Chapter 19 – Poultry Inspection Programs
19.5 Additional Evisceration Floor Procedures

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19.5.1 Salvaging

Operators may elect to handle carcasses accidentally contaminated with gastrointestinal contents by salvaging the non-contaminated portions at either a salvage and/or reprocessing station.

Salvage procedures may be conducted provided the following requirements are met:

  • adequate facilities are provided (see Chapter 3 of this manual and refer also to subsection 19.1.3.12 of this chapter);
  • salvaging operations are carried out expeditiously and hygienically;
  • carcasses are handled according to the disposition criteria;
  • station(s) do not become overloaded with a backlog of carcasses; and
  • edible product is not contaminated by inedible product or contaminated equipment.

19.5.2 Off-line Reprocessing and Reconditioning

19.5.2.1 Definitions

The definition for Off-line Reprocessing and Off-line Reconditioning can be found in the Glossary of Terms in section 19.1.2 of this chapter.

19.5.2.2 General Requirements

Operators may choose to handle carcasses accidentally contaminated with gastro-intestinal contents and carcasses with localized pathologies within the abdominal cavity at an off-line reprocessing and/or reconditioning station.

The following requirements must be met:

  • The operator must have a written protocol for off-line reprocessing and/or reconditioning which has been approved by the Veterinarian in Charge and the operator must have received conditional acceptance to initiate a trial period to qualify for a trial off-line reprocessing and/or reconditioning.
  • The written program shall specify which type(s) of contamination or localized lesion will be controlled by the off-line reprocessing procedure.
  • Major change to the protocol requires a re-validation.
  • The operator must provide adequate facilities (see Chapter 3 of this manual and refer also to subsection 19.1.3.12 of this chapter).
  • Off-line reconditioning and/or reprocessing of poultry carcasses must be done within 15 minutes after removal from the evisceration line in order to limit microbial adhesion/growth and carcass dessication/discolouration.
  • Cross contamination by carcasses in contact with each other is to be avoided.
  • The written procedure shall specify whether or not the crops will be removed prior to reprocessing.
  • Carcass rinsing procedures shall ensure that rinse water does not pool and rapidly exits the cavity.
  • If carcasses are to be placed directly into the chill system after off-line reprocessing and/or reconditioning, dressing must be completed prior to the carcasses entering the chiller.
  • If the number of carcasses requiring salvage exceeds the capacity of facilities and/or personnel to handle the carcasses in a timely manner, affected carcasses shall be discarded by the operator as "plant rejects".

19.5.2.3 Acceptance Process

In order to facilitate the CFIA acceptance of the plant-specific off-line reprocessing and/or reconditioning procedures, the following acceptance process shall be followed:

  • A request is submitted to the Veterinarian in Charge.
  • The Veterinarian in Charge and a poultry program specialist will conduct the pre-operational checklist on-site and analyse the plant's written procedure which shall be accompanied by a process and employee flow diagram.
  • Upon successful completion of the checklist, on-site analysis of facilities and written procedures, the 20 shift-trial period may begin.
  • After the 20-shift trial period, the results of the post-operational checklist, E. coli data and organoleptic monitoring data shall be analysed by the area poultry program team. If the results are acceptable, the area poultry program specialist shall grant CFIA acceptance.

19.5.2.4 Process Validation

The effectiveness of reprocessing and/or reconditioning operations shall be validated according to an operator's written protocol.

For operators that have two shifts, only one process validation is necessary for both slaughter shifts provided there are no significant operational differences between shifts.

For operators that slaughter multiple classes of poultry, e.g., chicken broilers, spent hens and turkeys, a separate process validation shall be conducted for each class. Different weight ranges of the same class shall be considered as one class and require only one process validation, e.g., one process validation for chicken broilers and roasters or for all weight ranges of turkeys.

19.5.2.4.1 E. coli Testing

Procedures shall be validated by using sample collection and laboratory test procedures for generic E. coli as outlined in the USDA's Pathogen Reduction Program and HACCP systems. (See Chapter 11, Exports, section on the US, in this manual.)

19.5.2.4.1.1 Sampling Plan

Collect 50 concurrent samples comprised of one (1) control sample (carcass without defects) collected from the evisceration line just prior to the chilling system; and one (1) treatment sample collected from the reprocessed and/or reconditioned carcasses after final washing.

Both carcasses must be approximately selected at the same time.

According to a written procedure accepted by the Veterinarian in Charge, samples shall be:

  • randomly selected;
  • identified in order to differentiate between treated and untreated carcasses; and
  • selected after final washing and prior to the chilling system.

