Chapter 1 - Introduction to the Meat Programs
1.4. Meat Programs Delivery
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The Vice-President Operations Branch, Area Executive Directors and Regional Directors are the main authorities responsible for the implementation of CFIA Meat Programs with operational support from national, area, regional, front-line staff, and additional expertise from Meat Programs, Laboratory, Enforcement, Legal, Communication, Human Resources and Finance specialists.
Front-line delivery service is provided to a large variety of stakeholders and regulated parties, such as other authorities, associations, industries, consumers, importers, exporters, travelers and operators of federally registered establishments. It may also involve, as needed, services integration with other International, Federal, Provincial or Territorial authorities including:
- Office of Emergency Management
- Food Emergency Response Manual
- Enforcement and Compliance
- National Import Service Centre
- Label and recipe registration
- Safety and security at the border
- Bilateral arrangements with Provincial /Territories
1.4.1. Delivery of Meat Programs Inspection Services in Federally Registered Establishments
In federally registered establishments, Meat Programs front-line delivery services are provided by assigned CFIA inspectors and official veterinarians.
Registered establishments are located in administrative regions under the CFIA supervision of Food Processing Supervisor (FPS), Regional Veterinary Officer (RVO) and Inspection Manager (IM).
The Regional Director (RD) is responsible for the results of the CFIA Meat Programs delivery (outcomes under the performance management framework) in their administrative region and is accountable to the Area Executive Director (ED), Operations.
The Meat Programs activities in federally registered establishments include:
- registration and inspection of slaughter, processing and storage establishments;
- delivery and renewal (or conditional) of operator licence;
- HACCP system and control programs verification;
- ante and post mortem inspection;
- sampling and laboratory testing for residues;
- recipe and labelling registration;
- fair labelling and recall verification;
- inspection of imported meat products;
- inspection of meat products for Canadian and export markets; and
- exports certification.
In November 2005, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) standards from the Codex Alimentarius Commission incorporated in the CFIA Food Safety Enhancement Program (FSEP) Manual became mandatory in all CFIA registered establishments under the MIR.
The Compliance Verification System (CVS) is a tool developed for CFIA inspection staff to assess operators compliance to regulated requirements for food safety (HACCP), non-food safety (e.g. identification, labelling and animal welfare), export and systems design in an efficient and uniform verification systems approach (more details are available in the MOP Chapter 18).
The CVS is part of the Meat Programs Reform initiative and is designed to:
- integrate Meat Programs inspection activities (tasks) into one system;
- highlight regulated party accountability;
- focus CFIA activities on compliance verification;
- provide CFIA inspection staff with clearly defined tasks to enhance uniform delivery;
- verify that the operator's written programs are implemented and effective to meet regulatory requirements; and
- support the strategic direction of the CFIA business plan to move regulated party and government towards a more science-based risk management system.
1.4.2. Frequency of CFIA Inspection
During scheduled work shifts, the minimal inspection frequency required to ensure appropriate completion of ante mortem inspection, post mortem inspection and CVS tasks in federally registered establishments is as follows:
188.8.131.52. Slaughter activities
Under subsection 128 (2) of the MIR, the Director, Meat Programs determines standards on the number of inspection stations that is required for slaughter activities in federally registered establishments, for every scheduled work shift.
CFIA staffing standards for ante and post mortem stations, examination (operator) and inspection (CFIA), required for slaughter are described under chapters 17 (red meat, ratite) and 19 (poultry, rabbit) of the MOP.
Every establishment which is federally registered for slaughter activities is assigned an official Veterinarian in Charge (VIC) for both ante mortem and post mortem inspection stations (screening and detailed inspection) and for functional supervision of the operator's responsibilities including ante mortem and post mortem examination.
The delivery of Meat Programs in a slaughterhouse complex, in administrative regions, is under the supervision of a Regional Veterinary Officer (RVO) and an Inspection Manager (IM) (see Quality Management System [QMS] under section 1.5.1).
Multiple Inspection Stations
Where multiple inspection stations are required, at least one competent CFIA slaughter inspector (SI) is assigned for ante mortem and post mortem inspection (screening) under functional and line supervision of the VIC. Federally registered establishments with more than one scheduled work shift are assigned additional appropriate CFIA staff (SI, OV) per shift under the supervision of the VIC.
When competent SI are performing such duties an official veterinarian (OV) must be available within a reasonable period to fulfil their specific veterinary tasks (detailed inspection and providing instructions) taking into considerations various risk factors including:
- animal status (compromised animal, emergency, welfare, behaviour);
- nature of disease (OIE list A, B, zoonosis, transport under Health of Animal permit or license, distress);
- contamination (risk of contamination or propagation, residue program, tissue deterioration); and
- operation (volume, holding capacity, assistance, information, impact on normal operation).
More or less inspection stations may be required based on workload considerations, risk analysis, available facilities or importing countries requirements (specifications in MOP Chapter 11) conditional to subsections 128 (3) to (5) of the MIR.
