List of Ingredients and Allergens
Manner of Declaring

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Ingredients

Order of Ingredients

Ingredients must be declared by their common name in descending order of their proportion by weight of a prepackaged product. The order must be in the order or percentage of the ingredients before they are combined to form the prepackaged product. In other words, in descending order by what was added to the mixing bowl [B.01.008(3), FDR].

The following ingredients, however, can be listed at the end of the ingredients list in any order [B.01.008(4), FDR]:

Ingredients that Generally Do Not have to be Declared

When present in a prepackaged product, the following ingredients and their components are not required to be declared in the list of ingredients, unless they contain known allergens, gluten, or added sulphites at quantities greater than or equal to 10 parts per million. Refer to Food Allergen, Gluten and Added Sulphite Declaration for exceptions.

  • Wax coating compounds and their components are not required to be shown on the labels of prepackaged fresh fruits or fresh vegetables as an ingredient or a component [B.01.008(7), FDR]. Apples, turnips and cucumbers are examples of vegetables that have wax coatings.
  • Sausage casings are not required to be shown on the labels of prepackaged sausages as an ingredient or as a component [B.01.008(8), FDR]. However, for products falling under the jurisdiction of the Meat Inspection Act and Regulations, the declaration of a natural casing is required if it is a different species than the meat ingredients used in the sausage.
  • Hydrogen, when used for hydrogenation purposes, is not required to be shown on the labels of any prepackaged products as an ingredient or component [B.01.008(9), FDR].

Components

Order of Components

Components (definition) (ingredients of ingredients) must be declared by their common name as part of the list of ingredients. They can either be:

  1. In parentheses following the ingredient common name in descending order of proportion by weight in the ingredient [B.01.008(5)(a), FDR].

    For example: "chocolate chips (sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor...)" or "chocolate chips containing: sugar, cocoa butter, cocoa liquor".

    Declaring components in brackets after the ingredients is acceptable since it clarifies which ones are components.

    Or

  2. In descending order of proportion by weight in the finished food as if they were ingredients [B.01.008(5)(b), FDR].

    This option saves space in the list of ingredients since all ingredients and components are only listed once in descending order based on their total weight in the final food. In order for this option to be plausible though, a company must know the exact proportions of all components used by their ingredient suppliers.

    For example: the following barbeque sauce illustrates how an ingredient can be shortened and simplified to 9 ingredients from 16 ingredients and components.

    Original ingredients list: Tomato paste (tomatoes, salt, benzoic acid), sugar, modified corn starch, lemon juice from concentrate (water, concentrated lemon juice, sugar, colour, benzoic acid), water, spices, salt, colour.

    vs.

    Simplified ingredients list: Tomatoes, sugar, modified corn starch, water, concentrated lemon juice, salt, spices, benzoic acid, colour.

Generations

Ingredients of the third generation and so on are generally not required to be included in the ingredients list.

For example: consider the ingredients and components of an ice cream containing vanilla cookie pieces. In the ice cream, the vanilla cookies are an ingredient (first generation) that is flavoured with vanilla extract. The vanilla extract is a component of the cookies (second generation), and contains alcohol. The alcohol is a component of the vanilla extract, which can also be referred to as an ingredient of a component within the ice cream (third generation), therefore does not need to be declared in the list of ingredients.

Some exceptions exist when allergens are present in the third generation or further. For details refer to the Food Allergens, Gluten & Added Sulphites.

For example: exemptions will exist if we consider the ingredients of an ice cream containing coconut cookie pieces. In the ice cream, the coconut cookies are an ingredient (first generation), that are made from ground dried coconut which contains sulphites. The dried coconut is a component of the cookies (second generation). Sulphites are a component of the dried coconut, which can also be referred to as a component within the ice cream (third generation). In this case the ice cream with coconut pieces contains 15 ppm of sulphites. Although the sulphites are a "third generation" ingredient in the ice cream, as the final product contains more than 10 ppm of sulphites, they must still be declared.

Ingredients that Generally Do Not have to declare their components

The following table lists foods which, when used as ingredients in other foods are exempt from declaring a component (ingredients of ingredients) [B.01.009(1), FDR]. Refer to Food Allergens, Gluten and Added Sulphites Declaration for exceptions.