The geometric mean of treated carcasses must be equal to or less than that of line run production or not significantly different as determined by statistical analysis.

Note: The CFIA Program Network Poultry Inspection Team (PNPIT) has developed an Excel-based application ("Micro Data Analysis") including a users' manual for this purpose. The operator may wish to obtain a copy from the CFIA area poultry program specialist.

19.5.2.4.2 Organoleptic Testing

19.5.2.4.2.1 Sampling Plans

Reprocessed and/or reconditioned carcasses shall be retained and sampled a minimum of every 30 minutes by the designated plant monitor over 20 consecutive work shifts subject to verification by the inspection staff and as per the following tables.

Note: The operator must ensure that untreated carcasses (e.g., false positives) and carcasses to be salvaged are excluded from the sampling of treated carcasses.

Sampling Plan for Off-line Reprocessing and/or Reconditioning
Volume of reprocessing
and/or reconditioning
Sample Code Letter Sample Size
Low
(25 carcasses and less per sample period)
C 5
Medium
(26 to 50 carcasses per sample period)
D 8
High
(50 carcasses and more per sample period)
E 13

Based on Sampling Plan 2859-1, Inspection Level II, Statistical Aspects of Food Quality Assurance by Subhash C. Puri, Agriculture Canada, Original source: International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Central Secretariat, Geneva.

19.5.2.4.2.2 Defect Definitions

Refer to the Carcass Dressing Standards (CDS), as contained in section 19.6.2.7 of this Chapter, for definitions for the following defects.

Reprocessing defects (contamination):

  • faecal contamination;
  • bile contamination; and
  • ingesta or extraneous material.

Reconditioning defects (localized pathology):

  • airsacculitis;
  • salpingitis, peritonitis; and any other pathology within the carcass cavity.
19.5.2.4.2.3 Unsatisfactory Sampling Results

A sample shall be deemed unsatisfactory if one (1) or more carcasses in the sample has a defect within the cavity as listed in the preceding subsection. The operator shall then implement the following:

  • retain the lot according to the sample and re-examine all carcasses in the retained lot [defective carcass(es) are sent for salvage and acceptable carcasses are allowed to re-enter production];
  • notify the Veterinarian in Charge;
  • determine the probable cause and implement applicable corrective actions; and
  • amend the written reprocessing and/or reconditioning procedure as necessary

Note: The 20-shift process validation is reset to zero after three (3) unsatisfactory samples have been accumulated.

19.5.2.5 Off-line Procedures After CFIA Approval

19.5.2.5.1 Microbiological Sampling

Reprocessed and/or reconditioned carcasses may either continue to be tested for E. coli separately or combined with the regular carcasses as specified in the USDA Pathogen Reduction (see Chapter 11, US section of this manual).

If reprocessed and/or reconditioned carcasses are tested for E. coli separately, then a minimum of one reprocessed and/or reconditioned carcass shall be tested per shift.

19.5.2.5.2 Organoleptic Sampling

The operator shall monitor the off-line procedure using the previously described ISO-based sampling plan, or the CDS program.

19.5.2.5.2.1 Procedure Monitoring by the Operator

The Operator shall ensure that samples are representative (random sampling).

The written program shall also include carcass disposition, retest parameters and review of applicable written and practical procedures in the event of sample failure.

If reprocessed and/or reconditioned carcasses are placed directly into the chill system, they shall receive separate monitoring at a minimum of twice per shift. Carcasses shall be examined at facilities meeting the same requirements as for the CDS test (see Chapter 3 of this manual). If corrective action or process action is required as a result of these separate tests, it would only apply to the reprocessed and/or reconditioned product.

If the reprocessed and/or reconditioned carcasses are placed back onto the evisceration line and mixed with line run production, then the test results and any required corrective action would apply to the evisceration line and off-line procedures.

19.5.2.5.2.2 CFIA Verification

At a minimum of once per shift, CFIA personnel should evaluate the operator's process control over the off-line reprocessing and/or reconditioning operations by conducting a correlation test with the plant monitor. During the correlation test, CFIA personnel will ensure that the operator's sampling frequency, random sampling methods, defect evaluation, defect recording, evaluation of results and corrective actions taken are acceptable.

If process control is assessed to be unacceptable, the operator must initiate immediate corrective actions. The Veterinarian in Charge shall decide if the written procedure is to be amended or re-validated.

19.5.2.6 Defects Log: Off-line Reprocessing/Reconditioning for Chicken, Turkey and Fowl

Please see Annex A of this chapter.