Under normal conditions, the OV or VIC need not to be present at the time of ante mortem inspection or at all times during post mortem on every inspection station. However, the VIC must regularly satisfy themselves (including QMS activities) that the assigned SI and other OV are carrying out proper ante mortem and post mortem inspection (screening and detailed inspection). This includes supervision of the operator's ante mortem examination and operators authorized under section 29.1 of the MIR to operate a shared inspection program or a post mortem examination program to ensure specific instructions have been followed. This program must also ensure the process is under control with satisfactory results, including information on animals/flocks is available and that indicates no food safety issues, satisfactory health status and that their welfare is ensured (refer to MOP Chapter 19).
Under subsection 67(3) of the MIR, no food animal shall be slaughtered in a federally registered establishment unless the slaughter has been authorized by an assigned SI or an OV [e.g. ante mortem performed on animals within 24 hours, any animal requested by CFIA to be presented for inspection, missing information on animal or flock sheet, held animal, emergency, instructions from an official veterinarian (see scheduled work shift agreement, slaughter, under section 184.108.40.206)].
Where possible, the SI and OV are assigned on a staggered schedule of operations under the supervision of the Inspection Manager (refer to section 220.127.116.11).
CVS tasks are also scheduled for other specific activities related to slaughterhouses.
- The CFIA may provide inspection services to establishments operated under Federal / Provincial / Territory agreements (refer to F/P/T agreements).
- For veterinary meat certification requirements, refer to MOP Chapter 11.
18.104.22.168. Processing activities
Under subsection 128 (1) of the MIR, the Director, Meat Programs, in respect of an establishment federally registered for the processing or packaging and labelling of meat products, determines the minimum number of hours of inspection that is required per year for each scheduled work shift.
The minimum number of hours of inspection to complete the tasks is 390 hours annually. For federally registered establishments with more than one shift, the annual total of 390 hours is spread over all shifts.
Every establishment federally registered for processing activities or packaging and labelling of meat products, on one or more scheduled work shift, is assigned a responsible CFIA food processing inspector (FPI) under functional and line supervision of a food processing supervisor (FPS). In order to complete their tasks during the regular working hours, the number of establishments under the supervision of FPI may vary in each complex of federally registered establishments (meat processing complex). Where preferable, exclusive processing shifts in slaughterhouses may be part of a meat processing complex.
The delivery of Meat Programs in meat processing complexes, in administrative regions, is under the supervision of FPS and an Inspection Manager (IM) (see QMS under section 1.5.1.).
In a HACCP environment, CVS visits for control programs implementation are scheduled in federally registered establishments for processing activities when meat is being worked on or packaging and labelling of meat products occurs, with a frequency appropriate to achieving the objectives of Meat Programs. During the development of visit schedules the following must be considered:
- the task to be conducted;
- the risk associated with the operations conducted on each shift:
- regular working hours in one working shift: an inspector must visit the establishment at least once a week;
- week-ends: at least one visit each month must occur on Saturday or Sunday; and
- two (2) or three (3) working shifts: visits must be scheduled to cover all shifts at least once a month;
- the volume of production conducted on each shift;
- the establishment history of compliance, including testing, recall; and
- other available information, tasks or activities.
FPI, or, as required, OV, are assigned for additional visits for other tasks or activities (e.g. HACCP design, sampling, recalls, complaints, import and export operational requests, operational request of overtime, export requirement, investigation). As required, FPI may be part of a team of specialists (e.g. HACCP, Meat Programs, CFIA investigator).
Importing countries requirements may require an increased frequency (for more information on foreign countries specifications see MOP Chapter 11).
Where possible, FPI are assigned on an staggered schedule of operations under the supervision of the Inspection Manager (IM) (refer to section 22.214.171.124).
126.96.36.199. Storage activities
Every establishment federally registered for stand alone storage activities is integrated in a CFIA administrative complex of establishments and, is assigned a responsible CFIA food processing inspector (FPI).
CVS tasks are split over the quarterly period during regular working hours.
Where possible, the FPI is assigned on a staggered schedule of operations under the supervision of the IM (refer to section 188.8.131.52).
1.4.3. Exceptional circumstances
Flexibility in providing reasonable CFIA inspection services in federally registered establishments during exceptional circumstances requires priority consideration.
A government-industry committee has reviewed this matter and has established priorities for inspection coverage in cases of reduced availability of CFIA inspection staff.
In all circumstances, CFIA staff or the operator must contact identified CFIA staff as soon as possible to manage the situation appropriately.
The following should be viewed by managers responsible for operations as a guideline in determining the allocation of inspectors and official veterinarians.
184.108.40.206. First Priority: Animals Already Slaughtered
This section concerns only establishments federally registered for slaughter activities which, under normal conditions, start operations (sticking, dressing) on animals that have undergone an ante mortem inspection in the last 24 hours, before the official veterinarian on duty reports for work (staggered schedule of operations).
