Apples

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Table of Contents

  • 1.0 General Requirements
    • 1.1 Grades
    • 1.2 Variety
    • 1.3 Handpicked
    • 1.4 Sound
    • 1.5 Properly Packed
      • 1.5.1 Requirements
      • 1.5.2 Tightness or Fill
        • Packages
        • Very Tight
        • Tight or Well Filled
        • Fairly Tight or Fairly Well Filled
        • Slightly Slack
        • Slack
  • 2.0 Size
    • 2.1 Requirements
    • 2.2 Measuring Size
  • 3.0 Maturity and Firmness
    • 3.1 Requirements
      • Mature
      • Immature
      • Hard
      • Firm
      • Firm Ripe
      • Ripe
      • Dead Ripe
      • Soft
    • 3.2 Pressure Tester
      • 3.2.1 How to use the Pressure Tester
      • 3.2.2 Pressure Test Table
      • 3.2.3 Calibrating Pressure Testers
      • 3.2.4 Care of Pressure Testers
  • 4.0 Shape
    • 4.1 Requirements
      • Well Formed
      • Fairly Well Formed
      • Not Badly Misshapen
    • 4.2 How to Report Misshapen Apples in Canada Extra Fancy
  • 5.0 Cleanliness
    • 5.1 Requirements
      • Clean
      • Fairly Clean
      • Reasonably Clean
    • 5.2 Mould in the Calyx and Stem Ends
      • White or Light Coloured Mould Black or Dark Coloured Mould
    • 5.3 Mould in seed cavity
  • 6.0 Colour
    • 6.1 Requirements
    • 6.2 Colour Quality Requirements
    • 6.3 Colour Quantity Requirements
      • 6.3.1 Colour Requirements for Red and Red Striped Varieties
      • 6.3.2 Colour Requirements for Red Cheeked and Blush Varieties
      • 6.3.3 Colour Requirements for Green, Yellow and Russet Varieties
      • 6.3.4 Other Requirements
    • 6.4 Colorimeter
  • 7.0 Permanent Defects
    • 7.1 Cracks, Stem and Calyx
    • 7.2 Drought Spot and Cork Spot
    • 7.3 Hail Injury
    • 7.4 Insect Injury
      • 7.4.1 General Requirements
      • 7.4.2 Insect Punctures or Stings
      • 7.4.3 Bud Moth Stings
      • 7.4.4 Apple Maggot Injury
      • 7.4.5 Leaf Roller Injury
      • 7.4.6 Red Banded Leaf Roller
      • 7.4.7 Pansy Spot
      • 7.4.8 Plum Curculio Injury
      • 7.4.9 Scale or Scale Spots
    • 7.5 Limb Rub
    • 7.6 Russeting
      • 7.6.1 General Information
      • 7.6.2 Fine Russeting
      • 7.6.3 Smooth Russeting
      • 7.6.4 Slightly Rough Russeting
      • 7.6.5 Rough Russeting
    • 7.7 Scab
    • 7.8 Skin Broken at Stem
    • 7.9 Spray Burn
    • 7.10 Sunscald and Sunburn
    • 7.11 Watercore
    • 7.12 Other Permanent Defects
  • 8.0 Condition Defects
    • 8.1 Bitter Pit
    • 8.2 Bruising
    • 8.3 Core Flush
    • 8.4 Decay
    • 8.5 Freezing Injury
    • 8.6 Internal Breakdown
    • 8.7 Jonathan Spot
    • 8.8 Pinpoint Scab
    • 8.9 Skin Punctures
      • 8.9.1 General Information
      • 8.9.2 Tolerances for Skin Punctures
      • 8.9.3 List of Apple Varieties Under Hard and Semi-Hard Flesh
      • 8.9.4 How to Report Skin Punctures on Detail Sheets
    • 8.10 Soft Scald
    • 8.11 Storage Scald
    • 8.12 Scuffing
    • 8.13 Blister Spot
    • 8.14 Other Condition Defects
  • 9.0 General Tolerances
  • 10.0 Requirements for Movement of Apples
    • 10.1 Interprovincial Movement
    • 10.2 Export
    • 10.3 Import

1.0 General Requirements

1.1 Grades

The grades and grade names for apples are Canada Extra Fancy, Canada Fancy, Canada Commercial, Canada Hailed, Canada Commercial Cookers, Canada No. 1 Peelers and Canada No. 2 Peelers.

The Canada Commercial Cookers grade is the grade name for apples that meet the requirements of Canada Commercial grade except for the colour and size requirements and meet the maturity requirements as specified in the Canada Commercial grade except apples of the Northern Spy variety.

The Canada Hailed grade is the grade name for apples which the definition of "free from damage" is the same as Canada Commercial except for hailed damage and for colour.

The Canada No. 1 Peelers grade is the grade name for apples for processing purposes that are free from any injury or defect or a combination thereof that, in the case of an individual apple, would cause a loss in normal commercial preparation of more than 5% by weight in excess of that which would have been lost if the apple had been perfect.

The Canada No. 2 Peelers grade is the grade name for apples for processing purposes that are free from any injury or defect or a combination thereof that, in the case of an individual apple, would cause a loss in normal commercial preparation of more than 20% by weight in excess of that which would have been lost if the apple had been perfect.

1.2 Variety

The Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Regulations mention that all apples must be of 1 variety. This means that the declared variety only should be in the package. If other varieties are in the package, they should be scored.

If all the apples in a package are not the same as the declared variety, the inspector, if positive they are another variety, should detain and have cartons remarked to correct the variety. If not positive, the inspector should warn the owner of the apples of possible misrepresentation as to variety and he will send samples to nearest research station for identification.

1.3 Handpicked

All Canadian grades require that apples be handpicked. This means that apples should show no evidence of rough handling or having been on the ground. This is most difficult to enforce. It would appear that the inspector would be on much firmer ground in scoring these apples as "bruised" or "dirty" rather than not being handpicked. This definition excludes Canada No. 1 Peelers and Canada No. 2 Peelers.

1.4 Sound

All Canadian grades require that apples be sound. This means that the fruit is free from condition defects such as decay, breakdown, freezing injury, bitter pit, soft or shrivelled specimens, over ripe specimens, brown core, corky core, etc., or other injury affecting its keeping quality.

1.5 Properly Packed

1.5.1 Requirements

The Regulations require that apples be "properly packed". Produce meeting this requirement as defined in Schedules I and II of the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Regulations may be reported as such. All required markings should be provided either directly on the packages or on a tag attached thereto. You will find all the requirements for marking in Part III of the Regulations or in Appendix VII of the Inspection Manual.

1.5.2 Tightness or Fill of Packages

With certain types of packages and packs, e.g., cell pack, tray pack, jumble packed or loose in cartons, it may be desirable to describe tightness or fill of packages by using the following terms:

Very Tight: Very Tight means the extreme of the condition described under "Tight", that is, too tight for best results which may or may not result in damage; too much bulge for the good of the apple; signifies non-compliance with "properly packed".

Tight or Well Filled: Tight or Well Filled means sufficiently filled to prevent movement of the apple within; furnishes the proper amount of bulge for the pack and apple; signifies compliance with "properly packed".

Fairly Tight or Fairly Well Filled: Fairly Tight or Fairly Well Filled means the pack is not ideal, but is between "Tight-Well Filled" and "Slightly Slack"; tight enough to prevent specimens from moving within the package sufficiently not to cause injury under normal handling conditions; there may be a proper amount of bulge but slight looseness in layers; also signifies compliance with "properly packed".

Slightly Slack: Slightly Slack means the package is not sufficiently full or tight to prevent movement of the apple within the package and thus may or may not result in injury; signifies non-compliance with "properly packed".

Slack: Slack means the package is clearly not full and a free movement of the apple is possible or evident; damage to the apple is possible depending on mode of transport, handling and variety; signifies non-compliance with "properly packed".

For a detailed description of the packages and pack, please refer to paragraphs 117 to 127 in the Inspection Manual.

2.0 Size

2.1 Requirements

All Canadian grades require that apples be sized. For all grades excluding processing grades (Canada Commercial Cookers, Canada No. 1 Peelers and Canada No. 2 Peelers), "sized" means that the apples:

(A) are of a minimum diameter of 2 ⅜ inches (60 mm);

(B) if packed in a tiered package, are by count and

  1. if they are of the box count size 100 or of a larger size, do not vary by more than 5/16 of an inch (7.93 mm) in diameter in any package, or
  2. if they are of a smaller size than the box count size 100, do not vary more than ¼ of an inch (6.35 mm) in diameter in any package; or

(C) if packed in a package other than as referred to in subparagraph (B), are packed in accordance with 1 of the following diameter size ranges:

  1. 2 ⅜ inches to 2 ½ inches (60 to 63.5 mm)
  2. 2 ⅜ inches to 2 ¾ inches (60 to 70.1 mm)
  3. 2 ⅜ inches and up (60 mm and up)
  4. 2 ½ inches to 2 ¾ inches (63.5 to 70.1 mm)
  5. 2 ½ inches to 3 inches (63.5 to 76.3 mm)
  6. 2 ½ inches and up (63.5 mm and up)
  7. 2 ¾ inches to 3 inches (70.1 to 76.3 mm)
  8. 2 ¾ inches and up, or (70.1 mm and up)
  9. 3 inches and up (76.3 mm and up).