19.5.3 On-line Reprocessing and Reconditioning

19.5.3.1 Definitions

The definition of On-line Reprocessing and On-line Reconditioning can be found in the glossary of terms in section 19.1.2 of this chapter.

19.5.3.2 General Requirements

The following requirements must be met to ensure that contaminated carcasses are satisfactorily reprocessed and that carcasses with localized pathology are satisfactorily reconditioned prior to the carcasses entering the chilling system:

  • the operator must be operating under the Phase 3 of the Modernized Poultry Inspection Program (MPIP);
  • the operator's written procedures for on-line reprocessing/reconditioning must be approved by the Veterinarian in Charge, and the operator must receive conditional acceptance from the CFIA to initiate a trial; and
  • the written procedures shall include the following:
    • a description of the proposed procedures including, if applicable, the use of any microbial control agents;
    • a copy of a blueprint of the complete evisceration room (including each piece of equipment and the size and location of every industry employee and CFIA work station) a process flow diagram and an employee flow diagram for the entire evisceration room/area; and
    • the sampling location(s) and sample selection, tagging and handling procedures for handling carcasses, for reprocessed/reconditioned carcasses and for "control" carcasses which will be used during the validation period.

19.5.3.3 Location of Cavity Defect Detectors

The cavity of each carcass shall be examined by a cavity defect detector prior to CDS sampling.

19.5.3.3.1 Cavity Defect Detection Prior to Reprocessing/Reconditioning

To be developed

19.5.3.3.2 Cavity Defect Detection after Reprocessing/Reconditioning

If the operator elects to move the cavity defect detectors downstream, version 2 of the Defect Detection Standards (without the AQL for cavity defects) shall be applied.

19.5.3.4 Acceptance Process

The following acceptance process shall be followed:

  • a request is submitted to the Veterinarian in Charge;
  • the Veterinarian in Charge and a poultry program specialist will conduct the pre-operational checklist on-site and analyse the plant's written procedure;
  • upon successful completion of the checklist, the 20 shift-trial period may begin; and
  • after the 20-shift trial period, the results of the post-operational checklist, E. coli data and organoleptic monitoring data shall be analysed by the area poultry program team. If the results are acceptable, the area poultry program specialist shall grant CFIA acceptance.

19.5.3.5 Validation Process

E. coli Testing

Refer to section 19.5.2.4.1 under the validation process for the off-line reprocessing and/or reprocessing.

Carcasses with visible cavity defects which are removed by the cavity defect detectors must be excluded from the E. coli evaluation.

Since the on line procedures include both reprocessing and reconditioning, E. coli testing is not required to validate proposed on-line reconditioning. The general hygiene for on-line reconditioning operations is validated by performing E. coli testing for on-line reprocessing.

Organoleptic Testing

The CDS shall be used to validate the proposed on-line reprocessing/reconditioning procedures. Furthermore, CFIA staff may perform additional CDS tests and/or DDS tests for cavity defects (only) after cavity defect detection for part of, or throughout, the validation process. If applicable, corrective measures and post-chill product verification shall be performed by the operator as specified for the CDS/DDS.

19.5.3.6 On-line Procedures After CFIA Approval

19.5.3.6.1 Microbiological Sampling

Refer to the Pathogen Reduction Program of the US section of Chapter 11 of this manual. Laboratory tests for Salmonella spp. and for E. coli shall indicate compliance with the Salmonella spp. standards and the E. coli guidelines respectively, as contained in the US section of Chapter 11 of this manual.

19.5.3.6.2 Organoleptic Sampling

Refer to the CDS as contained in this chapter, including monitoring procedures by the operator and corrective measures.

19.5.3.6.3 CFIA Verification

Refer to the CDS as contained in this chapter.

In addition, CFIA staff, at any time, may perform additional DDS tests for cavity defects (only) after cavity defect detection to verify the performance of the cavity defect detection. If applicable, corrective measures and post-chill product verification shall be performed by the operator as specified for the DDS.

19.5.3.7 Defects Log for On-line Reprocessing/Reconditioning

Please see Annex A of this chapter.

19.5.4 Preparation of Offal for Edible Purposes or Animal Food

Poultry giblets (heart, liver and gizzard) may be prepared for human food provided they are handled according to the disposition criteria in section 19.7 of this chapter.

Giblets shall be chilled immediately after they are harvested and prepared. Accumulation of giblets for later preparation shall not be permitted.

19.5.4.1 Hearts

Poultry hearts may be prepared for human food. Hearts shall have the pericardium removed prior to washing and chilling. After washing, hearts shall be drained and refrigerated.