As soon as it becomes apparent that the official veterinarian will not be reporting for duty, carcasses from animals already slaughtered should be dressed and then inspected by a CFIA inspector according to standard procedure.
Any carcass and its parts that would normally be held for veterinary diagnosis and disposition should be identified and retained in such a way as to maintain their identity until an official veterinarian has inspected them.
Alternatively, with the authorization of a CFIA inspector, they may be handled as condemned material by the operator, in accordance with paragraph 88. b) of the MIR. Where it is determined by the area executive director (Operations) that some time may elapse before an official veterinarian is available, instructions should be given to refrigerate the carcasses and its parts. In all instances, adequate segregation from meat products already approved for human consumption must be maintained.
220.127.116.11. Second Priority: Humane Considerations
1) The Slaughter and Inspection of Cripples and Downers
These animals are to be slaughtered and inspected without undue delay. If the veterinary inspection is not immediately available, the slaughter and inspection of such animals is to proceed under the auspices of a CFIA inspector who has received oral instructions from an official veterinarian or written instructions in the form of an emergency procedure prepared by the official veterinarian at the federally registered establishment in compliance with subsection 67 (7) of the MIR and BSE Policy in order to prevent any unnecessary animal suffering.
The animals will be disposed of in accordance with the official veterinarian's instructions, which may include being handled as condemned material. The CFIA inspector will conduct a post mortem inspection and record the findings in order to provide information to the official veterinarian, who will in due course undertake the detailed post mortem inspection. All such animals are then to proceed to slaughter. The dressed carcass and all its parts are to be identified and held for subsequent detailed post mortem veterinary inspection and disposition or treated as condemned as outlined in the first priority.
2) The Slaughter and Inspection of Other Animals Already on Premises
In the event that no official veterinarian is available, the slaughter of animals that have already received veterinary ante mortem inspection may proceed in the normal manner. In the case of poultry, the CFIA inspector can authorize the slaughter of birds, if the advanced copy of the flock sheet has been previously reviewed by the OV. The CFIA inspector shall examine other animals, and any lots or individual animals determined by the CFIA inspector or the operator, in accordance with subsection 67 (6) of the MIR, that show deviations from the normal behaviour or appearance, shall be set aside for slaughter at the end of operations, which will permit veterinary inspection before slaughter.
Carcasses screened out on post mortem inspection may be retained in the manner described in the first priority for later veterinary diagnosis and disposition, or may be handled by the operator as condemned material with the authorization of a CFIA inspector, in accordance with paragraph 88 b) of the MIR. In the event that the number of CFIA inspectors available is reduced, slaughter operations shall proceed at a rate compatible with the CFIA inspection staff available. Where found desirable, the official veterinarian may, in writing, permit animals to be removed from the establishment, pursuant to subsection 43 (1) of the MIR.
Taking into account animal health concerns and the type of holding, feeding and watering facilities available at federally registered establishments and the variations among different animals to sustain themselves, CFIA staff must be allocated in a subsidiary priority for the slaughter and inspection of animals already on operator's premises, as follows:
- small stock (sheep, lambs, goats and calvesFootnote 1); and
18.104.22.168. Third Priority: Export Commitments
Meat products derived from animals already slaughtered and approved are to be inspected by available CFIA inspectors and export documents prepared. Export certificates are to be signed by an official veterinarian.
22.214.171.124. Fourth Priority: Unusual Emergency Slaughter Situations
In the event of some disaster (flood, fire, etc.), emergency slaughter of a number of animals may be required. CFIA staff would have to be allocated to accommodate such an occurrence.
In some emergencies, an abnormal situation requires prompt action beyond normal procedures in order to prevent injury or damage to people, livestock, property or the environment. In response to the Emergency Preparedness Act, the Emergencies Act, the National Support Plan and the Federal Policy for Emergencies, the CFIA has taken coordinated action with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Provincial and Territorial departments of Agriculture and other agri-food sector stakeholders within the framework of the Food and Agriculture Emergency Response System (FAERS).
126.96.36.199. Fifth Priority: Restricted Regular Operations
In the event of a prolonged shortage of available CFIA inspection staff, staff allocation would be made to accommodate regular slaughter and processing operations as much as possible.
Shortage of Official Veterinarians:
Scheduling of available official veterinarians would have to mainly take account of ante mortem inspection of screened out animals and delayed final post mortem inspection of held carcasses. These activities are, in turn, dependent on the time of arrival of animals at registered establishments, the geographic location of the establishments, the species involved, and the capacity of the plant to retain heads, organs and dressed carcasses for final veterinary disposition.
Shortage of CFIA Inspectors:
CFIA managers will determine to what extent inspection services can continue to be offered for slaughter and processing activities, largely on the basis of three factors: the speed at which post mortem inspection can be performed, the amount of support that can be provided to inspection staff by operator's employees for technical duties related to inspection functions including the existing authorization to operate a shared inspection program or a post mortem examination program, and the amount of inspection coverage that can be given to critical areas of meat processing operations.
