Chapter 19 – Poultry Inspection Programs
19.7 Poultry Dispositions

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Disposition of animals, blood, dressed carcasses and parts is dealt with in various sections of the MIR.

The descriptions of poultry diseases and conditions in the disposition policies below are adapted from:

Diseases of poultry
Y. M. Saif, H. J. Barnes, John R. Glisson, Aly M. Fadly, Larry R. McDougald, David Swayne
Edition: 11, illustrated
Published by Wiley-Blackwell, 2003
ISBN 081380423X, 9780813804231

A list of diseases and conditions requiring specific dispositions is provided below, together with the appropriate disposition in a coded and summarized form for reference purposes. This list is divided into the following three subsections:

  • diseases and conditions that can be diagnosed in slaughterhouses, based on the organoleptic examination (visual, tactile and olfactory) of carcasses;
  • diagnoses that are made by veterinarians at slaughter based on laboratory results. It is understood that in some cases, because of past experiences with a similar condition, a veterinarian can pose such diagnoses without a lab report; and
  • reportable diseases that can be seen at slaughter. In some instances where disposition does not lend itself easily to summarization, or when more specific procedures are required, more detailed information is provided following the tables. Please forward to the Director, MPD, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, any concerns or suggestions with regard to this list of diseases and conditions.

Details for the disposal and use of condemned meat products are provided in Chapter 6. The MIR define animal food as a product for use as food for fish or for an animal that is a pet, is kept in a zoo or is raised for fur.

19.7.1 Diseases and Conditions Diagnosed by Organoleptic Examination of Carcasses and Portions Thereof and/or Reported to the Meat Programs Division