19.5.4.2 Livers

Poultry livers may be prepared for human food. Livers shall be separated from the viscera and the gall bladder shall be removed without release of bile on edible product, before washing and chilling. Abnormal livers (see subsection 19.7) may be salvaged for animal food.

19.5.4.3 Gizzards

Gizzards shall be separated from viscera, opened and the contents and lining removed, before washing and chilling. Contaminated fat on the outside surface of gizzards shall be removed.

19.5.4.4 Kidneys

Kidneys from poultry shall not be prepared as an edible product.

19.5.4.5 Necks

Poultry necks that are separated from the carcass may be prepared for human food provided they are free of contamination.

19.5.4.6 Ova from Fowl

The salvage of ova from slaughtered laying hens is permitted, provided the following conditions are met:

  • Only ova from approved carcasses are collected.
  • Ova collection is done under sanitary conditions.
  • The product shall be refrigerated immediately after collection to a temperature below 4°C. The product shall be subsequently stored and transported under refrigeration to a registered processing egg station for pasteurization.
  • All containers of ova must be identified as such.

19.5.4.7 Poultry Feet or Paws

19.5.4.7.1 Requirements for Edible Poultry Feet or Paws

The salvage of edible poultry feet or paws must be conducted according to the following requirements:

  • If feet are removed prior to post mortem inspection /detection, the operator must have a written protocol that has been approved by the Veterinarian in Charge to ensure that feet are not harvested from carcasses rejected or condemned for generalized pathology;
  • If feet remain attached to the carcass until after the post mortem inspection /detection, they must not present a contamination hazard. Feet, carcass and equipment surfaces must be maintained visibly clean during operations;
  • Epidermis and the toenails are removed;
  • Only feet or paws free of faecal contamination are transferred to the edible product processing area;
  • All edible feet or paw contact surfaces located in non-refrigerated rooms shall be cleaned as per Chapter 3 of this manual;
  • Sorting, trimming and packaging operations shall be performed such that feet or paws ready for packaging are not contaminated by defective feet or paws. There shall be sufficient spatial separation from other processing operations such that the poultry feet or paws do not present a contamination hazard to other processed poultry products;
  • Edible poultry feet or paws shall be chilled to 4°C or lower within 4 hours after scalding operations;
  • The operator's written protocol for the production of edible poultry feet or paws shall be validated and monitored according to the microbiological and organoleptic requirements included in this section; and
  • If the operator has more than one shift, all microbiological and organoleptic sampling described in this section shall be equally distributed amongst the shifts.

Note: If the operator of both the abattoir and the processing establishment has a written protocol signed off by the CFIA officer in charge at both establishments, approved feet or paws may be sent under appropriate controls from one registered slaughter establishment to another registered establishment for scalding, cleaning and further preparation as an edible meat product. The written protocol shall include provisions for validating and monitoring the edible feet or paws according to the following microbiological and organoleptic requirements.

19.5.4.7.2 Organoleptic Defect Definitions

The following accept/reject values apply to post-scald, young chicken feet after they have been sorted by the operator.