Simultaneous Shortage of Both CFIA Inspectors and Official Veterinarians:
Very little in the way of regular operations will be possible. The CFIA implements a contingency plan to deal with the situation (sanitary emergency, strike, etc.) In this event, priority will have to be given to returning animals already on registered establishment premises to the farms of origin or diversion into alternate slaughter facilities. Great care will have to be paid to the humane handling of cripples, downers, poultry and every effort should be made to accommodate their slaughter on the premises. Export inspection and certification services should be provided where possible, unless instructions to the contrary are received.
1.4.4. CFIA Meat Programs Inspection Fees
The Treasury Board of Canada has published a general policy on fees and cost recovery.
The policy governs how departments and agencies charge fees for services that confer a private benefit.
Sections 24 and 25 of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act give the Minister the authority to set fees for services or facilities provided by the CFIA.
At the international level, the Codex Alimentarius states that the competent authority can enact legislation to charge fees for the provision of services.
The CFIA ensures that its accounts receivable are properly managed in accordance with the Accounts Receivable Management Policy.
The objective of this policy is to ensure that all CFIA accounts receivable are managed fairly, efficiently and effectively in order to allow the CFIA to recover its debts and mitigate its losses.
The administration of this policy is a shared responsibility that is based on coordination between the finance function of the Finance, Administration and Information Technology Branch and the operational components of the CFIA that are responsible for inspection delivery, issuance of registration, etc. The policy describes the roles and responsibilities of the Operations, Policy and Programs, and Science branches, the inspection managers, the regional directors, the Area executive directors and the vice-president.
The CFIA inspector in charge or the official veterinarian ensures that all services provided in registered establishments are billed, indicating the number of additional inspection services provided on an hourly basis, including all services provided in a given month relating to exports, imports, re-inspections, overtime, and testing and analysis. This information is collected using the appropriate forms and is sent to the regional representative, who informs the National Accounts Receivable Service Centre by email at ARCentre@inspection.gc.ca.
The inspection fees applicable to slaughter, processing and storage are set in accordance with scheduled work shift agreements and are subject to a slightly different process (see section 188.8.131.52).
184.108.40.206. Part 10 of the CFIA Fees Notice
This part describes meat product inspection fees.
220.127.116.11. CFIA Fees Notice and overtime
This part addresses:
section 32 of the MIR:
No food animal shall be slaughtered, no carcass dressed and no meat product processed, packaged or labelled in a registered establishment outside the hours of operation agreed to by the President and the operator, unless the slaughtering, dressing, processing, packaging or labelling, as the case may be, is authorized by an inspector.
section 126 of the MIR:
Inspection of a registered establishment and the animals and meat products in it may be carried out outside a scheduled work shift or on a designated paid holiday, if:
(a) the operator of the registered establishment submits a written request to the Executive Director, in a form approved by the Agency;
(b) [Repealed, SOR/2000-183, s. 35]; and
(c) an inspector is available to carry out the inspection.
See the CFIA overtime fees.
If an operator wishes to operate their registered establishment outside a scheduled work shift and an inspector is assigned to the registered establishment, the operator is billed for the overtime hours, i.e., the hours worked by the CFIA employees in excess of their standard hours of work (generally 7.5 hours a day).
For the calculation of overtime, the minimum amount requested does not include the scheduled time spent by the inspector at the establishment or any incurred travel time. The operator must submit their overtime request to the inspector in charge or veterinarian in charge in advance for the purpose of evaluating and planning available resources. Services provided in overtime must also be in accordance with the Authorization of Overtime Policy.
18.104.22.168. Staggering work hours related to inspection
Staggering work hours is a method used by inspection staff under the supervision of the inspection manager to reduce the use of overtime.
Staggered work hours can be appropriate for:
- inspection stations (staggered operating hours) in a slaughter establishment; or
- CVS tasks related to other activities carried out in one or more federally registered establishments (meat processing complexes) for one or more scheduled work shifts.
Staggering work hours can be used on a regular or ad hoc basis, provided the CFIA is informed sufficiently in advance to meet the inspection requirements and to ensure the availability of CFIA inspection staff.
22.214.171.124. Scheduled work shift agreement
Under section 29 of the MIR, agreement on a scheduled work shift, as defined in section 125 of the MIR, is one of the conditions for obtaining a licence to operate a registered establishment. This means that the operator and the President (authority delegated to the Regional Director) must agree on a scheduled work shift. The operator submits the proposed schedule to the CFIA inspector in charge or to the veterinarian in charge for approval by the Regional Director.
The scheduled work shift agreement must include details regarding the effective date and changes made to the calculation of fees.
Note 1. Part I: General
The scheduled work shift agreement defines the regular working hours (the time during which services are normally provided by the CFIA employees at a particular service location) for the establishment.
The agreement provides the legal basis for the CFIA and the operator of a registered establishment under the provisions of the MIR with respect to the calculation of prescribed inspection fees.
No amendments, additions or deletions can be made to the relevant clauses of the scheduled work shift agreement forwarded by the Director, Meat Programs Division, to the Executive Directors (Area Operations).