(D) The minimum size requirement listed above does not apply to the Golden Russet apple variety. The minimum size requirement for that variety is 2 ¼ inches (57.3 mm). The maximum size requirement for that variety remains as listed above.

The size of processing grades are:

  1. Canada Commercial Cookers must have a minimum diameter of 2 ½ inches (63.5 mm) in the case of the Northern Spy variety and a minimum diameter of 2 ¼ inches (57.3 mm) in the case of all other varieties.
  2. Canada No. 1 Peelers and Canada No. 2 Peelers must have a minimum diameter of 2 ¼ inches (57.3 mm).

2.2 Measure Size

The measurement for minimum and maximum size shall be the largest diameter of the apple taken at right angles to a line from the stem end to the blossom end. To determine off size specimens, inspectors shall use a metal ring sizer. Suspected specimens are placed on the ring. If the apple supports its own weight without falling through the ring, it will be scored for oversize when checking the upper size range, but it will not be scored for undersize when checking the lower size range. However, if the apple passes through the ring, even if it touches the sides, it will be scored for undersize when checking the lower size range, but it will not be scored for oversize when checking the upper size range.

3.0 Maturity and Firmness

3.1 Requirements

Most Canadian grades require that apples be mature. The exception is apples of the Northern Spy variety, if they are labelled Canada Commercial Cookers.

For overseas export, apples shall not be exported, if more than 5% of these apples are more advanced in maturity than firm ripe.

"Mature" means that the apple has reached the stage of development which will ensure the proper completion of the ripening process, with normal flavour and without shrivelling. This is not easy to determine especially when apples are first harvested in a hard state.

There are a number of indications which may be considered in determining maturity but no one at all is foolproof. The most reliable ones are taste, a break in the ground colour from dark to lighter green, or a change in the flesh colour from a greenish tinge to a whitish colour. Shrivelling of the fruit, small undeveloped white seeds, closed seed cavities, indicate immaturity.

Maturity is also related to the firmness of the apple. The resistance of the flesh to pressure of the thumb is one of the quick methods of determining firmness. However, this takes a great deal of experience for the inspector to become proficient.

In cutting apples, the resistance offered the knife blade is one index of firmness. A hard apple cuts with considerable resistance and snap while a ripe apple cuts easily with little or no snap.

Chewing of the flesh of a thin segment cut from an apple is the best final check for firmness. Sweetness or sourness to taste cannot be considered to any extent but presence or absence of a starchy flavour and the texture of the flesh can. A hard apple is generally starchy to taste, has a leathery texture, is tough and tenacious but not crisp.

A firm apple is still highly tenacious or is becoming crisp, it has lost or practically lost all its starchy flavour, except Delicious, which may still be starchy. A firm ripe apple breaks up readily in the mouth but is not mealy. A hard or firm apple leaves a residue in the mouth after chewing whereas a ripe apple melts away with chewing. The cutting of a thin segment from an apple for chewing purposes is recommended rather than biting into an apple because the reaction of cold from apples out of storage gives the impression that the apple is firmer than it really is.

Inspectors should often check their judgement of firmness of apples which they inspect at cold storage temperatures by letting some of them warm up to room temperature. Apples feel and taste much less advanced at cold storage temperatures than they do at warmer temperatures.

The following terms, including their approved abbreviations, indicate the stages through which fruit passes in the ripening process and should be followed in describing maturity on the certificate.

Immature: Immature means that the flesh of the apple is not fully developed. Fruit removed from the tree at this stage will not ripen properly, Example: the term indicates that the apple was picked before it was horticulturally mature.

Hard: Hard means that the flesh of the apple is tenacious or still tough and of starchy flavour, but with indications that the ripening process is proceeding; fruit suitable for long period storage or long distance shipment according to variety.

Firm: Firm means that the flesh of the apple is somewhat tenacious or becoming crisp but with no starchy flavour; fruit suitable for medium period storage or shipment according to variety.

Firm Ripe: Firm Ripe means that the flesh of the apple is crisp and quite firm but has not quite reached its stage of optimum eating quality; a stage of maturity between "firm" and "ripe"; fruit suitable for short storage or short distance shipment according to variety.

Ripe: Ripe means that the flesh of the apple is fairly crisp or slightly mealy but fairly firm and in prime condition for immediate consumption.

Dead Ripe: Dead Ripe means that the flesh of the apple is becoming soft or quite mealy and has passed prime for consumption; should go into consumption immediately; unsuitable for shipment.

Soft: Soft means that the flesh of the apple is soft or the last step before decay sets in; usually accompanied by decay or breakdown. The apple is no longer sound and should be scored.

The term "Over Ripe" should not be used as it often creates the impression that the stock is unfit for food. The term "Dead Ripe" and "Soft" should be used to describe the most advanced stages of maturity.

Inspectors at the request of the applicant can report the firmness of the apples in pounds only instead of reporting in generic terms such as "firm ripe". This can apply to both shipping point and destination inspections.

3.2 Pressure Tester

3.2.1 How to use the Pressure Tester

The pressure tester is an objective means to determine firmness. While pressure readings cannot be reliably used to determine "immaturity", its use should be of great assistance in making uniform assessment of maturity. In addition to the above guides to firmness, the pressure tester can be very helpful especially on apples that are borderline as far as maturity stages are concerned, also reliably indicate storage potential for apples.

When pressure tests are made, unless specifically requested by the applicant, no reference to such action should be made on the face of the certificate. However, in all cases, pressure tests should be recorded on the inspection details sheet to help substantiate assessments made of product firmness. If the applicant requests that pressure test readings be shown on the certificate, a reading range and a mostly statement should be made, for example: Pressure test readings in pounds: 10 to 16 (4.54 to 7.26 kg), mostly 13 to 15 inches (5.9 to 6.81 kg). Under the "Remarks" heading the statement "Pressure test readings reported at applicant's request" should also be made.

In arriving at pressure test readings, it is recommended that two normal apples, not affected by sunscald or other defects, be selected from the package being inspected. Remove the skin from two spots on each apple, preferably from an area between the lowest and highest coloured portion of the surface and apply the pressure test plunger (using a 7/16 inch (11.1 mm) plunger) into the open flesh while holding the apple against a solid background. Do not use the hand as a solid background. Record each reading on the inspection details and calculate the percentage of apples in each maturity group. These same two apples can then be cut for determination of water core damage, internal breakdown or core flush.

3.2.2 Pressure Test Table

Lower Limits Pressure Test at Indicated Degree of Firmness
Variety Hard Firm Firm Ripe
Cortland Down to 16.5 lb (7.49 kg) to 13 lb (5.9 kg) to 10 lb (4.54 kg)
Delicious Down to 16.5 lb (7.49 kg) to 14 lb (6.36 kg) to 12 lb (5.45 kg)
Golden Delicious Down to 15.5 lb (7.04 kg) to 13 lb (5.9 kg) to 11 lb (4.99 kg)
Gravenstein Down to 16.5 lb (7.49 kg) to 13 lb (5.9 kg) to 10 lb (4.54 kg)
Jonathan Down to 16.5 lb (7.49 kg) to 13.5 lb (6.13 kg) to 10.5 lb (4.77 kg)
Lobo Down to 16.5 lb (7.49 kg) to 13 lb (5.9 kg) to 10 lb (4.54 kg)
Macintosh Down to 16.5 lb (7.49 kg) to 13 lb (5.9 kg) to 10 lb (4.54 kg)
Newton Down Down to 18 lb (8.17 kg) to 15 lb (6.81 kg) to 12 lb (5.45 kg)
Other hard varieties Down to 18 lb (8.17 kg) to 14 lb (6.36 kg) to 11 lb (4.99 kg)
Other semi-hard varieties Down to 16.5 lb (7.49 kg) to 13 lb (5.9 kg) to 10 lb (4.54 kg)
Rome Beauty Down to 18 lb (8.17 kg) to 14 lb (6.36 kg) to 11 lb (4.99 kg)
Spartan Down to 16.5 lb (7.49 kg) to 13 lb (5.9 kg) to 11 lb (4.99 kg)
Stayman Down to 16.5 lb (7.49 kg) to 14 lb (6.36 kg) to 11 lb (4.99 kg)
Winesap Down to 18 lb (8.17 kg) to 15 lb (6.81 kg) to 12 lb (5.45 kg)

3.2.3 Calibrating Pressure Testers

Pressure testers should be calibrated occasionally to ensure that they are reading correctly. This can be done conveniently by placing the plunger of the tester against the platform of an accurate set of scales and pressing down until the scale registers a given amount and checking this against the pressure test reading.