Diseases and Conditions Diagnosed by Organoleptic Examination of Carcasses and Portions Thereof and/or Reported to the Meat Programs Division
Name and Code of Condition Table Note 16 Comments Judgement Utilization of Condemned Material
Airsacculitis
426 (901)
Generalized or evidence of systemic involvement Total condemnation Rendering
Airsacculitis
426 (901)
Otherwise
See section 19.7.4.19
Approval Not applicable
Airsacculitis
426 (901)
Otherwise
See section 19.7.4.19
Approval, subject to reconditioning or salvaging Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Anaemia
910 (909)
Try to determine underlying cause. Total condemnation Rendering, if associated with septicaemia
Anaemia
910 (909)
Try to determine underlying cause. Total condemnation Otherwise, animal food
Arthritis/
Peri-arthritis
512 (903)
Depending on extent of lesions Partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Arthritis/
Peri-arthritis
512 (903)
Depending on extent of lesions Total condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Arthritis/
Peri-arthritis
Condemn if evidence of systemic involvement, e.g. wasting. Total condemnation Rendering
Ascites
320 (905)
Disposition depends on extent Approval Not applicable
Ascites
320 (905)
Condemn if evidence of systemic involvement, see section 19.7.4.14 Partial condemnation Rendering or animal food
Ascites
320 (905)
Condemn if evidence of systemic involvement, see section 19.7.4.14 Total condemnation Rendering or animal food
Avian Kerato-acanthoma
611 (904)
Depending on extent of lesions Partial condemnation Animal food
Avian Kerato-acanthoma
611 (904)
Depending on extent of lesions Total condemnation Animal food
Bruising
051
Depending upon extent of bruising Partial condemnation Animal food
Bruising
051
Depending upon extent of bruising Total condemnation Animal food
Cannibalism
007 (909)
Depending upon extent of lesions Partial condemnation Animal food
Cannibalism
007 (909)
Depending upon extent of lesions Total condemnation Animal food
Cellulitis
800 (902)
Depending upon extent of lesions Partial condemnation Animal food
Cellulitis
800 (902)
Depending upon extent of lesions Total condemnation Animal food
Coligranuloma
008 (909)
Differentiate from tuberculosis lesions Partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Coligranuloma
008 (909)
Differentiate from tuberculosis lesions Total condemnation Rendering
Contamination
010
Disposition depends on extent. Partial condemnation Animal food
Contamination
010
Disposition depends on extent. Total condemnation Animal food
Cyst Mites
(909)
Entire flock passed or condemned based on laboratory histopathology results. See section 19.7.4.23 Total condemnation Animal Food
Dark coloured carcass (Cyanosis/ Asphyxia) 090 (908) Differentiate from a septicaemia
See section 19.7.4.18
Total condemnation at "ante mortem" Animal food
Dark coloured carcass (Cyanosis/ Asphyxia) 090 (908) Differentiate from a septicaemia
See section 19.7.4.18
Total condemnation at "ante mortem" Rendering
Dark coloured carcass (Cyanosis/ Asphyxia) 090 (908) Differentiate from a septicaemia
See section 19.7.4.18
Total condemnation Animal food
Dark coloured carcass (Cyanosis/ Asphyxia) 090 (908) Differentiate from a septicaemia
See section 19.7.4.18
Total condemnation Rendering
Dermatitis
810 (904)
Depending upon extent and involvement of underlying tissue Partial condemnation Animal food
Dermatitis
810 (904)
Depending upon extent and involvement of underlying tissue Total condemnation Animal food
Emaciation
220 (907)
Differentiate from lean or small carcasses. Try to determine underlying cause for reporting purposes, otherwise report as emaciation. Total condemnation Animal food
Emphysema (Subcutaneous)
082 (909)
Depending on extent and concurrent conditions. Partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts, if associated with an infection
Emphysema (Subcutaneous)
082 (909)
Depending on extent and concurrent conditions. Partial condemnation Animal food, if not associated with an infection
Emphysema (Subcutaneous)
082 (909)
Depending on extent and concurrent conditions. Total condemnation Rendering, if association with an infection
Emphysema (Subcutaneous)
082 (909)
Depending on extent and concurrent conditions. Total condemnation Animal food,, if not association with an infection
Epidermal Cysts
(909)
See section 19.7.4.24 Partial condemnation Animal food
Epidermal Cysts
(909)
See section 19.7.4.24 Total condemnation Animal food
Found dead
099
All species Total condemnation at "ante mortem" Rendering
Fractures
047
See section 19.7.4.3 Partial condemnation Animal food
Fractures
047
See section 19.7.4.3 Total condemnation Animal food
Frostbite
049
All species Total condemnation at "ante mortem" then partial condemnation Animal food
Frostbite
049
All species Total condemnation at "ante mortem" then partial condemnation Rendering
Frostbite
049
All species Total condemnation Animal food
Frostbite
049
All species Total condemnation Rendering
Gout
967 (909)
Depends upon the extent of the lesions Partial condemnation Rendering
Gout
967 (909)
Depends upon the extent of the lesions Total condemnation Rendering
Hepatitis/ Cholangiohepatitis/ Hepatosis/ Necrotic hepatitis/etc.
545 (906)
Depending on extent of lesions and evidence of systemic effects Necrotic Hepatitis
See section 19.7.4.21
Partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Hepatitis/ Cholangiohepatitis/ Hepatosis/ Necrotic hepatitis/etc.
545 (906)
Depending on extent of lesions and evidence of systemic effects Necrotic Hepatitis
See section 19.7.4.21
Total condemnation Rendering
Icterus/Jaundice
920 (906)
Depending on extent. If liver is the main viscera involved, report as hepatitis Total condemnation Rendering
Icterus/Jaundice
920 (906)
Depending on extent. If liver is the main viscera involved, report as hepatitis Total condemnation Animal food (carcass)
Icterus/Jaundice
920 (906)
Depending on extent. If liver is the main viscera involved, report as hepatitis Total condemnation Rendering (liver)
Inadequate bleeding
096
Verify improper bleeding procedure
See section 19.7.4.16
Partial condemnation Animal food
Inadequate bleeding
096
Verify improper bleeding procedure
See section 19.7.4.16
Total condemnation Animal food
Leucosis sarcoma group
640 (909)
All species Total condemnation Animal food
Loss of identity
097
See section 19.7.4.5 Approval Not applicable
Loss of identity
097
See section 19.7.4.5 Total condemnation Animal food
Marek's disease (cutaneous form)
642 (909)
All species Partial condemnation Animal food
Marek's disease (visceral or nervous form)
641 (909)
All species Total condemnation Animal food
Odour
061 (909)
May be associated with residue problems. Retain under refrigeration and, if appropriate, test on site then approve; Animal food, if residues see 6.2.1.2 (d)
Odour
061 (909)
May be associated with residue problems. Approval, subject to reconditioning or salvaging; Animal food, if residues see 6.2.1.2 (d)
Odour
061 (909)
May be associated with residue problems. Total condemnation Animal food, if residues see 6.2.1.2 (d)
Osteomyelitis
150 (903)
Dependent on extent and secondary effects Partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Osteomyelitis
150 (903)
Dependent on extent and secondary effects Total condemnation Rendering
Overscald
046
Depending on extent of overscald Partial condemnation Animal food
Overscald
046
Depending on extent of overscald Total condemnation Animal food
Pectoral myopathy (green muscle)
Myositis
550 (909)
Inflammation, degeneration or muscular infiltration: depends on extent of lesions and the possibility of trimming lesions. Partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Pectoral myopathy (green muscle)
Myositis
550 (909)
Inflammation, degeneration or muscular infiltration: depends on extent of lesions and the possibility of trimming lesions. Total condemnation Rendering
Pendulous crop
009 (909)
Depending on systemic involvement. Partial condemnation Animal food
Pendulous crop
009 (909)
Depending on systemic involvement. Total condemnation Animal food
Pericarditis
571 (909)
See section 19.7.4.19 Partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Pericarditis
571 (909)
See section 19.7.4.19 Total condemnation Rendering
Peritonitis
573 (909)
See section 19.7.4.17 Partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Peritonitis
573 (909)
See section 19.7.4.17 Total condemnation Rendering
Plant rejects
111
See section 19.7.4.22 Partial condemnation Animal food
Plant rejects
111
See section 19.7.4.22 Total condemnation Animal food
Salpingitis
583 (909)
See section 19.7.4.17 Partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Salpingitis
583 (909)
See section 19.7.4.17 Total condemnation Rendering by authorized establishments
Septicaemia
930 (909)
Try to determine underlying cause for reporting purposes.
See section 19.7.4.15
Total condemnation then sample for laboratory analyses Rendering by authorized establishments
Sternal bursitis
003 (902)
Depending upon involvement of underlying tissue. Partial condemnation If infected, rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Sternal bursitis
003 (902)
Depending upon involvement of underlying tissue. Partial condemnation If not infected, animal food
Sternal bursitis
003 (902)
Depending upon involvement of underlying tissue. Total condemnation If infected, rendering
Sternal bursitis
003 (902)
Depending upon involvement of underlying tissue. Total condemnation If not infected, animal food
Synovitis (Infectious)/ Tenosynovitis (Ruptured gastrocnemius tendon)
102/460 (903)
See section 19.7.4.6 Partial condemnation Animal food
Synovitis (Infectious)/ Tenosynovitis (Ruptured gastrocnemius tendon)
102/460 (903)
If systemic involvement Total condemnation Animal food
Urolithiasis
(909)
See section 19.7.4.26 Partial condemnation Animal food
Urolithiasis
(909)
If systemic involvement Total condemnation Animal food
Toxaemia
960 (909)
Try to determine underlying cause for reporting purposes.
See section 19.7.4.15
Total condemnation Rendering
Valgus/Varus deformity
160 (903)
When the deformity is the only visible lesion Approval Not applicable
Valgus/Varus deformity
160 (903)
When there is inflammation, bruising or haemorrhage Partial condemnation Animal food
Valgus/Varus deformity
160 (903)
Only if systemic involvement Total condemnation Animal food
Xanthomatosis
865 (909)
See section 19.7.4.25 Partial condemnation Animal food
Xanthomatosis
865 (909)
See section 19.7.4.25 Total condemnation Animal food

Table Note

Table Note 16

Code numbers found after the name of the farm related conditions refer to codes used for the Agency database up until January 2nd, 2008 and were replaced by the 9 category groupings as it appears on the new Condemnation Report (in Annex A). The codes for the new grouping appear (when applicable) within brackets following the code number.
Rendering: Rendering by authorized establishments
Partial condemnation: condemn affected parts and approve remainder

Return to table note 16  referrer

19.7.2 Diseases or Conditions Generally Diagnosed and Reported Based on Laboratory Analysis (Histopathology, Culture, Serology, Residues Testing, Etc.)