Ingredients Exempt from Component Declaration
ItemIngredient
1. butter
2. margarine
3. shortening
4. lard
5. leaf lard
6. monoglycerides
7. diglycerides
8. rice
9. starches or modified starches
10. breads subject to compositional standards in Sections B.13.021 to B.13.029
11. flour
12. soy flour
13. graham flour
14. whole wheat flour
15. baking powder
16. milks subject to compositional standards in Sections B.08.003 to B.08.027
17. chewing gum base
18. sweetening agents subject to compositional standards in Sections B.18.001 to B.18.018
19. cocoa, low-fat cocoa
20. salt
21. vinegars subject to compositional standards in Sections B.19.003 to B.19.007
22. alcoholic beverages subject to compositional standards in Sections B.02.001 to B.02.134
23. cheese for which a standard is prescribed in Division 8, if the total amount of cheese in a prepackaged product is less 10 percent of that packaged product
24. jams, marmalades and jellies subject to compositional standards in Sections B.11.201 to B.11.241 when the total amount of those ingredients is less than 5 percent of a prepackaged product
25. olives, pickles, relish and horseradish when the total amount of those ingredients is less than 10 percent of a prepackaged product
26. one or more vegetable or animal fats or oils for which a standard is prescribed in Division 9, and hydrogenated, modified or interesterified vegetable or animal fats or oils, if the total of those fats and oils contained in a prepackaged product is less than 15 percent of that prepackaged product
27. prepared or preserved meat, fish, poultry meat, meat by-product or poultry by-product when the total amount of those ingredients is less than 10 percent of a prepackaged product that consists of an unstandardized food
28. alimentary paste that does not contain egg in any form or any flour other than wheat flour
29. bacterial culture
30. hydrolyzed plant protein
31. carbonated water
32. whey, whey powder, concentrated whey, whey butter and whey butter oil
33. mould culture
34. chlorinated water and fluorinated water
35. gelatin
36. toasted wheat crumbs used in or as a binder, filler or breading in or on a food product

Additional Notes about Ingredients that Generally Do Not have to declare their components:

  • Partial declaration of some components for an ingredient exempt from component declaration is considered to be misleading as per subsection 5(1) of the FDA, as this gives the erroneous impression that those components are the only ones present in the final product.
  • If the component of an ingredient set out in the table above [B.01.009(1), FDR], (i.e. ingredients exempt from declaring a component), is a vitamin or mineral, when a vitamin and mineral nutrient claim or statement is made on the food label, all components must be shown in brackets following the ingredient. [D.01.007; D.02.005, FDR]
  • The ingredients of a sandwich made with bread are also exempt from declaring components [B.01.008(10), FDR]. Although a list of ingredients is required on the label of a sandwich, the components of those ingredients are not required to be declared. Some common ingredients (i.e. salami or mayonnaise) are not exempt from component declarations as per B.01.009(3)(1) of the FDR, but when those ingredients are used to make a sandwich they are granted an exemption from declaring their components. Sandwiches are generally understood to be a filling between two pieces of bread, and there are no conditions to this exemption except for the fact that priority food allergens (definition), such as milk, must be declared when present.

For example: the label of a sandwich may have the following list of ingredients:

Ingredients: Whole wheat bread, salami, cheddar cheese (milk), mayonnaise (egg), lettuce, salt, pepper.

Food preparations that Generally Do Not have to Declare their Components

The following table lists food preparations and mixtures which, when used as ingredients in other foods, are exempt from declaring their components (except for the components listed in tables B and C below) [B.01.009(2), FDR]. Refer to Food Allergen, Gluten and Added Sulphites declarations for additional exceptions.

Table A: Preparations Exempt from a Component Declaration
ItemPreparation/Mixture
1. food colour preparations
2. flavouring preparations
3. artificial flavouring preparations
4. spice mixtures
5. seasoning or herb mixtures
6. vitamin preparations
7. mineral preparations
8. food additive preparations
9. rennet preparations
10. food flavour-enhancer preparations
11. compressed, dry, active or instant yeast preparations

Regardless of their quantities in the final product, spice and herb mixtures are always allowed to be declared at the end of the list of ingredients as "spices" or "herbs" without declaring their ingredients or components.

Seasonings in a "seasoning preparation" must be less than 2% of the weight of the finished food to be exempt from declaring their ingredients or components, and simply referred to as "seasoning". This exemption does not apply to the ingredients listed in B.01.009(3) of the FDR (i.e. components of preparations which must always be declared or to food allergens (definition) i.e. mustard).

Seasoning preparations greater than 2% of the final weight of the finished food are in quantities greater than those required to flavour a food, and therefore must declare their ingredients and components. The term "seasoning" will be accepted in these situations if all ingredients and components are declared in parenthesis immediately after the term.

The 2% rule is intended to clarify that the term "seasoning" cannot be used to shorten the list of ingredients or to hide certain components.

For example: if a product contains peanut butter seasoning with the list of ingredients: "peanut butter seasoning and salt", this declaration is not acceptable if the "peanut butter seasoning" makes up 30% of the finished product. In this situation, all of the ingredients and components that make up the peanut butter seasoning (i.e. "peanuts, corn syrup solids, dextrose, sugar, salt, vegetable oil, shortening, imitation flavour and seasonings") must be declared in the list of ingredients. Even though the term "peanut butter seasoning" is acceptable as a common name for the ingredient, the correct list of ingredients is:

Ingredients: Peanut butter seasoning (peanuts, corn syrup solids, dextrose, sugar, salt, vegetable oil, shortening, imitation flavour and seasonings), salt ...plus remaining 70% of ingredients.