Note 2. Part II: Scheduled work shift, Point 1.
The term of the scheduled work shift agreement shall not exceed the term of the operator's licence. The agreement shall expire prior to or at the same time as the operator's licence, but never after.
Establishment registration is never issued for more than one year and expires on March 31 of each year. However, in certain situations (e.g., seasonal slaughter), establishment registration may be issued for a period of less than one year (expiration on or before March 31). The scheduled work shifts are reviewed annually during the registration renewal process or if the operator requests a change to a previously approved scheduled work shift agreement.
During that period, temporary or permanent changes can be made. For instance, an operator can add/remove/modify a work shift, the hours of operation of the establishment or the nature of its operations. The CFIA inspector in charge or the veterinarian in charge must ensure that the changes:
- are reflected in the Application for Registration of an Establishment (CFIA/ACIA 3043), the Application for a Licence to Operate a Registered Establishment (CFIA/ACIA 4155) and the Supplement for Application for Registration or Licence of a Registered Establishment (CFIA/ACIA 4198); and
- maintain the legal status of the scheduled work shift agreement.
Note 3. Part II: Scheduled work shift, Point 2.
The normal days of work are from Monday to Friday. No more than three work shifts (day, evening, night) can be authorized.
Under subsection 125(a) of the MIR, a "slaughter shift" cannot exceed 7.5 hours per inspection station in one day or 37.5 hours per inspection station in one work week, excluding meal times. "Slaughter shift" means a work shift during which the ante mortem inspection and slaughter of animals and the post mortem inspection of carcasses is carried out.
Standards respecting the number of stations are set out in Chapter 17 (red meat species, ratites) and Chapter 19 (poultry, rabbit) of the MOP. Additional inspection stations can be approved by the Regional Director under an agreement with the operator on an annual or hourly basis, pursuant to subsections 128(3) and (4) of the MIR.
In the case of a slaughter establishment, the duration of the scheduled work shift is based on the start and completion of the work at each inspection station. The duration of work at a specific station cannot exceed 7.5 hours in one day, excluding meal times. Most of the time, the first 15 minutes of work at the ante mortem inspection station and the last 15 minutes of work at the post-mortem inspection station can be included in the scheduled work shift.
If processing activities are carried out at the same time as or separately from slaughter activities, they are billed for each scheduled work shift agreed upon by the parties.
The implementation of CVS occurs in federally registered establishments who are processing or labelling meat products during approved work shifts.
Under paragraph 125(b)(i) of the MIR, a work shift other than a slaughter shift (i) must not exceed 7.5 hours in one day and 37.5 hours in one work week (excluding meal times) when all or part of the work shift is scheduled before 6:00 a.m. or after 6:00 p.m. or (ii) must not exceed 12 hours when the entire work shift is scheduled between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m.
The following are examples of scheduled work shifts permitted under paragraph 125(b)(i) of the MIR:
- Hours of operation: Monday to Friday, 4:00 a.m. to noon (with a 30-minute meal break); or
- Hours of operation: Monday to Friday, 4:00 p.m. to midnight (with a 30-minute meal break).
Under paragraph 125(b)(ii) of the MIR, a work shift other than a slaughter shift cannot exceed 12 hours when all work is carried out between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m.
The following are examples of scheduled work shifts that are permitted under 125(b)(ii) of the MIR:
- Hours of operation: Monday to Friday, 6:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m.; or
- Hours of operation: Monday to Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.
For establishments operating for a period exceeding 7.5 hours (excluding meal times) beginning or ending before 6:00 a.m. or after 6:00 p.m., the total number of hours of operation must be split into at least two scheduled work shifts.
For example, the hours of operation of an establishment operating from Monday to Friday between 4:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. should be split into at least two scheduled work shifts. One possible option would be to split the period into two shifts, i.e., from 4:00 a.m. to noon (with a 30-minute meal break) and from noon to 8:00 p.m. (with a 30-minute meal break). These two periods would be allowed under paragraph 125(b)(i) of the MIR.
Another example is an establishment that operates from Monday to Friday, from 5:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. The hours of operation of this establishment should be split into at least two scheduled work shifts, since no shift can exceed 7.5 hours (excluding meal times) if it begins before 6:00 a.m. or ends after 6:00 p.m. One possible option would be to split the period into two shifts: i.e., from 5:00 a.m. to noon and from noon to 5:00 p.m.
For storage establishments, the hours during which the CFIA provides inspection services (i.e., the scheduled work shift) do not exceed 7.5 hours in one day between 6:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m. from Monday to Friday. The CFIA fee covers only the scheduled work shift, and no other work shift can be assigned.
For a storage establishment, an acceptable scheduled work shift could be Monday to Friday from 7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. (with a 30-minute meal break) or from 8:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. (with a 60-minute meal break).
Import and export services and Trichina testing (freezers) remain under the direct responsibility of a CFIA inspector. The delivery of these services can require a large amount of time, and operators must provide the CFIA advance notice of such operational needs. Import and export services provided outside the scheduled work shift are billed in accordance with the overtime policy.