Diseases or Conditions Generally Diagnosed and Reported Based on Laboratory Analysis (Histopathology, Culture, Serology, Residues Testing, et cetera
Name and code of condition Table Note 17 Comments Judgement Utilization of condemned material
Adenocarcinoma
660 (909)
Report as "Neoplasm" Total condemnation Animal food
Aspergillosis
405 (909)
All species Total condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Botulism (909) Diagnosed at ante mortem inspection. Total condemnation at "ante mortem" Rendering
Chlamydiosis (ornithosis, psittacosis)
102 (909)
Risk to human contacts. Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then take samples for laboratory analyses Rendering
Chlamydiosis (ornithosis, psittacosis)
102 (909)
If suspected, take all reasonable precautions including delaying slaughter of other birds from same source. Total condemnation, then take samples for laboratory analyses Rendering
Chlamydiosis (ornithosis, psittacosis)
102 (909)
Laboratory confirmation essential Total condemnation at "ante mortem" Rendering
Chlamydiosis (ornithosis, psittacosis)
102 (909)
Laboratory confirmation essential Retain "at ante mortem" for rest and treatment when confirmed Rendering
Coccidiosis
720 (909)
Depending upon extent and systemic involvement. Partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Coccidiosis
720 (909)
Depending upon extent and systemic involvement. Total condemnation Rendering
Cyst Mites
(909)
Entire flock passed or condemned based on laboratory histopathology results.
See section 19.7.4.23
Total condemnation Animal Food
Enteritis (ulcerative or necrotic)
530 (909)
Depends on systemic effects. Partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Enteritis (ulcerative or necrotic)
530 (909)
Depends on systemic effects. Total condemnation Rendering
Enterohepatitis (blackhead)
430 (909)
Depends upon the extent of the lesions Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Enterohepatitis (blackhead)
430 (909)
Depends upon the extent of the lesions Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then total condemnation Rendering
Erysipelas
435 (909)
All species Total condemnation Rendering
Fowl cholera
102 (909)
Difficult to diagnose on ante mortem. May be suspected on a flock basis. At post mortem may appear as septicaemia, airsacculitis, arthritis, etc. Disposition will be on this basis. Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Fowl cholera
102 (909)
Difficult to diagnose on ante mortem. May be suspected on a flock basis. At post mortem may appear as septicaemia, airsacculitis, arthritis, etc. Disposition will be on this basis. Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then total condemnation Rendering
Fowl pox
965 (909)
Disposition depends on extent of lesions and whether or not there is systemic involvement. Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then partial condemnation Rendering for lesions or condition on affected parts and animal food for remaining parts
Fowl pox
965 (909)
Disposition depends on extent of lesions and whether or not there is systemic involvement. Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then total condemnation Rendering
Gangrenous dermatitis (dermatomyositis)
810 (909)
Depends upon severity. Partial condemnation Rendering
Gangrenous dermatitis (dermatomyositis)
810 (909)
Depends upon severity. Total condemnation Rendering
Inclusion body hepatitis
545 (909)
The liver is primarily affected in this case. Depends if they are systemic effects. Partial condemnation Animal Food
Inclusion body hepatitis
545 (909)
The liver is primarily affected in this case. Depends if they are systemic effects. Total condemnation Animal Food
Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease)
102 (909)
Depends on the extent of the lesions Partial condemnation Rendering
Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease)
102 (909)
Depends on the extent of the lesions Total condemnation Rendering
Infectious bronchitis
102 (909)
Depends on the extent of the lesions Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then partial condemnation Rendering
Infectious bronchitis
102 (909)
Depends on the extent of the lesions Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then total condemnation Rendering
Infectious coryza
102 (909)
Depends upon extent of lesions and ability to remove them. Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then partial condemnation Rendering
Infectious coryza
102 (909)
Depends upon extent of lesions and ability to remove them. Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then total condemnation Rendering
Infectious sinusitis
102 (909)
Depends on the extent of the lesions Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then partial condemnation Rendering
Infectious sinusitis
102 (909)
Depends on the extent of the lesions Treat as suspect at "ante mortem", then total condemnation Rendering
Leiomyoma
660 (909)
All species Partial condemnation Animal food
Leiomyosarcoma
660 (909)
Malignant form of above; rare. Report as "Neoplasm" Total condemnation Animal food
Listeriosis
102 (909)
All species Total condemnation Rendering
Neoplasm
660 (909)
Neoplasms not otherwise specified Partial condemnation Rendering
Neoplasm
660 (909)
Neoplasms not otherwise specified Total condemnation Rendering
Residues
065: Antibiotics
102: Others (909)
Suspicion may stem from abnormal odour or liver lesions. Deal with on a lot or flock basis. Retain under refrigeration and, if appropriate, test on site and take samples for laboratory analyses See Chapter 6
Residues
065: Antibiotics
102: Others (909)
Suspicion may stem from abnormal odour or liver lesions. Deal with on a lot or flock basis. If confirmed, total condemnation See Chapter 6
Rickets / Osteomalacia
141 (909)
Depends upon severity. Approval Animal food
Rickets / Osteomalacia
141 (909)
Depends upon severity. Total condemnation Animal food
Tuberculosis
490 (909)
All species Total condemnation Rendering
Viral arthritis (reovirus infection)
(909)
All species Partial condemnation Rendering
Viral arthritis (reovirus infection)
(909)
All species Total condemnation Rendering

Table Note

Table Note 17

Code numbers found after the name of the farm related conditions refer to codes used for the Agency database up until January 2nd, 2008 were replaced by the 9 category groupings as it appears on the new Condemnation Report (in Annex A). The codes for the new grouping appear (when applicable) within brackets following the code number.
Rendering: Rendering by authorized establishments
Partial condemnation: condemn affected parts and approve remainder