Defect Definition Dimensions Accept Reject
Inflammatory Process - sore, wound or other defect associated with an active inflammatory process including, but not limited to, sanguineous (hemorrhagic), oedema, fibrinous, or cheese-like exudate and/or hyperaemia.
e.g.: bumblefoot, laceration, infection, or ammonia burn associated with oedema, necrosis, gangrene, or sanguineous fluid.
Any 2 3
Resolving or Healing Wound - sore, wound, or other tissue condition showing evidence of resolving or healing not associated with an active inflammatory process.
e.g.: thickening of the skin, callus, scab, ammonia burn, dermatitis, tendonitis, or synovitis (not associated with active inflammation).
Small
(< 1.25 cm)
13 14
Resolving or Healing Wound - sore, wound, or other tissue condition showing evidence of resolving or healing not associated with an active inflammatory process.
e.g.: thickening of the skin, callus, scab, ammonia burn, dermatitis, tendonitis, or synovitis (not associated with active inflammation).
Medium
(> 1.25 - 2.5 cm).
6 7
Resolving or Healing Wound - sore, wound, or other tissue condition showing evidence of resolving or healing not associated with an active inflammatory process.
e.g.: thickening of the skin, callus, scab, ammonia burn, dermatitis, tendonitis, or synovitis (not associated with active inflammation).
Large
(> 2.5 cm)
3 4
Bruise - tissue damage that resulted from trauma not associated with signs of inflammation. A bruise associated with an inflammatory process is recorded in the "Inflammatory Processes" category.
e.g.: red to black or greenish discoloration of the skin and/or underlying tissues associated or not associated with visible infiltration of blood or blood clots, and bruising associated with bone fractures.
Small
(< 1.25 cm)
6 7
Bruise - tissue damage that resulted from trauma not associated with signs of inflammation. A bruise associated with an inflammatory process is recorded in the "Inflammatory Processes" category.
e.g.: red to black or greenish discoloration of the skin and/or underlying tissues associated or not associated with visible infiltration of blood or blood clots, and bruising associated with bone fractures.
Medium
(> 1.25 - 2.5 cm)
3 4
Bruise - tissue damage that resulted from trauma not associated with signs of inflammation. A bruise associated with an inflammatory process is recorded in the "Inflammatory Processes"category.
e.g.: red to black or greenish discoloration of the skin and/or underlying tissues associated or not associated with visible infiltration of blood or blood clots, and bruising associated with bone fractures.
Large
(> 2.5 cm)
2 3
Compound Fracture - a bone fracture that has caused an opening in the skin. A compound fracture associated with bruising is not scored in the "Bruise" category. A defect containing a compound fracture and bruising is scored only once in the "Compound Fracture" category. Any 5 6
Cuticle - the outer, or epidermal, layer of skin.
e.g.: any cuticle attached after scalding to remove the cuticle. A cuticle associated with a scab, callus, bruise, or mutilation is not scored/counted twice, e.g., a callus with attached cuticle is scored only once in the callus defect category and not twice (once in the callus category and once in the cuticle category)
Small
(< 1.25 cm)
3 4
Cuticle - the outer, or epidermal, layer of skin.
e.g.: any cuticle attached after scalding to remove the cuticle. A cuticle associated with a scab, callus, bruise, or mutilation is not scored/counted twice, e.g., a callus with attached cuticle is scored only once in the callus defect category and not twice (once in the callus category and once in the cuticle category).
Medium
(> 1.25 - 2.5 cm)
2 3
Cuticle - the outer, or epidermal, layer of skin.
e.g.: any cuticle attached after scalding to remove the cuticle. A cuticle associated with a scab, callus, bruise, or mutilation is not scored/counted twice, e.g., a callus with attached cuticle is scored only once in the callus defect category and not twice (once in the callus category and once in the cuticle category).
Large
(> 2.5 cm)
2 3
Extraneous Material - organic or inorganic material or carcass tissue observed on the paw that is not attached by natural attachments; also includes attached feathers when present.
e.g.: ingesta, grease, grease stains, unidentified material, identifiable material, i.e., plant fiber, seeds, dirt, metal, rust, unattached toe nail, unattached cuticle, unattached feathers (down, pinfeathers/hairs, bristle feathers), unattached skin or other carcass tissue, and attached feathers.
Small
(< 1.25 cm)
3 4
Extraneous Material - organic or inorganic material or carcass tissue observed on the paw that is not attached by natural attachments; also includes attached feathers when present.
e.g.: ingesta, grease, grease stains, unidentified material, identifiable material, i.e., plant fiber, seeds, dirt, metal, rust, unattached toe nail, unattached cuticle, unattached feathers (down, pinfeathers/hairs, bristle feathers), unattached skin or other carcass tissue, and attached feathers.
Medium
(> 1.25 - 2.5 cm)
2 3
Extraneous Material - organic or inorganic material or carcass tissue observed on the paw that is not attached by natural attachments; also includes attached feathers when present.
e.g.: ingesta, grease, grease stains, unidentified material, identifiable material, i.e., plant fiber, seeds, dirt, metal, rust, unattached toe nail, unattached cuticle, unattached feathers (down, pinfeathers/hairs, bristle feathers), unattached skin or other carcass tissue, and attached feathers.
Large
(> 2.5 cm)
1 2
Mutilation - post-mortem processing defect due to dressing and/or processing of the slaughtered bird or processing of the feet. Mutilation associated with bruising is not scored/recorded as mutilation. A defect containing tissue damage and bruising is scored/counted only once in the bruise category. Mutilation defects associated with acute inflammation are scored under the "Resolving or Healing Wound" category or under the "Inflammatory Process" category when associated with chronic inflammation.
e.g.: a cut or laceration of the skin and/or underlying tissues, more than two missing digits, broken or crushed bone without an associated opening through the skin, and joint separation.
Any 7 8
Toenail - the hard keratin dorsal plate of the claw at the end of the digits of the foot. It does not include the softer keratin plate that remains at the end of the digit when the hard dorsal plate of the cuticle that covers softer keratin plate is removed. Any 4 5

19.5.4.7.3 Validation Procedures

19.5.4.7.3.1 Microbiological Requirements:

E. coli counts from packaged, chilled, edible poultry feet or paws shall be validated using the Pathogen Reduction/HACCP systems final rule for poultry carcasses as contained in Annex T of the United States section of Chapter 11 of this manual.

