Chapter 3 – Pre-requisite Programs
3.5 Premises - Detailed Design and Construction Requirements

This page is part of the Guidance Document Repository (GDR).

Looking for related documents?
Search for related documents in the Guidance Document Repository

3.5.1 Slaughter, Carcass Dressing and Carcass Chilling

3.5.1.1 Red Meat

3.5.1.1.1 Live Animal Receiving and Holding Areas

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

28. (3) In addition to the requirements set out in subsection (1), every registered establishment in which food animals are slaughtered shall

  • (b) have a separate area that is capable of accommodating crates or that is equipped with pens for
    • (i) the housing and inspection of food animals of each species apart from food animals of all other species,
    • (ii) the segregation of food animals considered to be a danger to other food animals, and
    • (iii) the holding of food animals that are injured, sick or suspected of being sick, or identified as being held or condemned in accordance with Part III;
  • (c) be equipped with facilities for
    • (i) restraining food animals for detailed inspection,
    • (ii) conveying injured or disabled food animals in humane manner, and
    • (iii) slaughtering food animals that have been identified as condemned in accordance with Part III;
  • (d) have all floors, ramps, gangways and chutes constructed and maintained in a manner that provides secure footing for food animals during movement and prevents injury during movement;

64. Every holding pen that is used for food animals awaiting slaughter shall be provided with adequate ventilation and shall not be used in a manner that results in their overcrowding.

65. Every food animal in a holding pen awaiting slaughter shall be provided with access to potable water and shall, if held for more than 24 hours, be provided with feed.

69. The carcass of every food animal destined for slaughter that dies by a means other than slaughter shall be condemned and handled in accordance with section 54.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

The design and construction of live animals holding pens and their capacity shall ensure that:

  • basic principles regarding the code of practices and good animal welfare practices in respect to the housing of animals intended for slaughter are followed and no animal is subjected to avoidable distress or undue suffering;
  • the received animals can be unloaded in a timely manner as to meet prescribed requirements of section 148 of the Health of Animals Regulations in respect of time the animals can be confined in transport vehicle;
  • the received animals are protected from severe weather and/or inadequate ventilation;
  • the unloaded animals can be separated according to their species, gender, size and condition;
  • unloaded animals can be easily observed in motion by the operator and/or CFIA inspector;
  • unloaded animals are not overcrowded; and
  • identity of the lots of animal can be maintained at all times.

All holding pen floors, alleyways, and chutes shall be impervious, properly drained, and scored or otherwise treated to provide good footing for animals. All livestock truck unloading and loading areas must be impervious and drained to promote proper sanitary maintenance. Unloading facilities must not cause injury to animals. Docks of different heights or adjustable ramps shall be provided to accommodate vehicles of varying heights.

Facilities shall be provided for the unloading and conveyance of crippled animals, directly to the bleeding rail, in a humane manner. Where these facilities are not practical, other acceptable facilities shall be provided.

Facilities shall be provided for the conveyance of dead animals (e.g., animals found dead or animals killed in the yards following condemnation on ante mortem inspection) directly to an inedible section of the establishment.

Adequate potable water supply for animals and thorough clean-up of all pens and alleyways must be provided. Acceptable animal watering facilities shall be present in all livestock holding pens. Where animals may be housed for more than 24 hours, facilities for feeding must also be provided.

Drainage shall be adequate for each pen.

Ventilation shall be sufficient.

A sufficient number of covered pens must be provided to afford protection to those animals or classes of livestock, which would normally require shelter.

Appropriate facilities shall be provided to hold manure pending disposal. Such facilities must be in keeping with local ordinances.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

The welfare of animals and the possibility of environmental pollution must be given careful consideration when designing and constructing livestock handling facilities.

The CFIA is recommending that:

  • The sides of any ramps should be high enough to prevent the escape or injury of animals.
  • The unloading dock area should be level.
  • The facilities should be so constructed that unloading can be carried out without having a gap between the vehicle and the unloading dock.
  • The livestock holding pen capacity should accommodate the number of animals to be slaughtered during one half slaughter shift.

In addition to the guidelines provided in this section, the applicant should seek supplemental information, e.g. from Dr. Temple Grandin.

Studies of animal behaviour indicate that the following features are recommended to facilitate the movement of animals and to reduce stress.