Return to table note 17  referrer

19.7.3 Reportable Diseases (Poultry Species)

The following diseases are designated as reportable by the Health of Animals Act
Name and code of condition Table Note 18 Comments Judgement Utilization of condemned material
Anthrax
102 (909)
This disease rarely affects birds. Chickens are highly resistant; ostriches are moderately susceptible.
See Chapter 9
Total condemnation at "ante mortem" See Chapter 9
Anthrax
102 (909)
This disease rarely affects birds. Chickens are highly resistant; ostriches are moderately susceptible.
See Chapter 9
Total condemnation See Chapter 9
Highly virulent form of avian influenza
102 (909)
See Chapter 9 Total condemnation at "ante mortem" Rendering
Highly virulent form of avian influenza
102 (909)
See Chapter 9 Total condemnation Rendering
Fowl typhoid
102 (909)
See Chapter 9
Disposition depends on extent of lesions and whether or not there is systemic involvement.
Total condemnation at "ante mortem" Rendering
Fowl typhoid
102 (909)
See Chapter 9
Disposition depends on extent of lesions and whether or not there is systemic involvement.
Partial condemnation Rendering
Fowl typhoid
102 (909)
See Chapter 9
Disposition depends on extent of lesions and whether or not there is systemic involvement.
Total condemnation Rendering
Newcastle disease (Pneumoence-phalitis)
863 (909)
See Chapter 9 Total condemnation at "ante mortem" Rendering
Newcastle disease (Pneumoence-phalitis)
863 (909)
See Chapter 9 Total condemnation Rendering
Pullorum disease
102 (909)
See Chapter 9 Total condemnation Rendering

Table Note

Table Note 18

Code numbers found after the name of the farm related conditions refer to codes used for the Agency database up until January 2nd, 2008 were replaced by the 9 category groupings as it appears on the new Condemnation Report (in Annex A). The codes for the new grouping appear (when applicable) within brackets following the code number.
Rendering: Rendering by authorized establishments
Partial condemnation: condemn affected parts and approve remainder

Return to table note 18  referrer

In addition to the reportable diseases, any suspected case of exotic disease must be reported to the Animal Health District Veterinarian. Any animal or carcass suspected of having either a reportable or an exotic disease, should be held pending the arrival of an Animal Health veterinarian. (See Chapter 9)

19.7.4 Specific Ante mortem/Post mortem Conditions for Poultry

Throughout this section if a carcass is discarded by a veterinarian it is referred to as a condemnation. If a plant defect detector or inspector discards a carcass it will be referred to as a rejection.

19.7.4.1 Abnormal Odour

Any carcass which exhibits an abnormal odour at the time of post mortem inspection shall be held for veterinary inspection. If, in the opinion of the veterinarian, the odour is excessively pronounced, the carcass shall be condemned. Where odour is not considered excessive and not indicative of exposure to toxic materials, affected carcasses may be chilled in an attempt to dissipate the odour.

If at the end of the chilling period, the odour has dissipated, the carcass may be approved without restriction. In many cases, residual odour can still be detected following chilling by incision into deeper tissues. In cases where there is residual but not excessive odour following chilling, it will be acceptable to approve the carcass with the restriction that meat from the carcass may only be permitted for inclusion into spiced meat products. The amount of this meat permitted in the mixture will depend on the severity of the condition; however in no case the odour shall be detectable in the finished product.

19.7.4.2 Contamination

Carcasses and parts and/or viscera contaminated with grease, gall, faecal contamination, or other noxious material are adulterated and unfit for human food. Contamination shall be removed and condemned and the remainder may be approved, provided the remainder does not retain odours or unsound characteristics. Where the contamination is so generalized as to make removal impractical, total condemnation is required.

If total condemnation is not warranted, the carcass may either be salvaged or reprocessed as per the requirements for those processes.

Carcasses or portions and/or viscera contaminated with volatile oils, poisons, obnoxious gases, kerosene, or any substance which may permeate the tissues rendering them adulterated, shall be condemned.

Birds placed in the scald tank before they are dead become contaminated due to inhalation of scald water. Whenever scald water is observed in air sacs, the affected carcasses shall be condemned.

19.7.4.3 Fractures

Where bone fractures in poultry carcasses are detected at post mortem inspection, disposition shall be in accordance with the following:

  • Where the fracture is associated with a bruise, the fracture site and bruised tissue shall be trimmed off and condemned. With fractures that involve the bones of the wings and legs, the affected tissue shall be removed by incision through the first joint (or joints) outside the affected area. In the case of a dislocated hip, without bruising, trimming is not required.
  • Where the fracture is compound, i.e., the skin is penetrated, the fracture site and the surrounding tissue are to be trimmed off and condemned in a similar manner to that outlined above.
  • Where the fracture is simple, without bruise or skin perforation, the affected portion may be approved for boning by either manual or mechanical means. In some cases, salvage may be possible by removing the affected area of fractured portions, e.g., a simple fracture of the distal end of the tibia may be removed by cutting proximal to the fracture. In such a case, the affected part must be removed to the satisfaction of CFIA personnel prior to approval of the remainder of the portion.

    Note: If the trimmed portion no longer conforms to the definition accepted for the label product description, the product description must be altered (see Chapter 7).

  • In those instances where trimming is impracticable, in other words where the carcass is extensively mutilated, then the carcass shall be condemned.

Where the legs are short cut during feet removal, i.e., the cut is made through the tibia above the hock joint, no action is required unless there is visible contamination of the area.

19.7.4.4 Handling of Meat Products Which Have Fallen on the Floor

The disposition of these carcasses (or portions) must be left to the discretion of the Veterinarian in Charge. If salvage of the carcass or portion is not considered practicable, then condemnation may be considered.

Hygienic handling of carcasses or portions which have fallen on the floor shall be conducted according to a procedure that has been validated as part of the operator's HACCP system based on the following parameters:

  • The carcass or portion shall be immediately removed from contact with the floor to reduce the possibility of further contamination.
  • All visible contamination shall be removed by e.g., washing and/or trimming in an efficient yet sanitary fashion.
  • After satisfactory removal of visible contamination, the carcass or portion shall be thoroughly rinsed with water.
  • The site of the fall, the frequency of falls, and the reasons for the falls should be noted. Corrective action to prevent a recurrence, if required should be incorporated as quickly as possible.