Components of Preparations Which Must Always Be Declared

The following substances, when present in the preparations and mixtures listed in table A above, must always be shown by their common names in the list of ingredients of the food to which the preparation or mixture is added, as if they were ingredients of that food [B.01.009(3), FDR].

Table B: Components of Preparations Which Must Always Be Declared
ItemIngredient
1. salt
2. glutamic acid or its salts, includes monosodium glutamate (MSG)
3. hydrolyzed plant protein
4. aspartame
5. potassium chloride
6. any ingredient or component that performs a function in, or has any effect on, that food

The components listed in the table above must be declared as if they were ingredients, as they perform a function in, or have an effect on the final food, e.g., flavour enhancers. As the function of such ingredients (i.e. flavour enhancer), is to make other flavours more effective, flavour enhancers are considered to have an effect on the final food and, therefore, need to be declared by their common names in the list of ingredients of the final food, e.g., ethyl maltol, disodium guanylate, calcium inosinate, sodium ribonucleotides, etc.

Note: Maltol and ethyl maltol can be added to any food product where a flavour preparation or seasoning, etc. is permitted.

The components of the flavour-enhancer preparation that simply perform a function on the flavour enhancer preparation itself, (i.e., they make the preparation easier to handle, measure, etc.), however are not considered to have an effect on the final food and do not have to be declared.

For example:

  1. If a lemon flavour preparation has a yellow colour added to it which will also turn the cake yellow, when the flavour is added to the cake, then the colour will be considered to have an effect on the food and must be declared in the list of ingredients.

    Or,

  2. If a preservative is added to a flavour enhancer preparation to preserve the stability of the preparation, but will not have the same preservative functions on the final product, then it will not have to be declared in the list of ingredients.

Components of Foods Which Must Always Be Declared

The following foods must always be listed by name in the list of ingredients when they are present in the foods listed in Annex 3 and the preparations and mixtures listed above in table A [B.01.009(4);B.01.009(5), FDR].

Table C: Components of Foods Which Must Always Be Declared
ItemIngredient
1. peanut oil
2. hydrogenated peanut oil, including partially hydrogenated peanut oil, as per B.01.010 (3)(a)
3. modified peanut oil

Common Names

Ingredients (definition) and their components (definition) must be declared in the list of ingredients by their common names [B.01.010, FDR].

Mandatory Common Names for Ingredients and Components

To assist consumers in making their food choices, specific mandatory common names are required to be used as to identify food ingredients or components. For example, the plant source of certain ingredients, such as hydrolyzed plant proteins, starches, modified starches and lecithin must be named (e.g., hydrolyzed soy protein, wheat starch, modified wheat starch, soy lecithin).

For example: shortening that contains vegetable oil or partially hydrogenated vegetable oil must be listed in the list of ingredients of a food as "vegetable oil shortening" (unless it contains one of those fats and oils that must be mentioned by name, e.g. coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, cocoa butter, peanut oil). Shortening containing lard should be called "lard shortening". Shortening does not have to be qualified in a list of ingredients as "hydrogenated" or "partially hydrogenated".

The following table lists all the mandatory common names for foods used as ingredients or components (ingredients of ingredients) in other foods [B.01.010(3)(a), FDR]:

