Metal Can Defects Manual - Identification and Classification
Bulletins Index

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Bulletin 2 - Container Integrity Dye Test Procedure

No. 2 28/08/98

PDF (359 kb)

To: All Holders of the Metal Can Defects Manual

Subject: Container Integrity Dye Procedure

The purpose of this bulletin is to provide manual holders with the attached procedures for conducting container integrity dye tests.

Cameron Prince
Director
Fish, Seafood and Production Division

Container Integrity Dye Procedure

Purpose

An investigative procedure used to detect container integrity defects that result in leakage on any area of a container, including the scoreline, pull tab and/or double seam.

Procedure

  1. Examine the can and record any container integrity defect or anomaly associated with the container.
  2. Determine which area of the can is to be dye tested. Cut away the top or bottom of the container depending on the test site and remove the can contents.
  3. Thoroughly wash the can using hot soapy water and a soft brush to remove any remains of the can contents.
  4. Thoroughly dry the can manually or allow the can to air dry overnight.
  5. Dye Application

Ardrox Liquid Visible Red Dye:

Apply the dye to the test site (seam, pull tab, scoreline, etc.).

Optional Step: Ardrox liquid visible red dye may be used with a developer. The function of the developer is to assist in the identification of the dye when it leaks through a test site.

If the developer is being used, spray the developer on the opposite side of the dye test site and allow the developer to dry according to the manufacturer's instructions (this is usually three to five minutes).

Magnaflux Zyglo Liquid Green Fluorescent Dye:

Apply the dye to the test site (seam, pull tab, scoreline, etc.).

A black light must be used to inspect the can in order to detect this fluorescein dye.

  • 6. Initially inspect the can after the dye has been applied and every fifteen minutes thereafter, up to a period of two hours to determine if the dye test result is positive or negative.

The two hour time period is described in the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) Bacteriological Analytical Manual published by AOAC International, 7th Edition, 1992. It should be noted that a longer period of time may be used if it is deemed necessary.

  • 7. The dye test results are recorded as either positive or negative. A positive dye test results when the dye has leaked through the test area in a period of two hours or less. A negative dye test results when no dye is detected in the test area after the two hour period has elapsed.

Note: All dyes and developers should be used in ventilated areas and according to the manufacturer's safety instructions.

Bulletin 3 - Container Integrity Evalution Sampling and Tolerance Plan for Canned Fish and Canned Fish Products

No. 3 19/02/99

PDF (3 mb)

To: All Holders of the Fish Products Inspection Manual and All Holders of the Metal Can Defects Manual

Subject: Container Integrity Evaluation Sampling and Tolerance Plan for Canned Fish and Canned Fish Products

The purpose of this bulletin is to inform manual holders that inspectors of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency will follow the sampling and tolerance plan outlined below for container integrity evaluation of all canned fish and fish products. The procedures to be followed reflect the requirements of the Government of Canada Visual Inspection Protocol dated March 1, 1995, and are used to assess lot compliance according to Canadian requirements. The Visual Inspection Protocol may be accessed on the Health Canada website at the following URL:

http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/legislation/pol/visual_inspection_protocol-protocole_inspection_visuell-eng.php

Four aspects of the following sampling and tolerance plan are not reflected in the Government of Canada, Visual Inspection Protocol and will be retained by the Fish, Seafood and Production Division, CFIA:

  1. suspended inspections will continue to be offered (Fish Products Inspection Manual, Chapter 2, Subject 1);
  2. re-inspections will not be limited to lots that have been culled as outlined in the Government of Canada Visual Inspection Protocol (Fish Inspection Regulations, Section 10);
  3. a minimum sample consisting of 6 units will be selected for destructive examination (teardown and sectioning) from all lots being inspected. Destructive examination procedures as outlined in the Metal Can Defects Manual will be carried out on the canner's end for a two-piece can, and on the canner's end and the manufacturer's end for a three-piece can; and
  4. the definition of a lot (from the Fish Inspection Regulations): "lot" with respect to fish, other than fresh fish, means a shipment or part of a shipment of fish that is of the same species, is processed in the same manner by the same producer, is packaged in the same size of container and bears the same label.