The calibration should be made at various points on the scale of the pressure tester, as the correction may vary for the different points. If the tester is held upright on the scales in calibrating, theoretically, the weight of the plunger rod should be deducted from the scale reading. Practically, this is not important and is not done in the original calibration of the instrument.

3.2.4 Care of Pressure Testers

The pressure tester is a costly item of inspection aids. In view of this, the following points of care should be carried out. First, wash the tester at the end of the day, preferably in hot water. Second, hang the tester up with the plunger down so that the moisture will run out and not corrode the spring.

4.0 Shape

4.1 Requirements

The shape of apples should be considered from the standpoint of the characteristic shape of a particular variety. Some varieties have certain peculiar characteristics that make them outstanding from the standpoint of shape. The shape of Delicious, Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, for example, may vary with different strains and growing areas.

The following terms should be used in describing shape for the various grades:

Well Formed: A requirement for Canada Extra Fancy which means that the apples are of the shape characteristic of the variety when fully mature. Slight irregularities of shape which do not appreciably detract from the general appearance of the fruit shall be considered well formed. Filling in of the stem bowl is not allowed. There must be a distinct stem bowl.

In addition to the "well formed" requirement for Canada Extra Fancy, not more than 5% of the apples by count in a lot may be fairly well formed.

Fairly Well Formed: A requirement for Canada Fancy and Canada No. 1 Peelers means having the normal shape characteristic of the variety or being slightly abnormal in shape, but not to the extent which detracts materially from the appearance of the fruit. Stem bowl may be completely filled in providing the apple is not otherwise deformed.

Not Badly Misshapen: A requirement for Canada Commercial, Canada Hailed and Canada No. 2 Peelers means that the fruit may be more irregular in shape than fairly well formed, but the appearance is not seriously affected. Filling in of stem bowl may protrude providing it is not liable to be knocked off.

Clarification of the definitions for the respective shape requirements may be obtained through the use of the official apple models. If the models are not readily available, inspectors should consult their supervisor.

4.2 How to Report Misshapen Apples in Canada Extra Fancy

The general tolerance allows 5% of the apple to be less than the required shape in each grade. However, the Regulations permit an additional tolerance of 5% Canada Fancy Shape in Canada Extra Fancy. This 5% is added to the general tolerance.

When this additional tolerance is combined with the general tolerance, the total allowed of less than Canada Extra Fancy shaped apples would be 10%. However, no more than 5% of this 10% can be apples of less than Fancy shape.

In order to apply this special tolerance schedule for shape, when inspecting Canada Extra Fancy apples, two columns should be made on the details sheet. One column should be used to score those apples failing Extra Fancy shape but meeting Fancy shape (Fancy shape). The second column should be used to score those apples failing Fancy shape (Other shape).

If the total of the percentage of apples in the first column (Fancy shape) plus the total of the percentage of apples in the second column (other shape) does not exceed 10%, the lot passes. If at any time the total in the first column (Fancy shape) exceeds 10% or the total in the second column (Other shape) exceeds 5%, the lot fails immediately.

Example #1: If you inspect 200 Extra Fancy apples and find 20 apples not meeting Extra Fancy but all of them meet Fancy shape. The details sheet would show 10% Fancy shape. This would be acceptable because the maximum allowed for Fancy shape without any other shape is 10%.

Example #2: If you inspect 200 Extra Fancy apples and find 22 apples not meeting Extra Fancy but all of them meet Fancy shape. The details sheet would show 11% Fancy shape. This example would fail the requirements on account of the total of Fancy shape exceeds 10%.

Example #3: If you inspect 200 Extra Fancy apples and find 20 apples not meeting Extra Fancy of which 10 apples meet Fancy shape and the balance of the apples are less than Fancy (10). The details sheet would show 5% Fancy shape and 5% Other shape. This example would be acceptable because the total does not exceed 10%.

Example #4: If you inspect 200 Extra Fancy apples and find 18 apples not meeting Extra Fancy of which 12 apples are less than Fancy and the balance meet Fancy shape (6), the details sheet would show 3% Fancy shape and 6% Other shape. This example would fail the requirements because the 6% other shape exceeds the general tolerance of 5% one defect.

Example #5: If you inspect 200 Extra Fancy apples and find 22 apples not meeting Extra Fancy of which 12 apples are Fancy and the balance of the apples are less than Fancy (10). The details sheet would show 6% Fancy shape and 5% Other shape. This example would fail the requirements because the total exceeds 10%.

5.0 Cleanliness

5.1 Requirements

Cleanliness may be an important factor of quality under certain conditions. This would be especially true when the foreign material is spray residue. Conspicuous foreign matter is scored on the appearance of the individual specimens.

Note: Be sure not to confuse wax marks with spray residue. (Spray burn is discussed in Section 7.9 of this manual.)

The following terms should be used in describing cleanliness for the various grades:

Clean: A requirement for Canada Extra Fancy, Canada Fancy, Canada Commercial and Canada Hailed means that the appearance of the apple is not affected by dirt, dust, spray residue, wax marks or other foreign material. The definition of clean for apples should be interpreted as "free from dirt, dust, spray residue, wax marks or other foreign material".

Fairly Clean: A requirement of Canada No. 1 Peelers means that the apple does not show any noticeable amount of dirt, dust, spray residue, wax marks or other foreign material which is considered to be more than slightly affecting the appearance.

The definition of "more than slightly affecting" is a difficult one to arrive at due to the variations in the density of adhering foreign matter. Foreign matter thickly smeared on the fruit should be limited to an aggregate area not exceeding ¼ of an inch (6.35 mm) in diameter. Lightly smeared fruit caused by dirt, light wax build up or other foreign matter should not exceed an aggregate area of ¾ of an inch (19.1 mm) in diameter.

Reasonably Clean: A requirement of Canada No. 2 Peelers means that the apple does not show amounts of dirt, dust, spray residue, wax marks or other foreign material which is noticeably in contrast with the background colour. Under this definition, foreign matter thickly smeared on the fruit should be limited to an aggregate area not exceeding ¼ of an inch (6.35 mm) in diameter while lightly smeared fruit caused by dirt, light wax build up or other foreign matter may be affected up to an area not exceeding 1 ½ inch (38.1 mm) in diameter.

5.2 Mould in the Calyx and Stem Ends

This type of mould generally develops over a lengthy storage period under high humidity conditions and dries up and dissipates quickly when the fruit is exposed to drier conditions. In addition, this fungus growth is entirely superficial and does not affect the flesh of the fruit in any way.

White or Light Coloured Mould:

All grades: White or light grey coloured mould which is confined to the calyx or stem bowls will not be scored against any grade at either shipping point or destination. If this mould extends out over the shoulders of these bowls, allow as much of the surface to be affected as allowed with dark coloured mould.

Black or Dark Coloured Mould:

  1. Canada Extra Fancy: free from
  2. Canada Fancy and Canada No. 1 Peelers: allow ½ of an inch (12.7 mm) in the aggregate area
  3. Canada Commercial, Canada Hailed and Canada No. 2 Peelers: allow 15% of the surface in the aggregate area. (Approximately equal to a 1 ¾ inch (44.5 mm) diameter circle on a 2 ¼ inches (57.3 mm) apple or 2 inches (51 mm) on a 2 ¾ inch (70.1 mm) apple.)

Percentage of specimens showing this condition but not considered damaged may be reported on a certificate at the specific request of the applicant with the statement not affecting grade. For example, 10% of the apples show white mould confined to the calyx bowl and not affecting the grade. A statement under the "Remarks" heading would indicate: "White mould confined to the calyx bowl was shown at applicant's request".

5.3 Mould in seed cavity

Canada Extra Fancy

  • Free from

Canada Fancy

  • Score when the mould is dark or black colour and affects more than half of the seed cavity.

Canada Commercial and Canada Hailed

  • Score when the mould is dark or black colour and affects completely the seed cavity.

Canada Commercial Cookers, Canada No. 1 Peelers and Canada No. 2 Peelers

  • Not scoreable unless the surrounding flesh of the core is affected.

6.0 Colour

6.1 Requirements

Colour is an important factor in assessing the quality of an apple. There are two standards to consider when determining acceptable colour of an apple. First, the quality, shade or depth of colour has to be considered to determine its acceptability. The apple colorimeter could help you to determine the characteristic colour of the variety. Second, the quantity, it is the acceptable amount of characteristic colour.

Canada Extra Fancy, Canada Fancy and Canada Hailed require that the quality or type of colour be characteristic for the variety when matured. Canada Commercial is less demanding in the quality or type of colour. Canada Commercial Cookers, Canada No. 1 Peelers and Canada No. 2 Peelers do not have any requirement for colour.