19.7.4.5 Loss of Identity

In the case where only a portion of the viscera is missing, the veterinarian or inspector may take into consideration the organ(s) which is (are) missing, the condition of the carcass and the rest of the viscera as presented, and the disease prevalence in the flock to determine if there is sufficient need to condemn the whole carcass.

In the case where no viscera are present, disposition should be determined on a flock basis, considering the following conditions:

  • Rate for the lot compared to average condemnation rates for a healthy flock;
  • Prevalent conditions resulting in condemnation in the flock;
  • The Presentation Standard for MPIP (refer to section 19.6.2.4 of this chapter) or the Traditional Presentation Standard (refer to section 19.6.1.1 of this chapter) are into compliance; additional presentation check may be conducted if there is a question of excessive loss of viscera.

While each case must be judged on an individual basis, the severity of the defect must be brought to the attention of management and steps should be taken to immediately rectify the cause of the defect.

Note: Carcasses must be synchronized with their corresponding viscera whenever the viscera are separated form the carcass by automatic evisceration equipment. Lack of synchronization shall be treated as "loss of identity". Lack of synchronization by more than half a shackle or viscera pan is to be treated as a deficiency.

19.7.4.6 Synovitis, Tenosynovitis, Ruptured Gastrocnemius Tendon, Viral Arthritis

Rejection of carcasses due to these conditions should be based on poly-systemic effects of the carcass such as emaciation or dark colouration; otherwise trimming of the affected portion is required.

Therefore it is recommended that this condition be reported as synovitis (unless it is clearly a ruptured gastrocnemius tendon), until a more precise aetiology is established. For carcasses condemned for articular problems other than the ones described above, please report under arthritis.

19.7.4.7 Emaciation/Leanness/Smallness

Carcasses showing evidence of a prominent keel, the loss of muscle mass and body fat and an alteration of the consistency of the remaining fat, without any other sign of disease, shall be condemned and reported as emaciated. (See difference from serous atrophy of fat in the training manual)

Leaner or smaller carcasses in the lot should be approved.

19.7.4.8 Dermatitis

Generally, no carcass should be condemned for superficial dermatitis. Carcasses with dermatitis lesions may be trimmed and/or salvaged, regardless of the size of the lesion. Carcasses with lesions affecting the underlying muscle fascia such that trimming is impractical should be condemned as cellulitis.

19.7.4.9 Marek's Disease – Cutaneous Form

When the lesions caused by Marek's Disease are restricted to the skin and limited in extent, when no viscera and nerves are affected and no systemic effects are present, affected carcasses are approved following trimming.

19.7.4.10 Osteomyelitis in Turkeys

Green liver cannot be considered a sign of current septicaemia, and the presence of it is only an indication to examine the carcass further. Green liver alone is not an indication to condemn any carcass.

Post mortem disposition depends on the presence of systemic effects, e.g., the infection involves clavicular air sacs, or several long bones and/or joints and /or tendon sheaths are affected, or there are breast muscle abscesses. The entire carcass will be condemned if the infection is generalized. The condemned material must be sent to a rendering plant authorized to process inedible products.

19.7.4.11 Cellulitis

19.7.4.11.1 Chickens Including Roasters and Fowl

Under the traditional method of poultry inspection, carcasses affected with cellulitis shall be trimmed by the helper/trimmer stationed next to the inspector or, if the operator has an effective Quality Assurance (QA) program, then downstream on the evisceration line.

Under the Modernized Poultry Inspection Program (MPIP), carcasses may be trimmed on-line, downstream from the inspection/detection zone.

Trimming of lesions is subject to the following:

  • In the case of peri-cloacal cellulitis:

Broiler chicken carcasses with peri-cloacal cellulitis shall be removed during preselection to prevent contamination of evisceration equipment and cross contamination of subsequent eviscerated carcasses.

For roasters (> 2.6 kg live weight), localized and circumscribed peri-cloacal lesions may be trimmed after being withdrawn from the evisceration line at preselection provided there are adequate, sanitary trimming facilities.

  • In the case of non-peri-cloacal cellulitis:

Broiler chicken carcasses, with cellulitis lesions larger than 2 cm × 2 cm, located elsewhere than on the wings and the legs, shall be removed during preselection. Wings and/or legs with cellulitis lesions may be removed from the carcass and condemned. Carcasses with localized skin scratches longer than 2 cm (e.g., minor longitudinal lesions located at the base of the tail) may be trimmed on-line provided that all cellulitis lesions are removed upon trimming.

Heavy/breeder fowl carcasses with cellulitis lesions may be trimmed and/or salvaged, regardless of the size of the lesion, provided such lesions are not associated with extensive subcutaneous spreading of cellulitis, nor affecting underlying muscle fascia.

19.7.4.11.2 Turkeys

Turkey carcasses with cellulitis lesions may be trimmed and/or salvaged, provided such lesions are not associated with extensive subcutaneous spreading of cellulitis, nor affecting underlying muscle fascia. In such cases, carcasses shall be condemned for cellulitis. Carcasses which are impractical to trim due to extensive emphysema with cellulitis shall be reported as cellulitis. All carcasses which cannot be fully trimmed on-line must be removed from the evisceration line for off-line trimming. Any amount of cellulitis coupled with associated evidence of generalized disease shall be condemned for the underlying cause.

19.7.4.12 Sternal Bursitis With/Without Cellulitis

"Breast buttons" (= 13 mm in turkey and = 8 mm in quails and fowl) and "breast blisters" are to be removed. Carcasses with more extensive sternal bursitis, without evidence of associated extensive cellulitis shall have the bursa trimmed or removed. Carcasses with sternal bursitis, with associated extensive cellulitis, shall be condemned for the underlying cause i.e., sternal bursitis. Carcasses with sternal bursitis accompanied with a generalized disease or condition shall be condemned for the underlying disease or condition.

19.7.4.13 Emphysema

Carcasses with emphysema associated with cellulitis or airsacculitis, refer to the policy for cellulitis or airsacculitis respectively.