Note 4. Part II: Scheduled work shift, point 3.
Operators must endeavour to prepare shipments for export during core hours and must, in all cases, give the inspector advance notice of the preparation of their shipments. If inspectors must be called back to work because they were not notified in advance of the preparation of shipments before leaving an establishment, the service (specifically, export inspection and certification) may not be provided that day. It is important to bear in mind that, in most processing establishments, the full-time presence of an inspector is not required during operations. In the case of a patrol inspection regime, it is possible that an inspector, although usually present in an establishment every day, may not be present at the precise moment they are needed.
Operators must not count on the presence of a CFIA inspector at a given time or given day if they have not given the inspector advance notice of their specific needs. Overtime hours are billed for all services provided at the request of operators outside the scheduled work shift, as indicated in the overtime fees order.
Note 5. Part II: Scheduled work shift, point 4.
The scheduled work shift agreement is terminated and is null and void starting on the date on which an operator's licence expires, is revoked or is cancelled.
See also section 1.4.3 for a discussion of flexibility with respect to inspection services in exceptional circumstances.
Note 6. Part II: Scheduled work shift, point 5.
Operators must ensure that their establishments are operating in accordance with what was agreed upon with respect to scheduled work shifts, overtime and extended hours.
The scheduled work shift can be modified if necessary and must be reviewed at least once a year, or more often, if the period specified in the Register of Operators is shorter.
Operators must inform the CFIA in writing of their desired changes as soon as they can so that the CFIA can optimize the use of its resources and make the necessary adjustments with the operators. These changes can include:
- a request for additional inspection stations, pursuant to subsections 128(3) and (4) of the MIR;
- changes respecting the request for an additional inspection station (see section 17.2 of Chapter 17 of the MOP) to determine the circumstances requiring an additional inspection station);
- an overtime authorization request, in accordance with section 126 of the MIR;
- a change to the establishment's operations under subsection 128(5) of the MIR, if one of the following situations arises:
- a change is made to the establishment's operations in respect of one of the criteria set out in subsections (1) or (2); or
- an additional inspection station provided under subsection (3) is no longer needed;
- changes needed to the scheduled work shift agreement; and
- situations described in subsections 29(3) and 27(4) of the MIR that have an impact on the registration of an establishment or the licence of an operator.
1.4.5. Inspectional Controls
Inspectional controls can be defined as the specific duties of inspection staff set out in the MIA and MIR, such as seizure and detention. These controls are direct in nature, since under the MIR, responsibility for these activities is given to government inspection staff. However, the concept of "inspectional control" is much broader. It encompasses all duties performed by government inspection staff in order to verify that operators of registered establishments are meeting their obligation to comply with all applicable acts, program requirements and standards respecting processed products. To this end, the government inspector conducts regular verifications of the operators' activities in accordance with the Compliance Verification System (CVS) presented in Chapter 18. To perform such verifications and thereby assess compliance, the inspector must have access to all information gathered by the operators, i.e., procedures, programs and reports. The inspector must also observe the activities and procedures in order to assess compliance with written programs as well as the reliability and accuracy of the records. Lastly, the inspector must determine the effectiveness of the operators' procedures in terms of compliance with program requirements and regulations.
If an operator fails to meet the requirements, it is up to the inspector in charge to take measures in accordance with the CVS program.
126.96.36.199. Written reports
Operators of registered establishments are directly responsible for ongoing compliance with applicable legislation and program requirements. Such compliance is one of the key conditions to be met to obtain a licence to operate a registered establishment. To guarantee ongoing compliance, operators themselves must monitor the operations of the establishment to identify non-compliant situations and/or products and to take appropriate corrective action, where necessary.
In order to demonstrate that they control the status of the registered establishment and the activities carried out there, operators must develop written programs and keep records in accordance with the Food Safety Enhancement Program (FSEP). These records must demonstrate that effective monitoring and verification activities have been implemented for all operational aspects of the establishment associated with food safety and with the program requirements. When an irregularity is identified, it must be documented, corrective action must be taken to address the problem, and preventive measures must be adopted to prevent recurrence.
Unless otherwise specified (e.g., requirements of foreign countries), operators must keep all of their processing control records for at least one year following the expiry or "best before" date indicated on the label or container or, if there is no expiry date, for two years following the date of sale by the registered establishment.
Unless otherwise specified, all records and reports produced by the inspector must be kept on the premises for at least two years and subsequently archived for the remainder of the 10-year retention period.
188.8.131.52. Control mechanisms
Inspectional controls are designed to ensure that establishments and meat products remain compliant, or that situations of non-compliance are corrected and properly controlled to ensure that the meat products remain safe and pure. If operators fail to meet their responsibilities and do not take the measures required to ensure full compliance, area, regional or national inspection staff will have to intervene. However, the inspector of the establishment remains the key person, since they have detailed knowledge of the establishment and its activities, a prerequisite to effective inspectional control.