After the inspector determines that the quality or type of colour is satisfactory, then he determines if there is a sufficient quantity of this type of colour to meet the requirements of the grade under consideration as outlined in the Regulations (refer to Section 6.2 and 6.3 of this manual). The Regulations do not make any exception for an apple showing more than is required of lesser types of colour.

The inspector should not have any problem in assessing the quantity of colour for the solid red varieties but may encounter difficulty in assessing the quantity of acceptable colour in the "stripped" varieties. He must learn to judge the intensity of colour with the apple colorimeter.

6.2 Colour Quality Requirements

The following table outlines the minimum colorimeter readings established on colour quality for various apple varieties.

Variety Canada
Extra Fancy
Canada
Fancy
Canada
Commercial
Red Delicious 6 6 2
Delicious 4 4 2
Macintosh 4 4 2
Spartan 6 6 3
Winesap 6 6 2
Ida Red 4 4 2
Red Rome 7 7 3

6.3 Colour Quantity Requirements

6.3.1 Colour Requirements for Red and Red Striped Varieties

Varieties Canada
Extra Fancy
Canada
Fancy
Canada
Commercial
Alexander 65 40 15
Astrachan 55 30 15
Atlas 65 40 15
Baldwin 55 30 15
Bancroft 65 40 15
Baxter 65 40 15
Ben Davis 55 30 15
Cortland 55 30 15
Crimson Beauty 55 30 15
Crimson Gravenstein 55 30 15
Delicious 55 30 15
Early William 55 30 15
Fameuse or Snow 55 30 15
Gano 65 40 15
Jonathan 55 30 15
Jubilee 65 40 15
Kendall 65 40 15
King (Tompkins King) 55 30 15
Lawfam 55 30 15
Linda 55 30 15
Lobo 65 20 15
Macoun 55 30 15
Macintosh 55 30 15
Northern Spy 55 30 15
Red Delicious 65 40 15
Red Rome Beauty 65 40 15
Red Spy 65 40 15
Rome Beauty 55 30 15
Sandow 55 30 15
Scarlett Pippin 65 40 15
Spartan 65 30 15
Stayman Winesap 65 40 15
Wagener 55 30 15
Wealthy 55 30 15
Winesap 65 40 15
Wolfe River 65 20 15
York Imperial 55 30 15
Varieties not otherwise provided for 55 30 15

Note: The variety name Rome was the original name given to this variety but Rome Beauty was later introduced. Both are interchangeable. The same remark applies to Red Rome.

6.3.2 Colour Requirements for Red Cheeked and Blush Varieties

Variety Canada
Extra Fancy
Canada
Fancy
Canada
Commercial
Cox Orange Perceptibly blushed cheek Tinge of colour None
Duchess Perceptibly blushed cheek Tinge of colour None
Dudley Perceptibly blushed cheek Tinge of colour None
Fuji Perceptibly blushed cheek Tinge of colour None
Gala Perceptibly blushed cheek Tinge of colour None
Gravenstein Perceptibly blushed cheek Tinge of colour None
Joyce Perceptibly blushed cheek Tinge of colour None
Lasalle Perceptibly blushed cheek Tinge of colour None
Melba Perceptibly blushed cheek Tinge of colour None
Peerless Perceptibly blushed cheek Tinge of colour None
Varieties not otherwise provided for Perceptibly blushed cheek Tinge of colour None

6.3.3 Colour Requirements for Green, Yellow and Russet

Variety Canada
Extra Fancy
Canada
Fancy
Canada
Commercial
Blenheim Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety No colour requirement
Bough Sweet Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety No colour requirement
Golden Delicious Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety No colour requirement
Golden Russet 40% russet or golden colour 40% russet or golden colour No colour requirement
Nonpareil (Roxburry Russet) Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature No colour requirement
Northwest Greening Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature No colour requirement
Rhode Island Greening Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature No colour requirement
Ribston Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature No colour requirement
Stark, Green Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature No colour requirement
Tolman Sweet Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature No colour requirement
Yellow Newtown Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature No colour requirement
Yellow Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature No colour requirement
Varieties not otherwise provided for Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature Colour characteristic of variety when fully mature No colour requirement

6.3.4 Other Requirements

  1. The colour requirement for Canada Hailed is the same as Canada Fancy.
  2. No colour requirement for Canada Commercial Cookers, Canada No. 1 Peelers and Canada No. 2 Peelers.

6.4 Colorimeter

Each district has been provided with colorimeters which should be used as a guide by inspectors to establish in their own minds the quality of acceptable colour for specific varieties.

After a study done during the summer of 1986, the old type colorimeters were reading continually below the new type colorimeters and because they cannot be calibrated in the office according to the following procedure, no old type colorimeters will be used to determine the colour quality requirements.

In using the colorimeter, inspectors should adhere to the following instructions:

  1. Allow the colorimeter to warm up for three minutes.
  2. On the new machines disregard the bottom scale entirely.
  3. Place the red calibrator disc over the opening in the sensor head.
  4. Rotate the calibrator knob so that the meter pointer coincides with the calibration line between sectors 8 and 9 on the meter scale.
  5. Now place the yellow brown calibrator disc over the opening in the sensor head.
  6. The meter pointer should now coincide exactly with the line dividing sectors 2 and 3 of the meter scale if the instrument range is properly adjusted. If, however the meter shows a higher reading, it indicates that the width of the "meter range" is too narrow and it should be increased.
  7. On the other hand, if the meter shows a lower reading, the indication is that the width of the meter range is too wide. For adjusting the width of the meter range, follow the next step.
    Place the red calibrator disc again over the opening of the sensor head.
    If the meter range needs to be expanded then, using a fine screwdriver, turn the adjustment screw of the "Range expansion control R18" a few turns in an anticlockwise direction. (Turn in a clockwise direction if range contraction is desired.)
    Adjust the calibrator knob setting so that the meter pointer coincides with the calibration line between 8 and 9 on the meter scale.
    Now replace the red calibrator disc with the yellow brown calibrator disc to check whether or not enough range expansion has been achieved. If not, put the red calibrator disc back on the sensor head for further adjustment.
    Keep switching back and forth the two calibrator discs until the meter pointer coincides with the upper and lower calibration points on the meter scale exactly when the red and yellow-brown calibrator discs are applied, respectively. The instrument is now properly calibrated.
  8. When checking samples of apples for colour, the minimum colour acceptable for Macintosh would be that colour that registers anywhere in the No. 4 colour span. Theoretically, the minimum No. 4 colour is at the mid-point of the No. 4 span, but in order to allow for errors in judgement, minimum No. 4 colour will be at the bottom of the No. 4 span. This means that when an inspector is checking apples out of a carton, if the needle is anywhere in the No. 4 span, the minimum colour for Macintosh is met.
  9. The apple being examined should rest against the sensor head stem up and stem facing the calibrator knob for at least the length of time specified on the machine before taking the reading indicated on the meter. This is usually 2 to 4 seconds in the case of the new machines.

Note: To keep the instrument working properly and to avoid any damage to the instrument, apples of typical colour should be brought to the office and the inspector should adjust his or her eyes according to the minimum colour requirements of the variety to be inspected.

7.0 Permanent Defects

7.1 Cracks (Stem and Calyx)

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  • Well healed and affect more than ¼ inch (6.35 mm) in aggregate length.

(B) Canada Fancy

  • Well healed and affect more than ¼ inch (6.35 mm) in aggregate length.

(C) Canada Commercial

  • Well healed and affect more than ½ inch (12.7 mm) in aggregate length.

7.2 Drought Spot and Cork Spot

Drought spot is sometimes confused with heat injury or cork spot which is a boron deficiency. The drought spot and heat injury usually occur on the exposed side of an apple and frequently at the margin rather than the centre of the most exposed area. The skin usually retains its normal appearance, but it may be of a deeper colour than normal, sunburned or even killed and brown.

There is always some form of tissue collapse under the affected area, so that the surface often becomes sharply sunken. The extent of collapse depends upon the severity of the injury. The surface of the injured area may be wrinkled, depressed or corrugated. Depressed areas are often crescent-shaped. The brown spongy tissue below the sunken surface may have irregularly shaped cracks or cavities. For the purpose of uniformity, score drought spot and heat injury as drought spot.

The cork spot is characterized by an affected area of ½ of an inch to 1 inch (12.7 to 25.4 mm) across and round to irregular in shape and have rounded margins. There may be one or more lesions on the fruit. In general, the lesions are superficial, but they may extend to a depth of 1/16 of an inch (1.59 mm) or more. As the fruit develops, the affected areas crack and corky tissue develops, giving the appearance of severe spray injury.

These defects are scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  • Free from

(B) Canada Fancy

  • Free from

(C) Canada Commercial

  • Score when more than three spots, or covers an aggregate area over ½ of an inch (12.7 mm) in diameter, or it is noticeably depressed or discoloured.