19.7.4.14 Ascites

If a carcass exhibits emaciation, subcutaneous œdema, anasarca or congestion it is to be condemned. The presence of a cobblestone liver should signal one to look more closely at the carcass for subcutaneous œdema. The presence of a cobblestone liver alone is not a reason to condemn the carcass. Similarly the presence of ascites without systemic involvement should result in acceptance of the carcass.

The following table has thus been developed as a reference tool to assist veterinarians help to evaluate this condition in chickens and turkeys.

Condition Evaluation
Presence of systemic effects (Dark Coloured Carcass, emaciation, subcutaneous œdema, congestion, anasarca)
Leads to
Carcass and viscera condemned
No systemic effects - carcass in good condition (may have pericardial transudate or ascites or bosselated/cobblestone liver ± hypertrophy, œdema, fibrin)
Leads to
Carcass approved and affected liver condemned

Fowl carcasses with an obviously distended abdomen shall be condemned at preselection.

19.7.4.15 Septicaemia/Toxaemia/Congestion Syndrome

Of the various lesions found in the cases of septicaemia or toxaemia, the following are those most often encountered (in decreasing order of importance):

  • multi focal sub serous haemorrhages, which often affect several organs (mostly the endocardium and epicardium); sub mucosal haemorrhages of the trachea;
  • congestion and œdema of various organs,
  • presence of sites of infection of embolic origin in various organs;
  • peripheral vasodilatation; and
  • petechial and/or ecchymotic haemorrhage of the sub serosal fat, e.g., fat around the ovaries or testes.

A septicaemia infected carcass must be sent to an authorized inedible rendering plant. A congested carcass may be used for animal food.

19.7.4.16 Inadequate Bleeding

Carcasses that are inadequately bled are to be rejected or condemned.

Carcasses that are mildly red or that show redness only at the extremities can remain on the line and\or be subjected to further trimming.

Whenever there are inadequately bled carcasses (mildly red to brick red) present at the pre- selection, please refer to Chapter 12 of this manual.

19.7.4.17 Salpingitis/Peritonitis in Poultry

Condemnation for the salpingitis category shall not be used in chickens. Dry caseous material and/or caseous exudate limited to the salpinx or the immediate surrounding tissue can be removed by trimming, aspiration, vacuuming or by salvaging, A normal carcass with a ruptured salpinx with localized inflammation or no sign of inflammation in the area should be reconditioned or salvaged.

Peritonitis usually consists of malodorous, caseous or other exudate, adhesions, red fibrinous tags along the abdominal wall or the exterior of viscera. The term peritonitis is not to be used for the filmy transudate (œdema of the liver capsule) that is part of the hepatosis that develops secondary to cyanosis/ascites syndrome, as the latter terms are more diagnostic of what is actually occurring.

Carcasses with retained egg yolks may be reconditioned or salvaged.

19.7.4.18 Dark Coloured Carcasses/Cyanosis

Carcasses from birds slaughtered in a moribund state will be condemned on post mortem for Dark Coloured Carcasses/ Cyanosis. The term "moribund" should not be used for poultry dispositions related to post mortem examination/inspection.

Mild to moderately blue carcasses should be approved (provided the dark colouration is the only significant finding) as these carcasses have been shown to return to normal colour in the chill tank.

Severely dark carcasses should be condemned.

19.7.4.19 Airsacculitis

Lesions and affected air sacs shall be removed from the carcass using on-line or off-line reconditioning procedures without creating additional contamination. The remnants of the membranes, without caseum and/or exudate, will not be considered as a lesion nor as a defect for the Defect Detection Standards (DDS) and the Carcass Dressing Standards (CDS).

Carcasses with systemic effects (such as polyserositis, emaciated, dark coloured carcasses) or with rarely seen acute lesions shall be condemned. Otherwise, carcasses and/or viscera with lesions consistent with airsacculitis shall be handled as follows:

Viscera Lesions Assessment
Viscera Lesions Viscera Judgement Carcass Judgement
Heart: when there is evidence of caseous material in or on the pericardial sac (with variable accumulation of fluid) without the involvement of other viscera. Total Condemnation Approval
Heart: when there is either a small amount of whitish area on the epicardium or small adhesions to the pericardial sac without signs of infection. Approval Approval
Heart: when only the pericardial sac shows the presence of clear or slightly amber liquid but without signs of infection. Approval Approval
Heart + Liver: when covered with caseous or fibrino-caseous material (polyserositis) Total Condemnation Total Condemnation
Lungs (smaller and reddish, adhesions) and/or Airsacs (presence of fibrino-caseous material in the sacs) without implication of the heart or liver Partial Condemnation Approval, subject to reconditioning or salvaging
Internal Cavity Lesions Assessment
Internal Cavity Lesions Viscera Judgement Carcass Judgement
Airsacs: Presence of opacity in the sacs without exudate or particles N/A Approval
Airsacs: Presence of particles or caseum (fibrino-caseous) ≤3 mm, Turkey ≤ 5mm N/A Approval
Airsacs: Presence of particles/caseum/fibrino-caseous exudate >3 mm, Turkey >5 mm N/A Approval, subject to reconditioning or salvaging
Airsacs: presence of very chronic lesions with thickened membranes which may contain yellowish and/or reddish caseous material N/A Approval, subject to reconditioning or salvaging
Cranial airsacs: presence of liquid or of whitish or yellowish fibrino-caseous material without other lesions in the cavity or on the viscera. Approval Approval

Additional Considerations:

When fibrino-caseous or caseous material is observed on the liver capsule (indicating direct extension from the air sac to the liver capsule i.e., not due to systemic spread), then carcass is passed and liver is condemned.

When the heart is enlarged (cardiomyopathy with/without constrictive pericarditis), with no evidence of caseous material in or on the pericardial sac, with/without a cobblestone liver, the heart and liver may be rejected and the carcass is passed - refer to policy on "Ascites"

Pericarditis is very rare in fowl and when present, is commonly associated with ascites (not airsacculitis). The viscera are to be condemned and the carcass is passed after removal of any affected airsacs (if applicable). For disposition of fowl affected with ascites, refer to policy on "Ascites"

CFIA veterinary advice should be sought when there is more than the normal incidence of a specific lesion.