Sufficient samples (minimum of 10 paws per sample) shall be collected to complete one "moving window" for each class of poultry. If the results indicate compliance with the prescribed criteria (e.g., no samples above 1,000 cfu and a maximum of 3 samples greater than 100 cfu in a moving window of 13) then the microbiological validation is deemed to be acceptable.

19.5.4.7.3.2 Organoleptic Requirements:

The validation period is completed once 10 consecutive shifts (minimum of one lot per half shift, minimum 20 samples in total) are accepted. A sample of 50 randomly selected feet shall be selected from each lot.

19.5.4.7.4 Post-Validation Procedures

19.5.4.7.4.1 Microbiological Requirements:

Once the validation procedure is successfully completed, the sample (as per Annex T, of the United States section of Chapter 11) frequency may be reduced to once per week for 2 months and if the samples still meet the criteria, then the testing frequency may be reduced to one randomly selected sample per month. If at any time the samples do not meet the aforementioned criteria, then an investigation shall be conducted to determine the probable cause and corrective action taken as indicated. The Veterinarian in Charge shall decide if the written procedure is to be amended and whether or not feet or paw operations should be revalidated.

19.5.4.7.4.2 Organoleptic Requirements:

Once the validation of poultry paw collection has been successfully completed, the operator shall continue to sample each lot with a minimum of one lot per half shift, using a sample of 50 randomly selected feet.

19.5.4.7.5 Corrective Actions Following a Rejected Sample

If a sample fails a test, the entire lot shall be reworked and another sample shall be selected from the same lot. If the second sample fails from the same lot, the entire lot shall be reworked (again), an investigation shall be conducted to determine the probable cause and corrective action shall be taken as indicated. The Veterinarian in Charge shall decide if the written procedure is to be amended and whether or not feet or paw operations should be revalidated.

19.5.4.7.6 Evaluation of Process Control by CFIA Personnel

Once per week, CFIA personnel should evaluate the operator's process control as per the requirements of this section. An organoleptic evaluation may be conducted in two ways.

  • Evaluate the operator's monitoring methods (e.g., sampling frequency, random sampling methods, defect evaluation, defect recording, evaluation of results, corrective actions taken).
    • If monitoring methods are assessed to be unacceptable, the operator must initiate corrective actions.
  • Perform a test once per shift
    • If a sample is rejected, the operator must initiate an immediate retest and implement correctives measures as necessary.
    • If faecal material is found, immediate corrective action must be initiated.

In regards to the microbiological evaluation, CFIA personnel should ensure that the operator is in compliance to the Pathogen Reduction/HACCP systems final rule for poultry carcasses (Annex T, of the United States section of Chapter 11) as contained in this manual.

19.5.4.7.7 Defects Log for Poultry Paws or Feet

Defects shall be recorded by the operator and may be recorded on the Defect Log for Poultry Feet and Paws contained in Annex A of this chapter.

19.5.4.8 Chitterlings

To be developed

19.5.5 Specific Quality Control Programs

19.5.5.1 Head and Feet-on Poultry Carcasses

This policy is also applicable to poultry with just head attached or just feet attached.

The uropygial or oil gland may be left on carcasses with the head and feet attached provided that:

  • the carcass is labelled so as to indicate the presence of the oil gland; and
  • the oil glands are removed from any portions to ensure that the glands are never incorporated into meat products such as mechanically deboned meat (MSM).

19.5.5.1.1 Requirements for Head and Feet-on Carcasses

Dressing of poultry carcasses with head and feet on may be conducted under the following conditions:

  • heads and feet must not present a contamination hazard. All carcass and equipment surfaces must be maintained visibly clean during operations;
  • the oral cavity and nostrils must be free of extraneous material prior to
  • epidermis and the toenails are removed prior to chilling;
  • the feet must be free of faecal contamination prior to the venting and/or opening of the abdominal cavity;
  • the removal of processing and trimming defects of head and feet-on carcasses shall be done prior to chilling;
  • the operator's written protocol for the production of head and feet-on carcasses shall be validated and monitored according to the microbiological and organoleptic requirements included in this section;
  • if the operator has more than one shift, all microbiological and organoleptic sampling described in this section shall be equally distributed amongst the shifts; and
  • the written procedure must be accepted by the Veterinarian in Charge.