7.3 Hail Injury

Fruit which has been subject to hail injury early in the growing season has a tendency to outgrow the internal condition thus produced but the fruit may become slightly misshapen as it develops. When fruit is struck by hail late in the season, the cuticle covering the affected spots may be crushed or torn but often remains intact.

Different forms of hail create different types of injury. Soft mushy type hail will leave a russeting injury on the apple. A uniform well rounded type of hail usually leaves slightly to sharply depressed spots (⅛ of an inch to ½ of an inch (3.17 to 12.7 mm) in diameter). The flesh beneath the spots generally is brown and somewhat spongy and dry, whereas a rough jagged type hail usually causes cuts and torn flesh on the apples.

In British Columbia, a discoloured hail mark is often called Leather Mark. If Leather Mark is used as a separate heading from hail injury, the total percentages of these two defects must be applied against the 5% same grade defect tolerance.

Hail injury is scored as damage as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

Any hail injury that:

  1. has broken the skin;
  2. has caused discolouration;
  3. has caused an individual mark exceeding ⅛ of an inch (3.17 mm) in diameter; or.
  4. affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding ¼ of an inch (6.35 mm) in diameter.

(B) Canada Fancy

Any hail injury that:

  1. has broken the skin;
  2. affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding ½ inch (12.7 mm) in diameter; or
  3. has noticeably depressed the affected areas or materially affects the appearance of an apple. This means for leather marks a depressed area exceeding ⅛ of an inch (3.17 mm) in depth and/or affects a discoloured area exceeding ⅛ of an inch (3.17 mm) in diameter.

(C) Canada Commercial

Any hail injury that:

  1. has not broken the skin but affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding ¾ of an inch (19.1 mm) in diameter;
  2. has broken the skin and is not well healed;
  3. has broken the skin and is well healed but affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding ¼ of an inch (6.35 mm) in diameter; or
  4. has noticeably depressed the affected areas or seriously affected the appearance of an apple. This means for leather marks a depressed area exceeding ⅛ of an inch (3.17 mm) in depth and/or affects a discoloured area exceeding ¼ of an inch (6.35 mm) in diameter.

Apples in Canada Hailed must meet the requirements for Canada Commercial except for colour (must meet the requirements of Canada Fancy) and damage from hail.

Hail damage for this grade is scored as follows:

  1. any hail marks that have broken the skin and are not well healed;
  2. any hail marks that have broken the skin and are well healed but exceed ⅜ of an inch (9.52 mm) in diameter or aggregate over 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter;
  3. any hail marks that have not broken the skin but aggregates more than 1 ½ inches (38.1 mm) in diameter; or
  4. exceeds ¼ inch (6.35 mm) in depth.

7.4 Insect Injury

7.4.1 General Requirements

Except for those described in Section 7.4.2 to 7.4.9 of this Manual, insect injuries are scored as "damage" as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy
  • Free from insect, insect larva and insect injury.
(B) Canada Fancy
  1. free from insect and insect larva;
  2. injury that has deformed the apple;
  3. injury that is not well and smoothly healed;
  4. injury that penetrates below the surface; ou
  5. injury that is well and smoothly healed and exceeds an aggregate area of ¼ of an inch (6.35 mm) in diameter.
(C) Canada Commercial
  1. free from insect larva;
  2. injury that is not well and smoothly healed;
  3. injury that penetrates below the surface;
  4. injury that is well and smoothly healed and exceeds a surface area of 5% in aggregate.
(D) Canada Commercial Cookers
  • Same requirement as Canada Commercial.
(E) Canada Hailed
  • Free from insect larva.
(F) Canada No. 1 Peelers
  • Free from insect larva.
(G) Canada No. 2 Peelers
  • Free from insect larva.

7.4.2 Insect Punctures or Stings

An insect sting is considered to be a small insect puncture which extends only slightly below the skin of an apple while a worm hole continues well into the flesh and is usually larger.

Except for Bud Moth stings, insect punctures or stings are scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy
  • Free from insect punctures or stings.
(B) Canada Fancy
  1. insect punctures or stings that are over ⅜ of an inch (9.52 mm) in depth;
  2. insect punctures or stings that are over ⅛ of an inch (3.17 mm) in diameter including the discolouration; or
  3. more than 2 insect punctures or stings per apple.
(C) Canada Commercial
  1. insect punctures or stings that are over ⅜ of an inch (9.52 mm) in depth;
  2. insect punctures or stings that are over ⅛ of an inch (3.17 mm) in diameter including the discolouration; or
  3. more than three insect punctures or stings per apple except for Bud Moth stings, which is more than 5 per apple.

7.4.3 Bud Moth Stings

The eggs of this insect are laid on the underside of the leaves and the young larvae skeletonize the leaves along the main veins. In late August and September, if an infested leaf is in contact with an apple, the larva will fasten the leaf to the apple and feed on both the fruit and the leaf. At this time, the injury shows on the fruit as a group of small holes just through the skin similar to codling moth stings.

The specific tolerance for this defect is the same as insect punctures or stings except for Canada Commercial where the number of punctures or stings is more than 5 per apple.

7.4.4 Apple Maggot Injury

Infested apples have winding streaks of brown, corky flesh wherever the maggots have been. These streaks give the apple maggot the alternative name of "railroad worm".

If the infestation is light, the only evidence from outside of the apple may be tiny pinprick-size punctures, usually with a violet halo through the skin. Apples injured by egg-deposit, but with no injury from the maggot, form a small brown cone-shaped pit on the surface of the apple which is easy to recognize. In some winter varieties, the maggot is able to make a short tunnel before death. There may be no external evidence other than the cone-shaped pit, while the flesh may show a brown streak where the maggot fed. These last two symptoms are probably the only types of maggot injury that will be found in the markets.

The specific tolerance for this defect is as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy
  • Free from apple maggot stings
(B) Canada Fancy
  • Apple maggot punctures or stings that affect more than 5% of the apples in the lot
(C) Canada Commercial
  • Apple maggot punctures or stings that affect more that 25% of the apples in the lot.

If you find an apple maggot sting in a lot which will be exported to countries other than the United States, or for eastern grown apples shipped to states west of and including the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas, please advise Plant Health personnel as this insect is prohibited entry to these areas. Refer to Section 10.2 of this Manual for additional tolerances.

7.4.5 Leaf Roller Injury

The larva of the tree leaf roller feed under the protection of several leaves and they eat deep gouges in the fruit. They may eat cavities out of the sides or centres of apples. Most of the injured apples drop, however, those which remain on the tree will be deformed and have elongated deep rust coloured scars on the sides.

The specific tolerance for this defect is as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy
  • Free from leaf roller injury
(B) Canada Fancy
  • Free from leaf roller injury that has deformed the apple or affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding ¼ of an inch (6.35 mm) in diameter.
(C) Canada Commercial
  • Free from leaf roller injury that affects more than 5% of the surface area of an apple.

7.4.6 Red Banded Leaf Roller

The larva of the red banded leaf roller consumes areas of skin and outer flesh usually in the blossom or the stem end where two apples touch or where a leaf is in contact with an apple. Damaged fruit show shallow irregular channels eaten into the skin.

No scar caused by these injuries are permitted in all grades except for Canada No. 1 Peelers and Canada No. 2 Peelers where 5% and 20% loss is permitted respectively.

7.4.7 Pansy Spot

Pansy spot occurs on apples as areas ½ of an inch (12.7 mm) or more across that are frequently lobed in a way suggesting the shape of a pansy flower. On green or yellow apples, they are white or greenish, on well coloured Macintosh they are light red or pink. They are caused by the flower thrips. At the centre may be found greenish brown corky spots, seldom more than ⅛ of an inch (3.17 mm) in diameter. The spot shows conspicuously on green immature apples and often becomes prominent and serious defects at harvest.

Pansy spot injury is scored as damage when the injury covers an aggregate area as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy
  • An aggregate area over ½ of an inch (12.7 mm) in diameter.
(B) Canada Fancy
  • An aggregate area over 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter.
(C) Canada Commercial
  • No specific tolerance for this injury.

7.4.8 Plum Curculio Injury

These insects cause injury in the spring during egg laying. The female deposits the egg in a round hole eaten in the skin of the fruit, then the injury makes a crescent-shaped cut in the skin below the hole. A D-shaped, corky, russet scar is characteristic of this defect.

Plum curculio injuries are scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy
  • Free from this injury.
(B) Canada Fancy
  • When the injury is not completely and smoothly healed over or shows evidence of penetration below the surface of the apple.
(C) Canada Commercial
  • When the injury is not completely and smoothly healed over or shows evidence of penetration below the surface of the apple.