19.7.4.20 Varus/Valgus Deformity

There is no health risk associated with this condition. It is not to be condemned, unless the carcass has other systemic signs secondary to the V/V, e.g., emaciation. Therefore the majority of these carcasses may be sent for trimming if severely deformed.

19.7.4.21 Liver Conditions Including Hepatitis

Chicken

Carcasses and their livers exhibiting these lesions as described above are to be approved or condemned (based on the possible presence of a septicaemia) under the category hepatitis as follows:

Decision Tree - Carcass With Liver Conditions. Description follows.
Description for Decision Tree - Carcass With Liver Conditions

A carcass with liver conditions can either be:

  • with systemic effects and/or Necrotic Hepatitis, in which case
    • carcass and viscera are condemned

    or

  • without systemic effects, which can lead to:
    1. Airsacculitis, ascites, fatty liver, Visceral Mareks's, et cetera - see applicable policies
    2. Normal size liver with a few red or white foci (regular shape) - carcass and liver/viscera approved
    3. Enlarged liver with red or white foci and/or liver with black or green or white granulomas (irregular shape nodules)- liver/viscera condemned, carcass approved

Under the option of necrotic hepatitis, a note is added to see the Canadian Food Inspection Agency training material for poultry dispositions.

Fatty Liver has a yellowish appearance with/without red foci (due to ruptured blood vessels) – the liver (that may be very friable) and the carcass are to be approved.

Chicken and Turkey

Bile Stasis livers may be discarded by the operator (as a quality defect) and the carcass is approved. For chicken livers which are greenish in colour but also have red and/or white foci, refer to the preceding paragraph for cholangiohepatitis. For turkeys with green livers, refer also to sub section 19.7.4.10, "Osteomyelitis in turkeys".

Turkey

Chronic granulomatous hepatitis is the most common liver condition in turkeys. Livers have multiple white fibrotic foci scattered over the surface and throughout the parenchyma. Carcasses with no evidence of systemic effects are approved and the liver is condemned.

Histomoniasis (Blackhead Disease) in turkeys may display multiple white circular depressed areas of necrosis in various sizes up to 1 cm in diameter with raised edges or multiple scattered pin point to coalescing white foci. The liver parenchyma may also have scattered green-black discoloration. The internal caecal walls display marked inflammation and ulceration. The caeca contain a dark green caseous exudate. Splenomegaly may or may not be present. Carcasses with no evidence of systemic effects are approved and the liver and caeca is condemned.

Fowl

Hepatic Lipidosis is characterized by focal to multi focal, flat (non raised), pale yellow areas (fat deposits) scattered over the surface and throughout the liver parenchyma. The liver may be enlarged and/or friable. Carcass and viscera shall be approved.

Lymphoid Leucosis (LL) is extremely rare. The milliary form of LL consists of numerous small nodules uniformly distributed throughout the parenchyma. In the diffuse form, the liver is uniformly enlarged, slightly greyish in colour, and usually friable. Occasionally the liver is firm, fibrous, and usually gritty. Grossly visible tumours almost invariably involve the liver, spleen and Bursa of Fabricius. Other organs often grossly involved include the kidney, lung, gonad, heart, bone marrow, and mesentery.

Carcass and viscera shall be condemned.

Organization chart - Approval or condemnation of fowl carcasses with liver lesions. Description follows.

Description for Organization chart - Approval or condemnation of fowl carcasses with liver lesions

A carcass with liver conditions can either be:

  • with systemic effects, in which case
    • carcass and viscera are condemned

    or

  • with no systemic effects, which can lead to:
    1. Airsacculitis, ascites, fatty liver, Visceral Mareks's, et cetera - see applicable policies
    2. Liver with a few red or white foci (normal size liver) - carcass and liver/viscera approved
    3. Liver with a few red or white foci (hepatomegaly) - liver/viscera condemned, carcass approved
    4. Liver with a few black, green or white granulomas - liver/viscera condemned, carcass approved
    5. Liver with multiple red foci - liver/viscera condemned, carcass approved
    6. Liver with multiple white /yellow or greenish foci - liver/viscera and carcass condemned

19.7.4.22 Carcasses Rejected by the Processing Plant Operator

For carcasses with minor lesions of certain conditions that do not warrant whole carcass condemnation, unaffected portions may be salvaged or reconditioned.

If an operator does not wish to market certain carcasses or derived portions otherwise considered fit for human consumption under the MIA (e.g., small carcasses, no salvaging facilities, high incidence of a condition in a flock), disposition will not be performed by the CFIA, and these carcasses shall not be recorded on the ante mortem and post mortem inspection reports.

19.7.4.23 Cyst Mites

Lesions may be detected on the underside of the skin during trimming. All carcasses from the affected lot shall be segregated and may either be discarded by the operator as plant rejects or be frozen by the operator, under a CFIA notice of detention, pending laboratory confirmation. Disposition (released or condemned) of all the carcasses from the detained lot shall be based on laboratory results of the submitted samples.

All carcasses from the affected flock are passed or condemned based on laboratory results.

19.7.4.24 Epidermal Cysts

Epidermal cysts appear as yellowish nodules of varying size located anywhere on the skin of a fowl carcass. Carcasses may be approved after removal of localized lessons. Carcasses with extensive lesions or where trimming is impractical are to be condemned.

19.7.4.25 Xanthomatosis

A massive accumulation of macrophages with fibrous tissues causes thickened yellowish areas of skin mainly on the thigh, breast and abdominal areas. Localized lesions are to be trimmed. Carcasses with extensive lesions or where trimming is impractical are to be condemned. As this is a rare condition, samples should be collected and sent to a laboratory to confirm the diagnosis if a large number of carcasses is affected.

19.7.4.26 Urolithiasis

The affected kidney/ureter is dilated and filled with clear mucus and white irregular uroliths. Carcasses are approved after the removal of the affected kidney/ureter. Carcasses and viscera with systemic effects, e.g., emaciation, are condemned.

19.7.4.27 Inspection of Suspect Turkeys for Pectoral Myopathy

19.7.4.27.1 Background

The condition is of no health significance to humans but for aesthetic reasons the affected muscular tissue shall be removed and condemned.