Mandatory Common Names of Ingredients and Components
ItemIngredient or ComponentMandatory Common Name
1. any oil, fat or tallow described in Section B.09.002 of Division 9, except lard, leaf lard or suet the name of the meat from which the oil, fat or tallow is obtained plus "oil", "fat" or "tallow"
2. shortening or margarine containing fats or oils, except shortening or margarine containing coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil or cocoa butter "shortening" or "margarine" modified by "vegetable oil" or "marine oil" or by the common name of the vegetable, animal or marine oil or fat used
3. shortening or margarine containing coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil or cocoa butter "shortening" or "margarine" modified by the common name of the vegetable oil or fat used
4. meat the name of the meat
5. poultry meat the name of the poultry
6. fish the name of the fish
7. plant protein product the name of the plant plus "protein product"
8. hydrolysed plant protein "hydrolyzed" plus the name of the plant plus "protein" or "hydrolysed" plus the name of the plant plus "protein"
9. any protein isolate the name of the source of the protein plus "protein" or the common name of the protein isolate
10. any meat by-product described in Section B.14.003, other than gelatin the name of the meat plus "by-product" or the name of the meat plus the name of the meat by-product
11. any poultry meat by-product described in Section B.22.003 the name of the poultry plus "by-product" or the name of the poultry plus the name of poultry meat by-product
12. any oil or fat referred to in Section B.09.002 that has been hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated, including tallow, but not including lard "hydrogenated" plus the name of the meat from which the oil, fat or tallow is obtained, plus "oil", "fat" or "tallow"
13. any oil or fat referred to in Section B.09.002 of Division 9, including tallow, that has been modified by the complete or partial removal of a fatty acid "modified" plus the name of the meat from which the oil, fat or tallow is obtained, plus "oil", "fat" or "tallow"
14. one or more vegetable fats or oils that have been hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated except coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil or cocoa butter "hydrogenated vegetable oil" or "hydrogenated vegetable fat" or "hydrogenated" plus the specific name of the oil or fat
15. coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil or cocoa butter that has been hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated "hydrogenated" plus the specific name of the oil or fat
16. one or more marine fats or oils that have been hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated "hydrogenated marine oil" or "hydrogenated marine fat" or "hydrogenated" plus the specific name of the oil or fat
17. one or more vegetable fats or oils that have been modified by the complete or partial removal of a fatty acid, except coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil or cocoa butter "modified vegetable oil" or "modified vegetable fat" or "modified" plus the specific name of the oil or fat
18. coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil or cocoa butter that has been modified by the complete or partial removal of a fatty acid "modified" plus the specific name of the oil or fat
19. one or more marine fats or oils that have been modified by the complete or partial removal of a fatty acid "modified marine oil" or "modified" plus the specific name of the oil or fat
20. starch the name of the plant plus starch
21. modified starch modified plus the name of the plant plus starch
22. lecithin the name of the source of the lecithin plus lecithin
23. crustacean the name of the crustacean
24. shellfish the name of the shellfish

Class/Collective Names for Ingredients and Components

Certain foods and classes of foods, may be listed by collective or class names. These collective names may only be used if the individual ingredients/components of that class are not shown separately in the list of ingredients by their individual common name.

The following table provides optional common names for foods or classes of foods used as ingredients or components in other foods [B.01.010.10(3)(b), FDR].

Class Names for Ingredients
ItemIngredient or ComponentClass/Collective Name
1. one or more vegetable fats or oils, except coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, peanut oil or cocoa butter "vegetable oil" or "vegetable fat"
2. one or more marine fats or oils marine oil
3. one or more of the colours listed in Table 3 of Division 16, except annatto where used in accordance with paragraph B.14.031(i) or clause B.14.032(d)(xvi)(A) and except allura red and sunset yellow FCF where used in accordance with clauses B.14.032(d)(xvi)(B) and (C), respectively. colour
4. one or more substances prepared for their flavouring properties and produced from animal or vegetable raw materials or from food constituents derived solely from animal or vegetable raw materials flavour
5. one or more substances prepared for their flavouring properties and derived in whole or in part from components obtained by chemical synthesis "artificial flavour", "imitation flavour" or "simulated flavour"
6. one or more spices, seasonings or herbs except salt "spices", "seasonings" or "herbs"
7. any of the following in liquid, concentrated, dry, frozen or reconstituted form, namely, butter, buttermilk, butter oil, milk fat, cream, milk, partly skimmed milk, skim milk and any other component of milk the chemical composition of which has not been altered and that exists in the food in the same chemical state in which it is found in milk milk ingredients
7.1 any of the following in liquid, concentrated, dry, frozen or reconstituted form, namely, calcium-reduced skim milk (obtained by the ion-exchange process), casein, caseinates, cultured milk products, milk serum proteins, ultrafiltered milk, whey, whey butter, whey cream and any other component of milk the chemical state of which has been altered from that in which it is found in milk modified milk ingredients
7.2 one or more ingredients or components set out in item 7 combined with any one or more ingredients or components set out in item 7.1 modified milk ingredients
8. any combination of disodium phosphate, monosodium phosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium acid pyrophosphate "sodium phosphate" or "sodium phosphates"
9. one or more species of bacteria bacterial culture
10. one or more species of mould "mold culture" or "mould culture"
11. preparation containing rennin rennet
12. milk coagulating enzymes from Aspergillus oryzae RET-1 (pBoel777), Endothia parasitica, Mucor miehei or Mucor pusillus Lindt microbial enzyme
13. one or more substances the function of which is to impart flavour and that are obtained solely from the plant or animal source after which the flavour is named the name of the plant or animal source plus the word "flavour"
14. toasted wheat crumbs made by cooking a dough prepared with flour and water, which may be unleavened, or chemically or yeast leavened, and which otherwise complies with the standard prescribed by Section B.13.021 or B.13.022 toasted wheat crumbs
15. that portion of chewing gum, other than the coating, that does not impart sweetness, flavour or colour gum base
16. sugar, liquid sugar, invert sugar or liquid invert sugar, singly or in combination sugar
17. glucose syrups and isomerized glucose syrups, singly or in combination, where the fructose fraction does not exceed 60 percent of the sweetener on a dry basis glucose-fructose
18. glucose syrups and isomerized glucose syrups, singly or in combination, where the fructose fraction exceeds 60 percent of the sweetener on a dry basis fructose syrup
19. sugar or glucose-fructose, singly or in combination sugar/glucose-fructose
20. water to which carbon dioxide is added carbonated water
21. one or more of the following food additives, namely, potassium bisulphite, potassium metabisulphite, sodium bisulphite, sodium dithionite, sodium metabisulphite, sodium sulphite, sulphur dioxide and sulphurous acid sulfites, sulfiting agents, sulphites or sulphiting agents
22. demineralized water or water otherwise treated to remove hardness or impurities, or fluoridated or chlorinated water water
23. wine vinegar, spirit vinegar, alcohol vinegar, white vinegar, grain vinegar, malt vinegar, cider vinegar or apple vinegar, singly or in combination vinegar