The action to be taken when a meat establishment or meat product is identified as non-compliant is described in detail in the CVS program.
184.108.40.206.1 CVS reports
On completion of an inspection, the findings must be documented in the CVS program.
220.127.116.11.2 Use of detention tags
Detention tags are a means of conducting an inspectional control. Once applied to an object (meat products, parts, equipment, etc.), these tags can be removed only by the inspector or with the inspector's consent. A detention tag affixed to an object indicates that an inspector has identified a particular deficiency and that the deficiency must be corrected by the operator. The object is then subsequently inspected and, if in compliance, released by the inspector.
In order to ensure that the operator does not develop a casual attitude towards detention tags, it is important that detention tags not be used by inspectors for purposes other than those mentioned above. It is also important that the above sequence of events respecting the use of detention tags be followed.
With respect to structures and equipment, detention tags are used to identify items that require some form of corrective action before they can be used, e.g., dirty equipment, a room with severe structural or sanitation deficiencies, etc.
Held tags perform a similar function in the case of meat products and are used to identify deficiencies, such as contamination, improper processing, incorrect labelling, etc.
The application of a detention tag must be accompanied by a clear indication of the non-compliance.
The tab of a detention tag should indicate what exactly was held and the reason for the action and should be kept in the possession of the inspection staff in a secure, organized manner until the tag is removed by or with the authorization of the inspector. If a products are still on detention when an inspector leaves an establishment, this should be documented as per Chapter 18, along with sufficient information for the subsequent inspector to be able to understand manage the non-compliance, such as the reason for detention and the number of cartons, tanks, etc.
Detention is a formal process that is initiated when a product is seized for violation of the MIA, the Food and Drugs Act or the Health of Animals Act. The detention process must not be confused with the use of detention tags; to proceed with detention, a written Notice of Detention (CFIA/ACIA 3256) must be issued and delivered by hand or by registered mail. It is important to exercise complete and continuous control throughout the detention period. (Control may involve locking up the storage facilities.) A breach of the control procedures can adversely affect the outcome of a legal proceeding. The official detention process and all details of the situation must be indicated in the CVS program. The Notice of Release from Detention form (CFIA/ACIA 3257) must be completed to document the disposal of the product under detention.
18.104.22.168.4. Written reports
Detailed written reports of inspection findings and corrective action requests (CARs) must be produced throughout the course of the CVS program.
22.214.171.124.5. Non-application of the meat inspection legend
If a product is prepared, processed, packaged, labelled or stored in a manner that is in violation of the applicable legislation, and if no corrective action is or can be taken, the inspector can prohibit the use of the meat inspection legend for that product.
126.96.36.199.6. Suspension of inspection services
The suspension of inspection services is appropriate when meat products are deemed not to have been prepared in compliance with the legislation, despite the presence of an inspector. The suspension of inspection services results in the automatic suspension of the use of the meat inspection legend. Before any action leading to the suspension of inspection services can be taken, area, regional and national operations and programs specialists must be consulted.
If the production of meat products continues without inspection, or if the right to use the meat inspection legend has been suspended, it may be necessary to involve other agencies. If the inspection of meat products is required by a particular province, the provincial authorities will have to be informed of the suspension of CFIA inspection services.
188.8.131.52.7. Suspension or cancellation of an establishment's registration
In order for prosecution to be initiated, the offences must be sufficiently significant to warrant it. However, advice from Legal Services must be obtained before making a decision to prosecute (see Chapter 14 – Enforcement).
184.108.40.206. Control of stamps bearing the meat inspection legend and other official government labels, marking devices and certificates
The inspector is responsible for ensuring that appropriate measures are taken to control official products. Control measures specific to certain products are discussed in more detail below.
220.127.116.11.1. Stamps bearing the meat inspection legend
18.104.22.168.1.1. Responsibility and conservation of stamps bearing the meat inspection legend
Stamps bearing the meat inspection legend must be stored in a sturdy cabinet. The cabinet hinges must be concealed, and the hasps must be mounted such that the screw heads are covered. The cabinet must also be locked with a padlock provided by the CFIA, and the key must remain in the possession of the inspection staff.
If an inspector is available at the start of operations but cannot be present once the operations are completed, the cabinet can be equipped with a secure opening so that stamps can be placed into the cabinet but not taken out.
The complete list of stamps, their use and the locations where they must be applied must be posted inside the cabinet in which the stamps are stored.
The operator must sign a sign-out/sign-in sheet each time a stamp is removed from or returned to the cabinet. It is recommended that the time of sign-out/sign-in be indicated. The operator is also responsible for thoroughly cleaning the stamp and returning it at the end of the shift.
The inspector in charge must provide the register for the signatures mentioned above.
22.214.171.124.1.2. Stamp inventory
The monitoring of marking devices (metal stamps, needlepoint legend stamps, matrices for engraving metal, etc.) must be maintained. Inspection staff must conduct a daily inventory of stamps and must carry out ongoing monitoring of the stamps as they are signed out and in, according to the register. In addition, to prove that the inspector is effectively monitoring the inventory of stamps, inspection staff should initial the register.