  1. Access ramps and chutes should have solid sides and be gently curved. The angle of ramp slope should not exceed 25° from the horizontal. If this cannot be easily accomplished, stepping of ramps and chutes is required. The provision of solid sides is particularly helpful in those areas where animals will be passing other animals. This prevents stoppages due to the animal's normal inquisitive behaviour. The provision of gates to prevent direction reversal of animals is highly recommended.
  2. There are indications that animals are attracted to light and increasing the illumination along the way to the knocking box may help in forward movement of the animals.
  3. Artificial or natural light should not cause shadows across the path of animals. It is recommended that floor drains be located away from animals' pathways.
  4. Attention should also be paid to noise and odours. Animals are most reluctant to move towards any source of noise. It has also been shown that cattle, in particular, are very responsive to unusual smells. Odours and noise originating in the knocking box area or the kill floor activities deter animal movement towards these areas.
  5. Animals prefer to stand or lie alongside the perimeter of a pen. Long narrow rectangular holding pens provide a large perimeter.

3.5.1.1.2 CFIA Ante mortem Inspection

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

28. (3) In addition to the requirements set out in subsection (1), every registered establishment in which food animals are slaughtered shall

  • (b) have a separate area that is capable of accommodating crates or that is equipped with pens for
    • (i) the housing and inspection of food animals of each species apart from food animals of all other species,
  • (c) be equipped with facilities for
    • (i) restraining food animals for detailed inspection,

67. (1) Subject to subsection (9), every operator who slaughters a bird, other than an ostrich, a rhea or an emu, shall perform, within 24 hours before the time of slaughter, an ante mortem examination of the bird under the supervision of an official veterinarian.

(2) Subject to subsection (9), no food animal shall be slaughtered in a registered establishment unless the animal has been subjected, within 24 hours before the time of slaughter, to

  • (a) an ante mortem examination performed under subsection (1); or,
  • (b) an ante mortem inspection performed by an official veterinarian or by an inspector under the supervision of an official veterinarian.

(9) The Director may specify how an ante mortem examination or ante mortem inspection is to be performed, including

  • (a) the methods and equipment that shall be used; and

71. (1) Every condemned food animal shall be segregated and identified as condemned in a manner satisfactory to the Director.

(2) Every food animal identified as condemned shall be slaughtered in an area of the registered establishment that is part of the live animal area or the inedible products area and shall be handled in accordance with section 54.

73. The operator shall ensure that

  • (a) every food animal designated as held by an official veterinarian is segregated and identified as being held; and

Ensuing Policy Requirements

The following is required in the livestock holding facilities for the use of CFIA inspector(s) performing ante mortem inspection activities:

  1. Adequate ante mortem inspection facilities which:
    1. allow for observation of animals in motion;
    2. provide protection against the elements and injury;
    3. provide convenient and safe access to these facilities; and
    4. provide unobstructed emergency escape route.
  2. An appropriately identified suspect pen equipped with:
    1. drainage designed and constructed to prevent the possibility of spread of infection via fluid waste material;
    2. an animal restraining device for the purpose of performing a detailed veterinary examination; and
    3. animal watering facilities.
  3. Adequate lighting at the ante mortem inspection stations and suspect pen(s) as described in section 3.4.8 of this chapter.
  4. Where required by the CFIA, an appropriate rust-resistant metal cabinet, equipped with lock and key for the storage of supplies such as ear tags, pliers, ante mortem inspection cards, etc.
  5. Hand washing facilities as described in section 3.4.3.
  6. Facilities for the cleaning of protective clothing as described in section 3.4.6.
  7. Adequate facilities for changing and storing outer protective clothing.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.1.1.3 Stunning and Bleeding

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

77. Despite section 79, every food animal that is ritually slaughtered in accordance with Judaic or Islamic law shall be restrained and slaughtered by means of a cut resulting in rapid, simultaneous and complete severance of the jugular veins and carotid arteries, in a manner that causes the animal to lose consciousness immediately.

79. Every food animal that is slaughtered shall, before being bled,

  • (a) be rendered unconscious in a manner that ensures that it does not regain consciousness before death, by one of the following methods:
    • (i) by delivering a blow to the head by means of a penetrating or non-penetrating mechanical device in a manner that causes immediate loss of consciousness,
    • (ii) by exposure to a gas or a gas mixture in a manner that causes a rapid loss of consciousness, or
    • (iii) by the application of an electrical current in a manner that causes immediate loss of consciousness; or
  • (b) be killed by one of the methods set out in paragraph (a) or, in the case of a bird or a domesticated rabbit, by rapid decapitation.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Stunning and bleeding facilities must comply with humane slaughter requirements.

When free bullet devices are used to stun animals (e.g., rifles), suitable measures to enable safe observation of stunning activities by the CFIA inspector shall be in place.

The design and construction of facilities leading to, and including the stunning, shall provide secure footing for food animals.