19.5.5.1.2 Organoleptic Defect Definitions

Organoleptic Defect Definitions - head defects
Head Defects Definition
Attached Feathers 10 or more feathers < 10 mm is counted as a defect
5 or more feathers ≥ 10 mm is a defect
Extraneous Material Any extraneous material, specks, smears, or stains of inedible material on the surface of the feet.
3 or more specks ≤ 1.5 mm is counted as a defect.
Each speck > 1.5 mm is counted as a defect.
Examples: Ingesta, unattached feathers, grease, bile, unattached epidermis.
Faecal Material Any visible material determined to be from the lower gastrointestinal tract.
Sinusitis A foamy discharge from the nares which may be accompanied by a swelling of the paranasal sinuses. Gross lesions may include exudate in the nasal and respiratory system. Comb and wattle discolouration may range from red to dark blue.
Substandard Condition Inadequate condition that affects the structure or colouration of the head Table Note 4.
Note: only a bruise ≥ 13 mm is counted as a defect.
Examples: Bruising, mutilation, inadequate bleeding.

Table Note

Table Note 4

Does not apply to the beak.

Return to table note 4 referrer

Organoleptic Defect Definitions - feet defects
Feet Defects Definition
Attached Epidermis Failure to completely remove attached epidermis from the foot.
Attached Toenail(s) Failure to remove the toenail.
Bumblefoot Swollen foot pads with chronic infection of the sub dermal area including the joints ≥ 6 mm.
Compound Fractures Any bone fracture of the feet or toes that has caused an opening through the skin.
Dermatitis Any blisters, ulcers, scabs affecting the skin and/or subcutaneous tissues.
Any visible lesion ≥ 3 mm is counted as a defect.
A cluster of lesions in close proximity within an area > 13 mm is counted as a defect.
Extraneous Material Any extraneous material, specks, smears, or stains of inedible material on the surface of the feet.
3 or more specs ≤ 1.5 mm is counted as a defect.
Each spec > 1.5 mm is counted as a defect.
Examples: Ingesta, unattached feathers, grease, bile, unattached epidermis.
Faecal Contamination Any visible material determined to be from the lower gastrointestinal tract.
Substandard Condition Imperfect condition that affects the structure or colouration of the feet. Ammonia burns < 6 mm and with no secondary pathology are also not counted as a defect.
Each bruise ≥ 13 mm is counted as a defect.
Each black/green bruise ≥ 6 mm is counted as a defect.
Each ammonia burn ≥ 6 mm is counted as a defect.
Examples: Bruising, mutilation, inadequate bleeding, ammonia burns
Note: slight skin reddening and minimal bleeding from cut ends are not counted as a defect.

19.5.5.1.3 Validation Procedures

19.5.5.1.3.1 Microbiological Requirements:

The operator's written protocol for the production of head and feet-on carcasses shall be validated by using sample collections and laboratory test procedures for generic E. coli as outlined in the USDA Pathogen Reduction/HACCP regulations, Chapter 11, section on the United States, Annex T, in this manual.

Microbiological validation consists of the collection of 50 concurrent samples. A concurrent sample is comprised of one carcass without head and feet on (control population) and one carcass with the head and feet on (target population) collected from the evisceration line just prior to entering the chilling system.

The written procedure shall specify the sampling location, how carcasses shall be identified and the random sampling procedure.

The geometric mean of the head and feet-on carcasses must be equal to or less than that of carcasses without head and feet on or not be significantly different as determined by statistical analysis.

The operator shall submit to the CFIA Area Poultry Program specialist the results of all E. coli tests for statistical analysis. Results of the analysis shall be supplied to the Veterinarian in Charge and the operator.

19.5.5.1.3.2 Organoleptic Requirements:

During validation, ISO-based sampling shall be conducted by randomly selecting enough cases to perform a 20 carcass sample at a frequency of once per half shift as per the following table:

Sampling Standard for Head- and Feet-on Carcasses
Acceptance and Rejection Numbers
Carcass
Part
Sample Size
Code Letter
Inspection Mode Sample
Size
AQL Accept
Number
Reject
Number
Head and Feet F Normal 20
Carcasses
6.5% 3 4
Feet Only F Normal 20
Carcasses
4.0% 2 3
Head Only F Normal 20
Carcasses
4.0% 2 3

The validation period is completed once 10 consecutive shifts (20 samples) are accepted.