Common Name and Ingredient Function

When vitamins, mineral nutrients and amino acids are added to food, the purpose of the addition must be determined (i.e. as food additives for fortification) in order to determine the appropriate common name.

For example: when ascorbic acid is added to a food as a vitamin for enrichment purposes it may be declared as either "vitamin C" or "ascorbic acid" in the list of ingredients. However, when ascorbic acid is used as a food additive for purposes such as bleaching, maturing, dough conditioning, preservation, etc., the name "ascorbic acid" must be used in the list of ingredients, and not "vitamin C". If other forms other forms of ascorbic acid are used e.g. sodium ascorbate, ascorbyl palmitate, etc., the correct name must be used in the list of ingredients.

Additionally, when preparations of vitamins, mineral nutrients, food additives and flavour enhancers are added to food, they must be shown in the list of ingredients by the common name of their active ingredient(s) present, e.g., vitamin A palmitate. Yeast preparations may be declared as "yeast".

Additional Information in the List of Ingredients

In general the common name of an ingredient is the only information that should appear in this list of ingredients, unless a particular adjective or descriptive phrase is prescribed by regulation. Although there is no specific prohibition against additional descriptive information from appearing in the list of ingredients, the general prohibition from declaring any information that is misleading or likely to create an erroneous impression applies [subsection 5(1), FDA]. Declarations about nutrient or other characteristics of ingredients that imply characteristics about the final food therefore may be considered misleading. Refer to General Principles for Labelling and Advertising for more information about misleading.

For example: the term "iron" on its own is sufficient to represent iron in the list of ingredients as a food, regardless of whether or not the iron is in reduced, carbonyl or electrolytic form. The terms "reduced", "carbonyl", and "electric" represent processes only, and are not considered part of the common name of the mineral nutrient. It is unadvisable to use the term "reduced iron" in the list of ingredients, as some consumers can be confused by this terminology, and may lead for consumers to believe that the food is reduced in iron which can have serious consequences for those who suffer from hemochromatosis and must avoid excess iron.

As ingredients must be declared by their common names, it is generally not appropriate for brand names to appear in the list of ingredients. There will however be no objection to factual descriptions appearing separately and distinctly from the list of ingredients on any other part of the label.

Acceptable additional information appearing in the list of ingredients can include examples such as:

  1. a statement of an additive's function, in brackets, e.g., "soy lecithin (an emulsifier)"
  2. a description naming the type of vitamin, in brackets, following the form of the vitamin added, e.g., "thiamine mononitrate (vitamin B1)"
  3. a description of a significant alteration of an ingredient, e.g., "deflavoured apple juice"
  4. adjectives and descriptions that help to differentiate different versions of the same ingredient, e.g., "organic", "fresh tomatoes", "sun dried tomatoes", "pure milk chocolate", "natural spring water", etc.

Other acceptable descriptions for use in the list of ingredients will be considered on a case-by-case basis. For further details, refer to common names.

Multiple Ingredient Lists

There should be one list of ingredients for each different kind of food in a multi-pack product in both official languages. These declarations must all use the appropriate Canadian ingredient and component common names in accordance with the Food and Drug Regulations.

Food Allergens, Gluten & Added Sulphites

Food allergens, gluten and added sulphites (at levels of 10 ppm or more) must be declared in the list of ingredients in which they are present by their prescribed source names.

Note: Bolding of allergens is not required in the list of ingredients. It has been used in examples throughout this section to make the allergens, gluten and added sulphite declarations more visible.

Food Allergen and Gluten Declaration

The requirement for food allergens and gluten declarations apply to all generations (definition) of ingredients. Therefore, food allergens and gluten must be declared regardless of which generation they are present in. For example, if they are present in the third or fourth generation of ingredients they will still have to be declared in the list of ingredients on the product label or in a contains statement. Refer to Generations for more information on the generations of ingredients.