7.4.9 Scale or Scale Spots

The evidence of injury by scale is the presence of small reddish areas about ⅛ of an inch (3.17 mm) in diameter. At the centre of each of these reddish areas is usually a light coloured spot, making the space formerly occupied by the tiny scale insect before it was rubbed off in the handling of the fruit. When the scale is present, it can be detected by the presence of the grey or greyish brown covering protecting the tiny scale insect which is less than 1/16 of an inch (1.59 mm) in diameter with a raised nipple at the centre, surrounded by a depressed ring. Occasionally a very small black scale, the stage that lives through the winter, is found.

There are several other scales which closely resemble the San Jose scale but no attempt should be made to distinguish between them.

Scale or scale spots are scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy
  1. exceed 2 per apple; or
  2. affect more than 5% of the apples in the lot.
(B) Canada Fancy
  1. exceed 2 per apple; or
  2. affect more than 5% of the apples in the lot.
(C) Canada Commercial
  • Exceed 10 per apple.

7.5 Limb Rub

These marks are produced by fruit rubbing against limbs or leaves of the tree. They are generally recognized by a scar which is smooth to hard, sometimes bark-like and the colour varies from light brown to black. Upon cutting, these marks show a corky to hard mass of tissue underneath the skin. The scar and a little of the area immediately surrounding it will frequently be depressed. Limb rub is sometimes confused with russeting.

Limb rub is scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  1. is soft;
  2. is depressed;
  3. in the case of varieties other than Red Delicious, affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding ¼ of an inch (6.35 mm) in diameter.
  4. in the case of Red Delicious, affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding ½ of an inch (12.7 mm) in diameter.

(B) Canada Fancy

  1. is soft;
  2. is noticeably depressed;
  3. affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding ½ of an inch (12.7 mm) in diameter.

(C) Canada Commercial

  1. is soft;
  2. affects more than 5% of the surface area of an apple.

7.6 Russeting

7.6.1 General Information

The most susceptible causes of russeting apples are a spray or weather injury. There are three various types of russeting (smooth, slightly rough and rough) and the amount allowed varies in function of the grade and the type of russeting.

In the Regulations, the term "extends beyond the stem cavity" means the part of the stem bowl up to the shoulder of the apple. The shoulder would be that part of the apple which touches a flat surface when the apple is placed on that flat surface, stem down.

7.6.2 Fine Russeting

This section is revoked.

7.6.3 Smooth Russeting

Smooth russeting means net-like, streaked, patchy or solid, readily apparent but smooth to touch.

Smooth russeting is scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

When it is outside of the stem cavity and the calyx, and;

  1. the russeting is smooth and solid and in the aggregate affects more than 5% of the surface area of the fruit, or
  2. the russeting is smooth and net-like and in the aggregate affects more than 10% of the surface area of the fruit.
(B) Canada Fancy

When it is outside of the stem cavity and the calyx and

  1. the russeting is smooth and solid and in the aggregate affects more than 10% of the surface area of the fruit, or
  2. the russeting is smooth and net-like and in the aggregate affects more than 25% of the surface area of the fruit.
(C) Canada Commercial
  1. The russeting is smooth and solid and affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding one-half of the surface area of the apple, inclusive of the stem cavity and calyx basin.

7.6.4 Slightly Rough Russeting

Slightly rough russeting means of a decidedly sand-papery feeling to the tips of the fingers when brushed lightly over the affected area.

Slightly rough russeting is scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy
  • When it is outside of the stem cavity or the calyx basin and affects an aggregate area exceeding ½ inch (12.7 mm) in diameter.
(B) Canada Fancy
  • When it is outside of the stem cavity or the calyx basin and affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding ½ inch (12.7 mm) in diameter.
(C) Canada Commercial
  • When it detracts from the appearance of an apple to a greater degree than the maximum amount permitted under the smooth and solid russeting.

7.6.5 Rough Russeting

Rough russeting means bark-like pebbly or thick and not blending with the normal colour of the apple. It has more of a coarse sand paper feel when lightly brushed over the affected area.

Rough russeting is scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy
  1. when rough russeting that is readily apparent and is within the stem cavity or calyx and materially affects the appearance of the fruit, or
  2. when rough russeting is outside of the stem cavity or calyx basin and affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding ¼ inch (6.35 mm) in diameter.
(B) Canada Fancy
  1. when rough russeting that is readily apparent and is within the stem cavity or the calyx basin and materially affects the appearance of the fruit, or
  2. when rough russeting is outside of the stem cavity or the calyx basin and affects an aggregate area per apple exceeding ¼ inch (6.35 mm) in diameter.
(C) Canada Commercial
  • When it detracts from the appearance of an apple to a greater degree than the maximum amount permitted under the smooth and solid russeting.

7.7 Scab

Scab is caused by a fungus. This disease appears as irregular circular spots usually ⅛ to ¾ of an inch (3.17 to 19.1 mm) in diameter, which have a dark green to nearly black velvety surface in the early stage. Later, they have a brown, russeted, rough surface with merely a fringe of light to dark green or even black around the margin. The spots are usually most numerous around the blossom end, and when infection is severe they may coalesce and form large irregular lesions 1 inch (25.4 mm) or more across. This type of scab is different than pinpoint scab or storage scab. For the description and specific tolerance, please refer to Section 8.8 of this Manual.

Common scab is scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  • Free from scab.

(B) Canada Fancy

  • Other than pinpoint scab, affects an aggregate area exceeding ¼ of an inch (6.35 mm) in diameter.

(C) Canada Commercial

  • Affects an aggregate area exceeding ¾ of an inch (19.1 mm) in diameter.

7.8 Skin Broken at Stem

When the stem is pulled out by accident from the apple, it may cause some damage to the skin. Such injury should be scored as a permanent defect even though the injury is healed and dry. Skin broken at the stem must be free from in both Canada Extra Fancy and Canada Fancy and there is no specific tolerance for Canada Commercial.

7.9 Spray Burn

Heavy irregular applications of spray may cause discolouration on apples. (whitish discolouration or cause green or yellow spots). Whitish discolouration is mainly due to a lack of colouring. Green or yellow spots are caused by a lack of sunlight. For spray residue, refer to Section 5.1 of this Manual on cleanliness.

Spray burn injuries are scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  • Free from spray burn injury.

(B) Canada Fancy

  1. is soft, has caused blistering or has caused cracking of the skin;
  2. free from spray burn on apples failing to meet the colour requirements for Canada Extra Fancy (e.g., Reading 6 and 65% of the surface for Red Delicious);
  3. if meeting the colour requirements for Canada Extra Fancy, spray burn has to blend with the normal colour of the apple.

(C) Canada Commercial

  1. is soft, has caused blistering or has caused cracking of the skin;
  2. which does not blend with the colour of the apple and affects more than 10% of the surface area.

7.10 Sunscald and Sunburn

Sunburn is the name applied to a golden or bronze skin discolouration of apples caused by exposure of one side of the fruit to intense sunlight on the tree.

It detracts from the appearance of the fruit, but normally the skin is not killed and the tissues show no sign of breakdown. In fact, the flesh in the sunburned area may be firmer than that of the rest of the fruit at harvest, but it tends to soften rapidly in storage.

True sunscald occurs when an apple that has been shaded is suddenly exposed to the sun. The injury appears as white or tan spots, but in severe cases the skin and flesh present the appearance of having been held in a flame.

Sunscald or sunburn are scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  1. Free from sunscald or sunburn.

(B) Canada Fancy

  1. is soft, has caused blistering or has caused cracking of the skin;
  2. free from sunscald or sunburn on apples failing to meet the colour requirements for Canada Extra Fancy;
  3. if meeting the colour requirements for Canada Extra Fancy, sunscald or sunburn has to blend with the normal colour of the apple.

(C) Canada Commercial

  1. is soft, has caused blistering or has caused cracking of the skin.
  2. which does not blend with the colour of the apple and affects more than l0% of the surface area.

7.11 Watercore

Watercore is a non-parasitic disease characterized by watersoaked regions in the flesh of the apple. When watercore is severe, affected areas are hard and glassy and may be externally visible.

In mild and moderate cases, the disease is more commonly found near the core and around the primary vascular bundles but it may occur in any part of the apple or may involve the whole of it. Delicious, Northern Spy, Stayman, Newton and Winesap apples are often affected:

  1. Watercore is scoreable at all times against the three grades when:
    1. it is visible on the surface of the apple without cutting, and
    2. it is discoloured.
  2. Watercore is scoreable against the three grades after January 31st in the year following the year in which they were grown when:
    1. it exists around the core and extends to the circular area formed by the vascular bundles;
    2. it surrounds the vascular bundles when the affected area surrounding three or more adjacent vascular bundles meet or coalesce;
    3. it exists in more than a slight degree outside the circular area formed by the vascular bundles.

Sampling for Invisible Watercore

As a general rule, cut a minimum of four apples in each of the first two packages examined. A blind sample shall be used to determine percentage. If watercore is not present, stop cutting the apples. If watercore is present but not considered scoreable at this point, continue to cut two apples from each sample in the balance of the lot.