1. Destructive Sampling

Any defects identified from the destructive examination are to be used to determine lot compliance.

2. Initial and Suspended Inspections - Compliance Sampling

Initial Inspection:

A sample consisting of 200 units shall be inspected with labels removed.

A maximum of 5 sample units may be withdrawn from any single case in the lot. This will require a minimum of 40 cases to be opened when conducting an initial or suspended inspection. If the number of cases in the lot is less than 40 then all of the cases will be opened and the sample units per case adjusted accordingly.

A sample for destructive examination (teardown and sectioning) is obtained from the 200 can sample.

If no serious defects are found, the lot passes initial inspection.

If one or more serious defect(s) is (are) found, a suspended inspection may be offered if the lot has the potential to be culled or reconditioned. If the option to suspend an initial inspection is not requested by the owner/agent, then the lot fails the initial inspection and a re-inspection may be offered.

Suspended Inspection:

If a suspended inspection is granted, the owner/agent must remove defective units from the lot according to a cull proposal that has been approved by the CFIA. The defective units will be disposed of in a manner acceptable to the CFIA.

Once the culling operation is completed the initial inspection resumes and a new sample consisting of 200 units shall be inspected with labels removed.

A maximum of 5 sample units may be withdrawn from any single case in the lot. This will require a minimum of 40 cases to be opened when conducting an initial or suspended inspection. If the number of cases in the lot is less than 40 then all of the cases will be opened and the sample units per case adjusted accordingly.

A sample for destructive examination (teardown and sectioning) is obtained from the 200 can sample.

If no serious defects are found, the lot passes initial inspection.

If one or more serious defect(s) is (are) found then the lot is rejected.

3. Initial Inspection - Mechanical Screening

The Fish, Seafood & Production Division, CFIA, recognizes the Canned Screening Program utilized by the British Columbia canned salmon industry.

The British Columbia canned salmon industry may assess lots under the Mechanical Screening Program, using check weighing equipment, double-dud detectors and a biased sample. This assessment is to ensure that the lot meets Canadian requirements regarding container integrity before being offered for sale.

During a Quality Management Program (QMP) audit the Canadian Food Inspection Agency will receive documented information from the can-screening line-audit program, which will indicate whether the equipment used to carry out the screening process was operating and operated correctly. This information, in conjunction with a review of the submitted Can Screening Report, will be used to determined whether approved mechanical screening procedures were followed.

If the lot contains equal to or less than 25 serious defective units per 100,000 units the lot passes initial inspection.

If the lot contains more than 25 serious defective units per 100,000 units, the lot fails initial inspection and may be submitted for reinspection.

A compliance sample will be obtained from a mechanical screening line during a QMP audit.

4. Reinspection

When a re-inspection has been granted the owner/agent may cull defective units from the lot according to a cull proposal that has been approved by the CFIA. Re-inspections will not be limited to lots that have been culled.

A sample consisting of 1250 units shall be inspected with labels removed.

A maximum of 5 sample units may be withdrawn from any single case in the lot. This will require a minimum of 250 cases to be opened when conducting a reinspection. If the number of cases in the lot is less than 250 then all of the cases will be opened and the sample units per case adjusted accordingly.

A sample for destructive examination (teardown and sectioning) is obtained from the 1250 can sample.

If no serious defects are found the lot passes reinspection.

If one or more defect(s) is (are) found, the lot fails reinspection.

5. General

Only Inspectors who have successfully passed a recognized container integrity course are permitted to carry out container integrity evaluations.

Note

In accordance with the Government of Canada Visual Inspection Protocol, if at any time during an inspection a leaker, flipper or swollen can is found, the inspection shall be discontinued until such time that the lot has been evaluated to determine if the defect is due to under-processing or post-process contamination. If the defect is due to under-processing or post-process contamination, the lot fails and no suspended inspection or reinspection of the lot shall be permitted.

Cameron Prince
Director
Fish, Seafood & Production Division

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