Food allergens and gluten must be declared in one of two ways: 1) by being declared in the list of ingredients or 2) in a "contains" statement.

Option 1: The prescribed source name of the food allergen or gluten may be shown in parentheses in the list of the ingredients, as follows:

  • (a) Immediately after the ingredient that is shown in the list, if the food allergen or gluten [B.01.010.1(8)(a), FDR]
    1. Is, or is present in, that ingredient, but is not a component or present in a component of that ingredient, or
    2. Is, or is present in, a component of that ingredient and the component is not shown in the list of ingredients;

    For example: Ingredient List: flour (wheat), liquid albumin (egg), vegetable oil, sugar, flavour.

    In this example:

    1. Wheat protein is an inherent part of flour but is not a component. Since wheat is both a food allergen and gluten source it must be declared.
    2. Liquid albumin is an egg protein. As eggs are a food allergen, "egg" must be declared.

    or

  • (b) Immediately after the component that is shown in the list of ingredients, IF the food allergen or gluten is the component or is present in the component [B.01.010.1(8)(b), FDR].

    For example: Ingredients list: pastry pieces [flour (wheat), butter (milk), liquid albumin (egg), canola oil], sugar, natural flavour.

    In this example, as "pastry pieces" are not exempt from component declaration, its components must be declared. The required food allergen and gluten prescribed source names are declared in parentheses after the component in which they are present:

    1. Wheat is a part of flour;
    2. Butter is made from milk;
    3. Liquid albumin is an egg protein;

Option 2: The prescribed source name of a food allergen or gluten may be shown on the label of a product in a "contains" statement that complies with the naming and location restrictions outlined in B.01.010.3(1) of the FDR [B.01.010.1(9), FDR], IF the food allergen or gluten

  • (a) Is, or is present in, an ingredient that is not shown in the list of ingredients, but is not a component of that ingredient or present in a component of that ingredient,

    or

  • (b) Is, or is present in, a component and neither the component nor the ingredient in which it is present is shown in the list of ingredients

    For example: Protective edible waxes are part of the post-harvest and handling technologies routinely used by the fresh produce industry to minimize moisture loss, prolong the shelf life, and to improve the appearance of fresh produce. Edible waxcoatings on fresh fruits and vegetables can potentially contain soy, chitosan (derived from crustaceans) and caseinate components (derived from milk).

    Wax coating compounds and their components are not required to be shown on the label of prepackaged fresh fruits or vegetables. Therefore, if any food allergen, gluten, or added sulphites are present in these wax coatings, they must be declared on the labels of prepackaged fruits and vegetables. As wax coatings are exempt from being declared as ingredients and components as per B.01.008(7), the other components of the wax coatings are still exempt from declaration and do not need to appear in a list of ingredients.

    Therefore, if a bag of prepackaged apples has a wax coating, containing caseinate compounds, as casein contains milk, the food allergen source "milk" must be declared on the label of the apples. The food allergen source "milk" can be declared in a "Contains" statement on the label: "Contains milk".

Sulphite Declaration

Sulphites, like any other food additive, are required to be declared in the list of ingredients of food labels when they are added directly to a prepackaged food as an ingredient or a component of an ingredient that is not exempt from component declaration. If added sulphites are present in a prepackaged product in the first generation (i.e. ingredient) or second generation (i.e. component), and are not exempt from declaration, they must be declared in the list of ingredients regardless of their quantity. Refer to Generations for more information on the generations of ingredients.

In the following examples, sulphites are a component of the dried apricots. Dried apricots are not exempt from component declaration, therefore sulphites, along with all the other components of the dried apricots, must be declared regardless of their quantities.

  • Sulphites added as a food additive ingredient

    For example: Ingredient list: apricots, sugar, sulphites

  • Sulphites added as a component of an ingredient that is not exempt from component declaration

    For example: Ingredient list: Rolled oats, wheat flour, dried apricots (apricots, sugar, sulphites), liquid whole egg (liquid whole egg, beta carotene), salt, baking soda, soy lecithin.

Added Sulphite Declaration

If the total amount of added sulphites are present in a prepackaged product in a total amount of 10 parts per million or more, and are not already required to be shown in the list of ingredients under section B.01.008 or B.01.009 of the FDR, the sulphites must be shown in:

  1. The list of ingredients;

    or

  2. In a "contains" statement that complies with the naming and location restrictions outlined in B.01.010.3(1) of the FDR.

Sulphites that are declared in the list of ingredients must be shown as follows:

  • (a) Sulphites that are a component of an ingredient that is shown in the list of ingredients must be shown either in parentheses immediately after the ingredient or at the end of that list where they may be shown in any order with the other ingredients that are shown at the end of that list under B.01.008(4) of the FDR [B.01.010.2(7)(a), FDR].
  • (b) In all other cases, the sulphites must be shown at the end of the list of ingredients where they may be shown in any order with the other ingredients that are shown at the end of that list under subsection B.01.008(4) of the FDR [B.01.010.2(7)(b), FDR].

