Labelling Requirements for Meat and Poultry Products
Common Name – Meat and Poultry Products
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Common names for standardized meat products are shown in bold-faced type in Division 14 and 22 of the Food and Drug Regulations (FDR), in Schedule I of the Meat Inspection Regulations (MIR) or in the Livestock and Poultry Carcass Grading Regulations. As with all foods with a standard of identity, only those foods that meet all the provisions set out in the standard can use the prescribed common name. For meat products that do not fall under a standard, the appropriate common name is the name by which the food is generally known. Information on appropriate common names for meat cuts of beef, veal, pork, lamb and poultry can be found in the Meat Cuts Manual.
For example, Schedule I of the MIR prescribes standards for ground meat. The common name used for these products must be the name that corresponds with the fat content, and other aspects of the standard, as follows:
- regular ground (naming the species) – maximum 30% fat
- medium ground (naming the species) – maximum 23% fat
- lean ground (naming the species) – maximum 17% fat
- extra-lean ground (naming the species) – maximum 10% fat
A product labelled with one of the above common names must not contain more than the maximum amount of fat and must accurately identify the animal species (e.g. regular ground beef may only include beef).
In the case of a beef carcass, a complete side, a hind quarter, a front quarter, a primal cut or a sub-primal cut, the product must be identified according to the specifications prescribed in the Livestock Carcass Grading Regulations.
For general information that applies to all foods, including meat, refer to Common Name.
Modified Standardized Common Names for Meat and Poultry Products
A meat product that deviates from a prescribed standard may not use the common name associated with that standard unless the standardized common name is modified to indicate how the food differs in every respect, from the food described by the standard. For more information, see Modified Standardized Common Names.
Example: Meat spread, to which tomato has been added, may no longer use the common name "meat spread", as this food does not comply with the standard. The common name must be modified to describe the deviation from the standard, such as "meat spread with tomato".
Declaration of Species
If a meat product, consisting of meat, meat by-products, mechanically separated meat, or a combination of these meat ingredients, is derived from more than one animal species, and any of these species is referred to in the common name, then all the animal species from which the meat products are derived must be identified.
Example: A meat loaf, containing beef and mutton, and pork by-product as meat product ingredients, shall be described as either "beef, mutton and pork loaf" or simply as "meat loaf".
In the above example, beef constitutes the greatest percentage of the meat products used in the composition of the loaf, followed by mutton, and then pork by-product. The common name reflects the content of the three meat products in descending order of their presence.
Jellied Prepared Meat
When a gelling agent has been added to a prepared meat or prepared meat by-product, a statement to the effect that a gelling agent has been added must be declared on the principal display panel or the word "jellied" must be included as part of the common name of the food [B.14.039, FDR].
Meat and Poultry Products With Added Phosphate Salts and or Water
When phosphate salts and/or water have been incorporated into a meat product, this addition must be reflected in the common name of the product, unless the product is cured or preserved or a standard is prescribed for it in Schedule I of the MIR. For more information on specific requirements for common name of these products refer to Phosphated Meats and Meat Products.
Retained Water Declaration for Raw Single-Ingredient Meat Products
The amount of water added and retained in raw-single ingredient meat products due to post-evisceration contact with water, in excess of naturally occurring moisture, must be declared as part of the product name on the principal display panel of prepackaged products or on shipping containers for bulk products. Raw single-ingredient meat products include items such as dressed carcasses, parts of dressed carcasses, offal and giblets.
Retained water may be rounded off to the nearest whole number. Retained water below 0.5% does not need to be declared. The permitted labelling variation is a maximum of 20 percent above the declared amount within the retained water statement.
Operators may include a "no retained water" statement on the label (optional) when no water added due to post-evisceration processing has been retained by the raw single-ingredient meat product.
The following four phrases are acceptable:
- "up to X % water retained";
- "less than X % water retained";
- "up to X % retained water added due to processing"; and
- "no retained water".
Note: A claim such as "no water added" is not permitted since it may likely be considered misleading under subsection 5.(1) of the FDA. Refer to Negative Claims Pertaining to the Absence or Non-Addition of a Substance for more information.
The moisture declaration is required as part of the product description, and shall be conspicuous and not less than half the size of the product's common name or half of any additional mandatory information (e.g.: "with giblets").
Packages containing a variety of raw single-ingredient meat products (e.g. giblets) may be labelled by either:
- listing a separate declaration for each component; or
- a single declaration which indicates the maximum water retained by the components.
Poultry carcasses containing giblets (e.g. frozen turkeys) require a retained water declaration as part of the product name for the giblets.
Meat Products Treated with Salt and Water in Accordance with Judaic Law
Only water absorbed and retained as part of the Kosher process may be excluded from the retained water declaration, provided that the product description contains the phrase "soaked and salted" or a similar phrase.
Prepared Meat Products
Any retained water in raw single-ingredient meat products, used as ingredients, does not need to be declared on the labelling of prepared, including multi-ingredient meat products (e.g. raw or cooked sausage, pre-basted turkeys, or deli meats). However, these meat products must comply with applicable standards of identity or composition requirements for the specific prepared meat product as described in the MIR, the FDR or the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures.
Highlighting Meat Cuts in the Common Name
When a cut of meat is highlighted in the common name of a meat product such as burgers, ground meat products, patties or sausages, the meat must be sourced only from the applicable cut as defined by the Meat Cuts Manual. Furthermore, the meat must be comprised of a normal distribution of constituents (i.e.. muscle-fat ratio) as prescribed by common names and standards. The modifier is not permitted to appear between the prescribed words which make up the standardized common name, and to avoid potential confusion, the animal species should be included in the common name. The modifier should appear in the same size type and prominence as the common name. For example:
"Sirloin Beef Burger" would be acceptable on a product made from a meat block of 100% sirloin.
Where two or more cuts of meat are highlighted as part of the common name, the product shall contain all named cuts, shown in descending order of their proportion of the meat block. For example:
"Sirloin and Chuck Beef Burger" would be acceptable for a product made from a meat block that contains both sirloin and chuck, with sirloin content greater than or equal to the chuck content.
Species-Specific Common Names
A species-specific common name to indicate that a product originated from a certain species or sub species can be made on labels and in advertising. Examples of this would include but are not limited to Angus Beef, Wagyu Beef, Kobe Beef, Peking Duck, Muscovy Duck, North American Bison, wild boar.
Proof of origin and segregation, such as paper documentation, of the animals used to create the product must be provided to a CFIA inspector upon request to substantiate the claim.
When the species is included as part of the common name of the meat product, such as burgers, ground meats products, patties or sausages, to avoid potential confusion, the animal species should be included in the common name and all should appear in the same type size and prominence. For example:
"Angus Beef Burger" would be an acceptable common name for a product made from a meat block of 100% beef.
Where two or more species are highlighted as part of the common name, the product shall contain all named species, shown in descending order of their proportion of the meat block. For example:
"Angus and Wagyu Beef Burger" would be an acceptable common name for a product made from a meat block that contains both Angus and Wagyu, with Angus content greater than or equal to Wagyu content.
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