19.7.4.27.2 Requirements for the Deboning of Suspect Carcasses

This policy permits the inspection of suspect turkeys for pectoral myopathy in the deboning area of the plant under the following circumstances:

  • Effective controls must be demonstrated according to a program approved by the CFIA and implemented by the operator;
  • Suspect lots of turkeys will be identified prior to or at the post mortem inspection point. This identity must be maintained through to the point of deboning;
  • Plant employees conducting deboning must receive adequate training to recognize carcasses affected with pectoral myopathy and to adequately remove all affected tissue. The deboning area must be equipped with an adequate number of knife sterilizers;
  • All affected tissue must be retained and placed in containers for condemned material. Records must be kept of turkeys affected and weight of product condemned; and
  • A system to notify inspection staff when affected carcasses are found must be instituted. Inspection staff will monitor the effectiveness of the inspection and trimming of affected tissue by employees.

The CFIA inspection staff will additionally monitor finished product and the deboning operation for evidence of non-compliance or missed affected tissue. Should this occur, effective corrective action must be taken or the inspector in charge may insist that all suspect carcasses be inspected for pectoral myopathy at the time of evisceration.

19.7.4.27.3 Interplant Shipping of Suspect Lots

Turkeys that are suspected of being affected with pectoral myopathy may be shipped to a processing plant for deboning. The requirements for deboning listed above shall be followed with the additional requirement that identity must be maintained from reception to deboning.

19.7.4.27.4 Approval Process

Control programs must be submitted by the operator to the Veterinarian in Charge for approval. Approved programs shall be copied to the Area Poultry Inspection Program Specialist. The operator is required to demonstrate to the satisfaction of the CFIA that plant employees have been adequately trained to recognize carcasses affected with pectoral myopathy during deboning and to remove all affected tissue. A statement to this effect signed by the operator and the VIC for the establishment is to be included with the copy to the area office.

19.7.4.28 Determination of the Number of Carcasses to Examine for In-depth Inspection of Suspect Poultry Carcasses

Organoleptic examination of carcasses is not always sufficient to detect all lesions. It is recommended that only a representative sub-set of "suspect" carcasses be examined. If no other lesions are found, then all other "suspect" carcasses can be released without further in-depth inspection. The following table illustrates the number of carcasses that need in-depth examination.

Total number of "suspect" carcasses Number of carcasses for in-depth inspection
0 - 15 All
16 - 40 20 (1 out of 5 above 15)
41 - 100 25 (1 out of 12 above 40)
101 and more 30 (stop looking after 30)

19.7.5 Veterinary Dispositions and Associated Reports

19.7.5.1 Veterinary Dispositions

Veterinary dispositions will not be performed by the CFIA unless the carcasses and viscera are presented by the operator so as to facilitate "hands-off" dispositions and the operator provides veterinary disposition work stations that comply with the applicable facility requirements described in Chapter 3 and 19 of this manual. Alternatively, the operator may elect to manually present the carcasses with their viscera to the veterinarian for a disposition. Common contact is permitted between carcasses on the racks, carousels, etc. provided that the pathology on the carcasses and/or viscera is readily visible so as to permit hands-off veterinary dispositions and the operator discards any carcasses not condemned by the veterinarian as plant rejects.

The industry helper, working next to the Inspector, is responsible for removing defective carcasses from the evisceration line and for recording the reason for rejecting each carcass as instructed by the CFIA inspector. The operator is responsible for discarding carcasses and their viscera following a veterinary disposition.

19.7.5.2 CFIA Condemnation and Rejection Reports

Effective April 1st, 2011, the CFIA switches from issuing or signing condemnation or rejection certificates for poultry to a "Poultry Condemnation Report" (CFIA/ACIA 5640), or to a "Poultry Rejection Process Control Evaluation Report" (CFIA/ACIA 5639), as applicable, for each lot of poultry for which the operator issues a Condemnation/Rejection report.

The comments section of the preceding reports may be used by the CFIA veterinarian for reporting on abnormal levels of condemnations or rejections, special lot conditions and/or new carcass deviations, or whenever a CFIA official performs carcass-by-carcass detailed veterinary inspections. Such carcasses entered on the CFIA report should be included in the related operator's condemnation/rejection report and must be included in the monthly report (CFIA/ACIA 5179, "Antemortem and Postmortem Inspection Report").

19.7.5.3 Operator's Condemnation/Rejection Reports

For the purposes of this sub-section, a lot of poultry refers to a truckload of live poultry or all of the poultry sourced from one producer/grower for a production shift or one floor of a barn, or whatever was agreed upon by the operator and the producer/grower.

The format of the industry condemnation/rejection report is left to the discretion of the operator. However, all of the information contained in the template for the disposition report (available from the VIC) should be contained in the document issued by the operator with the exception of the line "Total parts rejected (weight calculated in kg) (Optional)." Additional information may be added and the format modified to suit individual operator's needs.

An electronic version of the aforementioned template for the operator's report may be obtained by contacting one of the aforementioned industry associations or the local CFIA VIC.

19.7.5.3.1 Conditions to be Excluded from Operator's Condemnation/Rejection Reports

Carcasses with conditions listed in the following table:

  • are to be handled by a designated industry employee;
  • are not to be presented to the CFIA (unless requested by the VIC on a case-by-case basis);
  • are not to be reported on the operator's "Condemnation/Rejection Report for Poultry"; and
  • only "Extensive Bruising", "Found Dead" and "Inadequate Bleeding" are to be reported to the VIC for the monthly roll-up of all condemned carcasses.
Processing Defects to be Handled by the Operator
Number Name of Condition Disposition Policy
1 Extensive Bruising 19.7.1
2 Extensive Contamination (faecal, bile, ingesta) 19.7.4.2
3 Extensive Fractures 19.7.4.3
4 Extensive Mutilation 19.7.1
5 Extensive Overscald 19.7.1
6 Found Dead (Dead On Arrival) 19.7.1
7 Inadequate Bleeding 19.7.4.16
8 Loss of Identity 19.7.4.5
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