For example: In a box of cookies that are made with apricot jam, sulphites are a component of the apricot jam with pectin. Assuming that the jam is only 5% or less of the cookie, it is exempt from component declaration [B.01.009(1), item 24 FDR], and that the sulphites are a level of 13 ppm (therefore greater than 10 ppm), the sulphites must be declared as per subsection B.01.010.2(3), FDR. Both of the above examples are acceptable ways to declare sulphites (at levels of 10 ppm or more) in the list of ingredients.

In the list of ingredients, sulphites can be declared in parentheses after apricot jam with pectin:

Ingredients: Rolled oats, wheat flour, liquid whole egg, apricot jam with pectin (sulphites), salt, baking soda, soy lecithin.

Or at the end of the list of ingredients in any order:

Ingredients: Rolled oats, wheat flour, liquid whole egg, apricot jam with pectin, salt, baking soda, soy lecithin, sulphites.

Note: In situations where added sulphites are a component that must be declared in the list of ingredients as per B.01.008(1)(b), B.01.008(5) FDR, but the total amount is less than 10 parts per million, then the sulphites will not have to be declared in the contains statement.

Prescribed Source Names

Food Allergens and Gluten Prescribed Source Names

The prescribed source of a food allergen present in a prepackaged product must be declared as follows [B.01.010.1(6), FDR]:

Food Allergen Prescribed Source Names
Food AllergensPrescribed Source Name
almonds Almond, almonds
Brazil nuts Brazil nut, Brazil nuts
cashews Cashew, cashews
hazelnuts Hazelnut, hazelnuts
macadamia nuts macadamia nut, macadamia nuts
pecans Pecan, pecans
pine nuts pine nut, pine nuts
pistachios Pistachio, pistachios
walnuts Walnut, walnuts
peanuts Peanut or peanuts
sesame seeds sesame, sesame seed, sesame seeds
Wheat or triticale Wheat or triticale
eggs Egg or eggs
milk Milk
soybeans soy, soya, soybean or soybeans
powdered mustard mustard, mustard flour, ground mustard
fish, crustaceans, shellfish common name of the fish, crustacean or shellfish
mustard seeds mustard, mustard seed or mustard seeds

The prescribed source of gluten from the grain of a cereal referred to in the definition of "gluten", derived from that grain, or from the grain of a hybridized strain cereal from one or more of the cereals referred to in the "gluten" definition, must be declared as follows [B.01.010.1(7), FDR]:

Gluten Prescribed Source Names
GlutenPrescribed Source Names
barley Barley
oats Oats
rye Rye
triticale Triticale
wheat Wheat

Additional Information about declaring food allergens and/or gluten prescribed source names in the list of ingredients

Food allergens and gluten only have to be declared once in the list of ingredients on the label of prepackaged products. As long as the prescribed source names for allergens and gluten are declared as part of the common name of the ingredient or component in which they are in, or are already declared in the parenthesis immediately after another ingredient or component, further declaration is not required [B.01.010.1(10), FDR]. There is however no prohibition from declaring food allergens or gluten more than once unless it would result in a non-compliance with other regulations or legislation.

For example: Ingredients: wheat flour, water, vegetable oil margarine (milk), sugar, yeast, canola oil shortening, potato starch, garlic, salt, parsley, seasoning (sesame), diacetyl acid, esters of mono & diglycerides, whey powder, calcium propionate.

In the above example, all food allergen and gluten sources are declared appropriately in the list of ingredients, either in the parentheses or as part of the common name of the ingredient. Although whey powder is a milk source, as the FDR states that food allergens, gluten and added sulphites only have to be declared once in the label. As milk is identified as a source for vegetable oil margarine it does not have to be declared as a source for whey powder.

Additional Information about declaring food allergens and/or gluten prescribed source names in a contains statement

If a contains statement is used on the label of prepackaged products, the prescribed source name for each food allergen or gluten that is present must be declared in the contains statement even if all of the prescribed source names are present in the list of ingredients of the product [B.01.010.3(1)(b), FDR]. The prescribed source names for each food allergen or gluten will only have to be declared once in the contains statement [B.01.010.3(2), FDR]. Refer to Location for more details about declaring a contains statement.

For example: Ingredients: wheat flour, water, vegetable oil margarine, sugar, yeast, canola oil shortening, potato starch, garlic, salt, parsley, seasoning, diacetyl acid, esters of mono & diglycerides, whey powder, calcium propionate. Contains: wheat, milk, and sesame.