If watercore is considered scoreable in any amount in the first two packages, continue to cut four samples in all remaining samples examined. Cutting for invisible watercore must be a cross-section cut made half way between the stem and blossom ends at a right angle to the longitudinal axis. In order to avoid waste, it is recommended to cut the two apples previously pressure tested.

7.12 Other Permanent Defects

In all grades, scored when a combination of two or more defects described in Section 7.1 to 7.11, the total area of which exceeds the greater single area tolerance prescribed for the particular defects of the combination.

Any injury or defect or a combination thereof other than those described in Section 7.1 to 7.11 that:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  • Affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the apples.

(B) Canada Fancy

  • Materially affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the apples.

(C) Canada Commercial

  • Seriously affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the apples.

8.0 Condition Defects

8.1 Bitter Pit

Bitter pit is a non-parasitic or physiological disease. In its usual form, the disease is characterized by sunken spots from 1/16 to ⅛ of an inch (1.59 mm to 3.17 mm) in diameter distributed over the blossom end of the apple. These spots resemble small bruises and sometimes are wrongly ascribed to hail injury.

In the early stages, they have a watersoaked appearance, but later they become more highly coloured than the surrounding fruit surface, taking a deep red colour when on a blushed area and retaining a bright green on a green or yellow surface. When the apple is cut or peeled, numerous spots and streaks of brown spongy tissue become evident beneath the skin and penetrating radically to the core. The large size apples are more often affected than the smaller ones.

Any amount of bitter pit is scoreable against all grades.

8.2 Bruising

Bruising is probably the major defect affecting the quality of apples at the retail level. Apples are more susceptible to bruising as the maturity progresses. Every effort should be made to see that the apples are handled carefully throughout the marketing process from picking, storing, packing and transporting to the ultimate consumer, including handling at the retail level. Bruises are more discernible on green or yellow apples, but are also equally found on red apples, but not as apparent because of the colour (Golden Delicious as opposed to Macintosh).

Slight bruises that are not readily apparent and are incident to proper handling and packing are disregarded in assessing "damage" from bruises, even if they have a corky discoloured texture under the skin if peeled.

Scoreable bruises are depressed or flat areas of the surface accompanied by obvious discolouration and are readily apparent when examining the apple (for example, soft bruises and other types which are firm, dried and/or cork-like under the skin.)

Never peel the apple in order to check if the flesh is discoloured. Dried and/or cork-like bruises are scored on their outside appearance and not on the discolouration of the flesh.

Soft bruises are depressed or flat areas of the surface that yield readily to slight pressure. They are usually accompanied by discoloured, soft and/or disintegrated flesh, usually brown in colour, but not decayed. Soft bruises of any size are a scoreable defect in all grades.

Small fresh, watery or translucent bruises which are not discoloured or the discolouration is not obvious are not considered soft bruises. These bruises will normally heal in a short period of time in storage after packing.

Bruises other than slight bruises which are incidental to proper handling and grading are scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  1. free from soft bruises;
  2. individually exceed ¾ of an inch (19.1 mm) in diameter;
  3. affect an aggregate area per apple exceeding 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter.

(B) Canada Fancy

  1. free from soft bruises;
  2. individually exceed ¾ of an inch (19.1 mm) in diameter;
  3. affect an aggregate area per apple exceeding 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter.

(C) Canada Commercial

  1. free from soft bruises;
  2. affect an aggregate area per apple exceeding 1 ½ inches (38.1 mm) in diameter.

8.3 Core Flush

Core flush is a low temperature disorder usually found only in fruit which has been held for a long period at a temperature under 2°Celsius. It is common in Macintosh held in -1°Celsius to -0.5°Celsius storage later than Christmas.

Core flush usually starts in one of three ways:

  1. as a small brown area next to the carpels;
  2. as a light brown discolouration following the contour of the core line;
  3. as a lightly suffused brown flush of tissue within the core line.

To assess this damage, cut the two apples previously pressure tested. These apples must be cut at a point midway between the stem and blossom ends.

Core flush is damage in all grades. If core flush shows as a line rather than a blob, it will be acceptable. A 1/16 of an inch (1.59 mm) thickness light brown line is the maximum allowed for core flush. Use a line rule as a guideline.

8.4 Decay

The term "decay" is used in the sense of being a deterioration or decline involving decomposition, which is induced by fungi and bacteria, and which is of a complete and progressive nature. Decay is obviously a condition factor and should always be reported under the Condition heading on the certificate. Inspectors are not pathologists, so it is not his duty to name the specific decay affecting the fruit. If the inspector is familiar with the type of decay, he could name it by writing on the certificate the word "resembling".

Any amount of decay is scoreable against all grades. For overseas export, the tolerance for decay is only 1%.

8.5 Freezing Injury

It is often difficult to distinguish between bruising, freezing injury and internal breakdown. The following three conditions indicate freezing injury:

  1. The browning of a few or all of the ten vascular bundles around the core.
  2. Extensive browning of the flesh and of both large and small vascular bundles. The affected flesh of the fruit showing this condition is watery and rather soft if the cause of the injury was freezing. If it is meaty and rather firm and the flesh is affected mostly at the blossom end of the fruit, the diagnosis should be "internal breakdown".
  3. Large, flattened bruises in apples from the lower bottom of containers, the central portion of the bruise being much sunken and rather soft. (By large is meant about 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter or larger.)

Slight shrivelling of the skin accompanied by ice crystals but no browning of the inside tissue indicates that the fruit is in a frozen condition but does not prove freezing injury. If an inspector encounters this situation, he should take temperatures and leave the apples sit for two or three days before making the inspection. Normally the ice crystals will disappear and there is no apparent damage to the fruit. However, if the apples are frozen solid, damage is likely to occur after thawing showing browning of the flesh and becoming watery and soft.

Any amount of freezing injury is scoreable against all grades.

8.6 Internal Breakdown

Internal breakdown however, while being a condition defect equally as important as decay, is not considered a form of decay. This breakdown often characterizes the end of the storage life of some fruit. It may, however, occur earlier as a result of a faulty growing, handling or storage practice, and may follow watercore, freezing or bad bruising. It is characterized by a breaking down and browning of the interior of the apple, sometimes only on one side, or around a bruise, sometimes throughout the flesh and quite often in a central area surrounded by a ring of normal tissue.

The riper side of the apple is more often affected than the greener side, and the calyx half apple more than the stem half. There are two important factors to remember in the identification of internal breakdown:

  1. the affected tissues are brown;
  2. the affected tissues are mealy or soft.

To assess this damage, cut the two apples previously pressure tested. These apples must be cut at a point midway between the stem and blossom ends.

Any amount of internal breakdown is scoreable against all grades.

8.7 Jonathan Spot

Jonathan Spot is a physiological disease. Jonathan Spot appears in the early stages as brown, roughly circular areas from 1/16 to ⅛ of an inch (1.59 to 3.17 mm) in diameter which are abruptly but only very slightly sunken. In late stages, the spots become somewhat more sunken and appear as irregular lobed areas, sometimes ¼ of an inch (6.35 mm) in diameter. This disease is important because it could eventually turn into decay.

Jonathan spots are scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  • Free from Jonathan Spots.

(B) Canada Fancy

  • Free from Jonathan Spots.

(C) Canada Commercial

  1. is noticeably depressed or discoloured;
  2. more than three spots per apple;
  3. cover an aggregate area over ½ of an inch (12.7 mm) in diameter.

8.8 Pinpoint Scab

This disease is the same as apple scab found on fruit at picking. The development of fruit scab may continue in storage either as further growth of the pinpoint lesions already evident, or the appearance of new lesions. These lesions result from infections occurring prior to harvest, but may not make their appearance until as much as six months after fruit is placed in storage. They are circular and darker in colour than the orchard lesions and have definite borders. A single spot cannot be identified as pinpoint scab.

Pinpoint scab is scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  • Free from pinpoint scab.

(B) Canada Fancy

  • Free from pinpoint scab.

(C) Canada Commercial

  • Affect an aggregate area exceeding ½ of an inch (12.7 mm) in diameter.

8.9 Skin Punctures

8.9.1 General Information

Skin punctures are normally regarded as condition defects, however, it is usually possible to segregate in tray or cell packs those which were present at the time of shipping from those which may have occurred subsequently. A skin puncture that could not have occurred in the cell or tray is considered as a permanent defect. Any skin puncture apparently caused by the stem would be a condition defect. Concerning other packages, healed skin punctures would be considered as a permanent defect; for non-healed skin punctures, it would be up to the judgement of the inspector to determine if it is a permanent defect or a condition defect.