19.5.5.1.4 Post-Validation Procedures

19.5.5.1.4.1 Microbiological Requirements

The production of head and feet-on carcasses shall be monitored by using sample collections and laboratory test procedures for generic E. coli as outlined in the USDA Pathogen Reduction/HACCP regulations, Chapter 11, section on the US, Annex Q, in this manual.

The testing frequency is once (1) per week for two (2) months and if the samples still meet the criteria, then the testing frequency may be reduced to one (1) randomly selected sample per month. If at any time the samples do not meet the aforementioned criteria, then an investigation shall be conducted to determine the probable cause and corrective action taken as indicated. The Veterinarian in Charge shall decide if the written procedure is to be amended and whether or not feet or paw operations should be revalidated.

19.5.5.1.4.2 Organoleptic Requirements

The operator has the option of continuing to use the ISO sampling plan begun in the validation step or to write an equivalent plant-specific SPC program. For both options, the frequency of sampling shall be conducted as per the following table as a minimum.

Post-Validation Sampling Frequency
Step Frequency Number of Shifts Requirements to shift to next
lower frequency of sampling
Step 1 Once per shift 10 consecutive shifts All samples are accepted
Step 2 Once per 2 shifts N/A N/A

19.5.5.1.5 Corrective Action

If a sample fails a test, the affected case(s) shall be reworked and another sample conducted from the same half shift. If the retest fails, the entire half shift shall be reworked, an investigation conducted to determine the probable cause, corrective action taken as indicated. The Veterinarian in Charge shall decide if the written procedure is to be amended and whether or not head and feet-on operations should be revalidated.

19.5.5.1.6 Evaluation of Process Control by CFIA Personnel

Once per week, CFIA personnel should evaluate the operator's process control as per the requirements of this section. An evaluation may be conducted in two ways.

  • Evaluate the operator's monitoring methods (e.g., sampling frequency, random sampling methods, defect evaluation, defect recording, evaluation of results, corrective actions taken).
    • If monitoring methods are assessed to be unacceptable, the operator must initiate corrective actions.
  • Perform a test as per the sampling plan described in the validation period at the start of this section.
    • If a sample is rejected, the operator must initiate an immediate retest and implement correctives measures as necessary.
    • If faecal material is found, immediate corrective action must be initiated.

In regards to the microbiological evaluation, CFIA personnel should ensure that the operator is in compliance to the Pathogen Reduction/HACCP systems final rule for poultry carcasses (Annex Q, of the United States section of Chapter 11) as contained in this manual.

19.5.5.1.7 Defects Log for Head and Feet-on Carcasses

A Head and Feet-on Carcass Defects Log has been provided in Annex A of this chapter to record the sample results.

19.5.5.2 Head-on Rabbit Carcasses

A domesticated rabbit may be dressed with the head on.

The operator's written protocol must include the applicable conditions from the head-on poultry subsection (section 19.5.5.1) and must be approved by the Veterinarian in Charge.

19.5.5.3 Removal of Condemned Poultry Legs

19.5.5.3.1 General Requirements

An approved written quality control program is required to ensure that all condemned legs are removed prior to cut-up, boning, packaging or shipping. For MPIP, identified legs will not be counted as a defect under the CDS.

Legs with pathological conditions that may cause cross contamination (e.g., cellulites) shall be removed prior to water immersion chillers.

A written quality control program must consist of the following parts:

  • A flow chart of the operation indicating the position of employees identifying legs for removal, removing the legs and where checks on the effectiveness of the system are made;
  • Quality control programs using knife cuts as identification may be approved providing that the cut:
    • is easily seen from all sides of the carcass at normal line speeds; and
    • is distinguishable from any other cuts;
  • A description of the following controls:
    • the frequency and method of monitoring;
    • the records that will be kept; and
    • the action that will be taken if condemned or marked legs are missed.

Any proposed program should be discussed with the Veterinarian in Charge for approval by the area poultry inspection specialist.

19.5.6 Microbial Control Interventions for the Treatment of Carcasses and their Parts

Refer to the sub-section with the same preceding title as contained in Chapter 17, "Ante and Post mortem Inspection Procedures, Dispositions, Monitoring and Controls – Red Meat Species, Ostriches, Rheas and Emus", of this manual.

Note: For chlorine, including the handling of product potentially exposed to chlorine in excess of the Health Canada limits, refer to Chapter 5, "Sampling and Testing", sub-section "Chlorine", of this manual.

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