When this example is repeated to use a "Contains" statement, all food allergens and gluten sources are declared at least once in the contains statement. Even though wheat is already declared in the list of ingredients as part of the common name for wheat flour, as all of the known allergens and gluten sources must be declared once in the contains statement, "wheat" will appear in both places for this example.

Sulphite Prescribed Source Names

If sulphites are present in a prepackaged product in a total amount of 10 parts per million or more and are required to be declared in the list of ingredients as per B.01.008 and/or B.01.009 of the FDR, they must be declared as follows [B.01.010.2(6), B.01.010.2(8), FDR]:

Sulphites Prescribed Source Names
SulphitesPrescribed Source Names
potassium bisulphite sulfites, sulfiting agents, sulphites or sulphiting agents
or
Potassium bisulphite
potassium metabisulphite sulfites, sulfiting agents, sulphites or sulphiting agents
or
Potassium metabisulphite
sodium bisulphite sulfites, sulfiting agents, sulphites or sulphiting agents
or
Sodium bisulphite
sodium metabisulphite sulfites, sulfiting agents, sulphites or sulphiting agents
or
Sodium metabisulphite
sodium sulphite sulfites, sulfiting agents, sulphites or sulphiting agents
or
Sodium sulphite
sodium dithionite sulfites, sulfiting agents, sulphites or sulphiting agents
sulphur dioxide sulfites, sulfiting agents, sulphites or sulphiting agents
sulphurous acid sulfites, sulfiting agents, sulphites or sulphiting agents

Additional Notes About Declaring Added Sulphite Prescribed Source Names in a List of Ingredients

As long as one of the prescribed source names for sulphites listed above are present, or are already declared in the parenthesis immediately after another ingredient or component, further declaration is not required in the list of ingredients [B.01.010.2(10), FDR]. However, note that there is no prohibition from declaring food allergens or gluten more than once unless it would result in a non-compliance with other regulations or legislation.

Additional Notes About Declaring Added Sulphite Prescribed Source Names in a Contains Statement

If a contains statement is used, and the prepackaged product contains more than 10 ppm of added sulphites in the final product, one of the prescribed source names listed above must be declared in the contains statement. This declaration is necessary even if these names are already declared in the list of ingredients [B.01.010.3(1)(b), FDR], however within a contains statement, the common names "sulfites", "sulfating agents", "sulphites" or "sulphating agents" only have to be declared once [B.01.010.3(2), FDR]. Refer to Location for more details about declaring a contains statement.

Bilingualism

The list of ingredients must be shown in both English and French unless the product is exempt from bilingual labelling [B.01.012, FDR]. For further details, refer to Bilingual Labelling.

Flexibility in the Declaration of a list of ingredients

Sometimes there is variation in the supply of certain ingredients for natural or economic reasons, which results in manufacturers substituting, varying or omitting certain ingredients that are normally used. Section B.01.011 of the FDR provides an orderly procedure to outline how manufacturers can substitute, vary or omit ingredients while maintaining a correct list of ingredients for consumers.

Omissions and Substitutions

When ingredients or components are omitted or substituted during a 12 month period, all of the foods that may be used as ingredients or components throughout the 12 month period must be shown in the list of ingredients. It must be clearly stated as part of the list of ingredients that the ingredient or component might be substituted. The foods that may be omitted or substituted may be grouped with the same class of foods that are normally used as ingredients or components and the foods within each group must be listed in descending order of the proportion in which they will be needed during the 12 month period [B.01.011(1), FDR].

Variations

When proportions of ingredients or components are varied, the list of ingredients may show the ingredients or components on the label in the same proportions throughout the 12 month period if it is clearly stated as part of the list of ingredients that the proportions indicated are subject to change, and the ingredients or components are listed in descending order of the proportion in which they will be in for the majority of the 12 month period [B.01.011(2), FDR].

Therefore, there are different ways that a manufacturer can indicate in the list of ingredients if an ingredient or component has been omitted, substituted or varied. In all circumstances, the ingredients must appear at the proper place in the list of ingredients of the finished product. The class group should then appear at the proper place in the list of ingredients of the finished product. No objection will be taken if an asterix appears next to an ingredient to indicate that an explanation regarding an omission, substitution or variation will appear the end of the list of ingredients.

For example: flexibility in the declaration of ingredients lists can appear in the marketplace as:

  1. "Sugar and/or dextrose". This statement means that the amounts of sugar and/or dextrose will be varying in the prepackaged product over a 12 month period. A given product may contain: only sugar, only dextrose, or a mixture of both sugar and dextrose. However, as sugar has been listed first, it is expected that over the 12 month calendar year, sugar is present in higher quantities.

    or

  2. "Butter* may contain colour". The colour of butter varies seasonally, based on the cattle's diet. Therefore, colour may be added to commercial butters as needed during the year (typically only during the winter months) and declared as "may contain colour" in the list of ingredients.
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