During quarterly visits, supervisors will perform an inventory check of the stamps. This involves counting the stamps in the cabinet and those signed out, as indicated in the register, and comparing the total number with the available inventory of stamps. They must then compare the results obtained with the number of stamps that should be in the establishment's inventory according to the regional centre. Supervisors should document the inventory check in their report.
Any discrepancies must be immediately investigated. The justification presented for each discrepancy should be documented in a separate report.
126.96.36.199.1.3. Damaged, worn or surplus stamps
Only stamps that give a clear, legible imprint are acceptable for use. Damaged, worn or surplus stamps must be sent, along an accompanying note, to the regional office, which will dispose of them. Stamps from closed establishments must be returned via the regional office.
188.8.131.52.1.4. Lost stamps
To minimize the accidental loss of brass stamps, the handles must be designed in such a way as to reduce the tendency of the stamps to roll off tables, desks, etc.
Each time a stamp is lost, an effort must be made to locate them and the operator and the inspector in charge must provide detailed explanations in writing.
184.108.40.206.1.5. Ordering stamps
In order to simplify and accelerate the processing of orders, the procedure outlined below must be followed when ordering stamps bearing the meat inspection legend:
- The operator must complete the form provided in Annex A and present it to the inspector in charge for authorization of the order.
- The inspector in charge must complete the section of the form reserved for government use, clearly indicating the delivery address of the stamps. The inspector must sign the form in order to authorize the order. The operator must produce two (2) copies of the form: one for the regional office and the other for the inspector in charge.
- The operator must send the duly completed form signed by the inspector in charge directly to the manufacturer.
- The stamp(s) will be sent by the manufacturer to the appropriate area/regional office or, at the discretion of the Executive Director directly to the inspector in charge or Regional Supervisor.
- The inspector in charge must verify that the products received correspond to the order, notify the operator that the stamp is available, and update the inventory accordingly.
- All stamps or parts of stamps must be paid for by the operator in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
220.127.116.11.2. Official seals
The official seals of the CFIA must be strictly controlled.
They must be kept under lock and key and must be applied and removed with the authorization of the inspector. A register of the serial numbers of the entire inventory of official seals must be kept.
Each time an official seal is given to an operator, the serial number of the official seal must be noted.
18.104.22.168.3. Export certificates and export stamps/labels
See Chapter 11 of the MOP.
22.214.171.124. Separation of incompatible operations
Establishments must be able to properly physically separate incompatible activities that pose a potential risk of cross contamination of meat products. When physical separation of incompatible activities is impossible (in existing registered establishments only), effective operational controls must be implemented. These controls must be described in detail in writing and must be strictly followed at all times.
- The slaughter of equine species and the processing, packaging and storage of horse meat products are considered incompatible with similar operations involving other species intended for consumption or meat products derived from these species. See section 33 of the MIR for further details.
- It is prohibited to handle or store live, raw or unwashed fish or seafood in registered establishments at the same time that meat products are processed, handled and stored there.
- The handling and processing of prewashed fish or seafood in registered establishments is permitted, but only if carried out in rooms reserved strictly for them. If it is impossible to reserve certain rooms for fish processing, these operations must be carried out at times when meat processing operations are not being carried out. In such cases, precautions must be taken to avoid cross contamination, and there must be a ventilation system that can effectively eliminate odours.
- The preparation of products intended for human consumption containing both meat products and fish is authorized in registered establishments.
- The removal of edible livers and the layer of tissue surrounding them is considered incompatible with the operations that are carried out in slaughter areas (carcass dressing). However, it is possible to carry out these operations in a non-rfrigerated room.
- Areas where animals are kept must not open directly into areas where food or packaging materials are handled or stored.
- Shipping and receiving areas must be physically separated from the rest of the establishment and must not be used for the storage of edible meat products or the equipment needed to manufacture edible meat products.
- Separation between incompatible areas (e.g., such as edible and non-edible, raw and ready-to-eat products, etc.) must be maintained in all establishments, regardless of whether they are in relation to construction, operations or personnel.
- Employees working in areas susceptible to contamination (e.g., ready-to-eat meat product handling areas) must be properly separated from other areas. Methods and procedures must be developed and implemented to control access to these areas in order to prevent cross contamination.
- Unwashed vegetables must be stored, washed and prepared in separate rooms and areas to avoid contamination.
- It is prohibited to install plastic strip curtains in doorways where there are movements of unprotected products or staff handling unprotected meat products.
The applicant and the CFIA inspector must consult the Area programs specialist on the program requirements respecting the compatibility of activities/operations in the registered establishment.
When conducting inspections or performing regulatory duties in an establishment, CFIA employees must meet the requirements of the operator's HACCP system. If an inspector is required to move between two incompatible areas, the operator must provide facilities that will ensure that the movements can be made in a hygienic manner.
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