8.9.2 Tolerances for Skin Punctures

Grade Type of containers or display Skin punctures in semi-hard flesh varieties Skin punctures in hard flesh varieties
Canada Extra Fancy Trays or cells
  • individually measure not more than 3/16 inch (5 mm) in diameter;
  • not more than 1 per apple;
  • not more than 10% by count of the apples in a lot
free from
Canada Extra Fancy Other than trays or cells and retail bulk displays
  • individually measure not more than 3/16 inch (5 mm) in diameter;
  • not more than 1 per apple;
  • affect not more than 15% by count of the apples in a lot
  • individually measure not more than 3/16 inch (5 mm) in diameter;
  • not more than 1 per apple;
  • not more than 10% by count of the apples in a lot
Canada Commercial Trays or cells
  • individually measure not more than 3/16 inch (5 mm) in diameter;
  • not more than 2 per apple;
  • affect not more than 20% by count of the apples in a lot
  • individually measure not more than 3/16 inch (5 mm) in diameter;
  • not more than 2 per apple;
  • affect not more than 10% by count of the apples in a lot
Canada Commercial Other than trays or cells and retail bulk displays
  • individually measure not more than 3/16 inch (5 mm) in diameter;
  • not more than 2 per apple;
  • affect not more than 30% by count of the apples in a lot
  • individually measure not more than 3/16 inch (5 mm) in diameter;
  • not more than 2 per apple;
  • affect not more than 20% by count of the apples in a lot

8.9.3 List of Apple Varieties Under Hard and Semi-Hard Flesh

Hard flesh varieties
  • Granny Smith
  • Ida Red
  • Newton
  • Red Delicious
  • Rome
  • Rome Beauty
  • Winesap
Semi-hard flesh varieties
  • Cortland
  • Empire
  • Fuji
  • Gala
  • Golden Delicious
  • Gravenstein
  • Jonathan
  • Lobo
  • Macintosh
  • Spartan

8.9.4 How to report skin punctures on detail sheets

According to the regulations, skin punctures can be scored under two tolerances, that is to say, the size of each specific skin puncture and the number of apples in the lot affected by the skin puncture.

If the size of each skin puncture or their number go over the specific tolerance, this damage will be scored against the 5% of one defect outlined in the general tolerance.

Example: in Canada Extra Fancy Spartan apples packed in poly bags, if more than 5% of the apples are damaged by more than one skin puncture of any size, the lot fails; or, if more than 5% of these apples are damaged by skin punctures that individually exceed 3/16 inch (4.76 mm) in diameter, the lot fails.

The second tolerance on skin punctures indicate the number of apples in the lot injured by any skin puncture including those apples previously scored under the first tolerance.

Example: in Canada Extra Fancy Spartan apples packed in poly bags, if more than a total of 10% of all specimens in the lot are injured by any skin puncture, the lot fails.

In order to provide a consistent system towards the assessment of this defect against the respective tolerance, a two column format on the inspection details should be used, that is to say, skin puncture damage (first tolerance and score them against 5% one defect) and total of all puncture injury (the second tolerance explained).

8.10 Soft Scald

Soft scald is a physiological disorder. This disease is characterized by peculiar patches and ribbon-like areas of brown tissue on the surface, usually abruptly sunken and by the sharp line of demarcation between the diseased and healthy tissue. Sometimes only the skin is affected, but more often the browning extends into the flesh for ⅛ of an inch (3.17 mm) or more.

Any amount of soft scald is scoreable against all grades.

8.11 Storage Scald

This type of scald is again a physiological disease. The term storage scald refers to a disease which may appear on apples not necessarily in a storage. Do not confuse storage scald with soft scald, they are two distinct diseases. Also, it is not to be confused with delayed sunburn or heat injury. Storage scald is a physiological disease of apples and has been a serious problem since the commercial storage of apples. Storage scald primarily affects the skin of apples and is usually confined to the greener side of the apples. In mild cases, it appears as a superficial browning of the skin, but in most severe cases, the entire skin layer is killed.

Storage scald is scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  1. Free from until and including December 31 in any year.
  2. After December 31 and affects more than 15% of the surface of an apple.
  3. After December 31 and affects more than 10% of the apples in the lot.

(B) Canada Fancy

  1. affects more than 15% of the surface of an apple.
  2. affects more than 15% of the apples in the lot.

(C) Canada Commercial

  1. Affects more than 25% of the surface area of the apple.

8.12 Scuffing

As a result of abrasive action during the course of transportation, storing and packing program, a brown or dark brown discolouration of the skin occurs on certain varieties of apples.

This problem does not affect any specific area of the apple. The main difference with other related problems like storage scald or heat injury is that scuffing affects only the skin and will not go beneath it. Even if the discolouration is well pronounced, the flesh might still be firm; it will also not normally show any depressed area.

Scuffing is scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  • Affects an aggregate area of ¼ inch (6.35 mm) in diameter.

(B) Canada Fancy

  • Affects an aggregate area of ½ inch (12.7 mm) in diameter.

(C) Canada Commercial

  • Affects an aggregate area of more than 5% of the surface area of the apple.

8.13 Blister Spot

Blister spot is a bacterial disease. It is characterized with blistered brown centres with a dark purple border; some lesions are irregular in appearance but most are round and have depressed areas. Some are 1 to 5 mm (0.04 to 0.2 inch) in diameter and 1 to 2 mm (0.04 to 0.08 inch) in depth. They tend to be concentrated at the calyx end of the fruit or on the side exposed to sunlight. The most common varieties affected by this disease are the green or yellow type varieties (mainly Granny Smith and Mutsu).

The symptoms correspond closely to those of the scale; the main difference is in the way the skin of the apple is damaged. Therefore, in the case of blister spot, the skin will be greatly affected as compared to scale where the skin will have reddish colour only.

Blister spot is scored as follows:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  • Exceed 2 per apple.

(B) Canada Fancy

  • Exceed 5 per apple.

(C) Canada Commercial

  • Exceed 25 per apple.

8.14 Other Condition Defects

In all grades, scored when a combination of two or more defects described in Sections 8.1 to 8.11, the total area of which exceeds the greater single area tolerance prescribed for the particular defects of the combination.

Any injury or defect or a combination thereof other than those described in Sections 8.1 to 8.11 that:

(A) Canada Extra Fancy

  • Affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the apples.

(B) Canada Fancy

  • Materially affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the apples.

(C) Canada Commercial

  • Seriously affects the appearance, edibility or shipping quality of the apple.

9.0 General Tolerances

(A) Notwithstanding anything in these Regulations, in the grading of apples of Canada Extra Fancy, Canada Fancy, Canada Commercial, Canada Commercial Cookers and Canada Hailed grades, the grade standard for a grade shall still be met, if not more than

  1. 10% of the apples by count have grade defects of which not more than:
    1. 2% is decay, and
    2. 5% is the same defect; and in addition
  2. 5% of the apples by count are below the minimum size specified in Section 2.1 of this Manual.
  3. 5% of the apples by count exceed the maximum size specified in Section 2.2 of this Manual.
  4. 10% of the packages in a lot of tiered apples contain more than 10% by count of apples that exceed the maximum size variation specified in Section 2.1 of this Manual; and
  5. in the case of Canada Extra Fancy grade, 5% of the apples by count in a lot are fairly well formed.

(B) Notwithstanding anything in these Regulations, in the grading of apples of Canada No. 1 Peelers and Canada No. 2 Peelers grades, the grade standard for a grade shall still be met if not more than

  1. 5% of the apples by count in a lot have bitter pit, and
  2. 7% of the apples by count in a lot, in the case of Canada No. 1 Peelers grade, and 10% of the apples by count in a lot, in the case of Canada No. 2 Peelers grade, have other grade defects.

10.0 Requirements for movement of apples

10.1 Interprovincial Movement

Apples shall not be sent or conveyed from one province to another unless they are packed or marked properly and meet one of the following grades: Canada Extra Fancy, Canada Fancy, Canada Commercial, Canada Hailed or Canada Commercial Cookers.

For apples of Canada No. 1 Peelers, Canada No. 2 Peelers or below the above requirements or moving in bulk shall not move interprovincially except if a Ministerial Exemption has been granted by the Minister or delegate of the Minister.

10.2 Export

There are no requirements for the export of apples.

10.3 Import

Apples being imported must meet the requirements of one of the following grades:

  1. From the United States: Canada Extra Fancy or Canada Fancy.
  2. From places other than the United States: Canada Extra Fancy, Canada Fancy and Canada Commercial.
  3. Apples must have a minimum diameter of 2 ⅜ inches (60 mm).

We have an agreement with the U.S.D.A. and their inspectors have the authority to certify apples going to Canada on their following standards: U.S. Extra Fancy, U.S. Fancy and U.S. No. 1, however the colour requirement for these standards should be the same requirement as defined in Section 6 of this Manual.

Again, these requirements are those for properly packed apples going for the fresh market. Apples in bulk for repacking or for processing or not meeting the above requirements are subject to a Ministerial Exemption granted by the Minister or a delegate of the Minister.

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