/lari from poultry rinse and sponge samples, MLG Appendix 41.00, Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, USDA.

FSIS (2011a). FSIS procedure for the use of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for screening Salmonella in raw meat products, raw catfish products, carcass sponge samples, whole bird rinses, ready-to-eat meat, poultry products, and pasteurized egg products, MLG Appendix 4C.03, Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, USDA.

FSIS (2011b). Isolation and identification of Salmonella from meat, poultry, pasteurized egg and catfish products, MLG Appendix 4.053, Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook, USDA.

FSIS (2013).  Salmonella Action Plan – Strategic Performance Working Group.

Food Safety News (2014). FSIS drafting Campylobacter performance standards for chicken parts.

Guerin, M.T., Martin, W., Reiersen, J., Berke, O., McEwen, S.A., Bisaillon, J.-R., and Lowman, R (2007). A farm-level study of risk factors associated with the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp. in Iceland, 2001-2004. Act. Vet. Scand. 49 (I8): 1-12.

Health Canada (2001). MFHPB-34 method - Enumeration of E. coli And Coliforms In Food Products And Food Ingredients Using 3M™ Petrifilm™ E. coli Count Plates, MFHPB-34, Compendium of Analytical Methods, Health Canada.

Health Canada (2011). Laboratory procedure (unpublished) - Speciation of presumptive Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli colonies by multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (mPCR), Ottawa.

Jonsson, M.E., Chriél, M., Norström, M., and Hofshagen, M. (2012). Effect of climate and farm environment on Campylobacter spp. colonisation in Norwegian broiler flocks. Prev. Vet. Med. 107: 95-104.

Majowicz, S.E., McNab, W.B., Sockett, P., Henson, S., Doré, K., Edge, V.L., Buffett, M.C., Fazil, A., Read, S., McEwen, S., Stacey, D., and Wilson, J.B. (2006). Burden and cost of gastroenteritis in a Canadian community. J. Food Prot. 69: 651-659.

National Farmers Union (2005). Canada food retail – 2004/2005. Supermarket revenues and market shares previously published on

Newell, D.G., and Fearnley, C. (2003). Sources of Campylobacter colonization in broiler chickens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69: 4343-4351.

Patrick, M., Christiansen, L., Wainø, M., Ethelberg, S., Madsen, H., and Wegener, H. (2004). Effects of climate on incidence of Campylobacter spp. in humans and prevalence in broiler flocks in Denmark. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 7474-7480.

Thomas, M.K, Majowicz, S.E., Sockett, P.N., Fazil, A., Pollari, F., Doré, K., Flint, J.A., and Edge, V.L. (2006). Estimated numbers of community cases of illness due to Salmonella, Campylobacter and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli: pathogen-specific community rates. Can. J. Infect. Dis. Med. Microbiol. 17: 229-234.

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