The stunning facilities shall be designed and constructed to allow one animal at a time and if needed, shall be adjustable to accommodate various sizes and species of animals. The stunning facilities must be designed and constructed to permit effective stunning.

Adequate restraining facilities shall be provided for ritual slaughter of food animals.

Hand washing and equipment washing/sanitizing facilities, as described in sections 3.4.3 and 3.4.6 respectively, shall be provided where required by the specific program.

A dry landing area shall be provided in front of the stunning facilities to receive stunned animals. The design and construction of dry landing area shall ensure that stunned animals are not soiled with blood from the bleeding area.

The design and construction of bleeding area shall allow for proper cleaning and drainage. The blood drain shall be of sufficient size to prevent blockage due to clotting.

Bleeding areas shall be equipped with hand washing and equipment washing/sanitizing facilities as described in sections 3.4.3 and 3.4.6 respectively.

The design and construction of bleeding areas shall ensure adequate bleeding time for death to occur due to blood loss.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

The CFIA recommends that the dry landing area be:

  • Designed and constructed to drain away from the rest of the slaughter area.
  • Sufficiently removed from the bleeding area.
  • Curbed and steeply graded to the blood and wash-up drain.

3.5.1.1.4 Carcass Dressing Facilities

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

2. (1) In these Regulations,

"dress" means

  • (a) in respect of a slaughtered food animal other than a pig, bird or goat
    • (i) to remove the skin, head and developed mammary glands and the feet at the carpal and tarsal joints,
    • (ii) to eviscerate, and
    • (iii) except in the case of a sheep, calf or domesticated rabbit, to split
  • (b) in respect of a slaughtered pig, to remove the hair, toenails and developed mammary glands, or to remove the things set out in subparagraph (a)(i) in the manner set out therein, and to eviscerate and split,
  • (c) in respect of a slaughtered bird, to remove the feathers, hair and head, the feet at the tarsal joints, and the uropygial gland and to eviscerate, and
  • (d) in respect of a slaughtered goat, to remove the hair, head, toenails and developed mammary glands, or to remove the things set out in subparagraph (a)(i) in the manner set out therein, and to eviscerate; (habiller)

Ensuing Policy Requirements

The facility requirements for beef and hog slaughter establishments operating under other than traditional inspection system are outlined in Chapter 17 of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures.

The following requirements apply to registered establishments in which the following food animals are slaughtered: cattle (including calves), hogs, sheep, goats, horses, and farmed game.

  1. The rooms and areas shall be of sufficient size to provide adequate space for all phases of dressing and inspection operations in proper sequence and relation.
  2. Where it is intended to dress carcasses of more than one compatible species of animals concurrently on the same floor, the facilities should be designed to provide for adequate segregation.
  3. The design and construction of equipment/facilities shall prevent skinned portions of carcasses from contamination.
  4. Where required by the specific program, properly designed and constructed facilities shall be provided for the cleaning and sanitizing of any carcass contact surfaces.
  5. Suitable facilities must be provided for the preparation of carcasses and portions for inspection.
  6. Moving top viscera inspection table, where used, shall be :
    1. provided with cold water sprays to remove blood and extraneous material;
    2. equipped with a suitable, properly vented sanitizing compartment. The sanitizing compartment shall be equipped with a thermometer, which is easily visible to the CFIA inspector(s). Sanitizing compartments shall be capable of maintaining water at a temperature of 82°C or higher;
    3. synchronized with the eviscerating rail;
    4. equipped with hand washing facilities and facilities for the cleaning and sanitizing of equipment and protective clothing of the eviscerator as prescribed by sections 3.4.3 and 3.4.6 respectively. The design, construction, and installation of these facilities shall not create a source of potential contamination;
    5. equipped with water sanitizer(s) as prescribed by section 3.4.5;
    6. designed, constructed and installed to avoid potential contamination of carcasses and portions; and
    7. designed, constructed and installed to provide a hygienic environment for collection of edible and inedible parts.
  7. The dressing floor must incorporate a satisfactory layout and equipment for the sanitary separation, harvesting, and preparation of edible offal.
  8. It is essential that proper facilities for emptying and storing paunch and intestinal contents be provided along with satisfactory arrangements and facilities for its removal.
  9. Facilities on the dressing floor shall provide for the prompt removal of edible and inedible parts of carcass to their respective destinations.
  10. Where installed, carcass washing facilities shall be directly drained.

The applicant/operator shall refer to Chapter 17 of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures for any additional specific program requirements concerning the layout of, or procedures taking place in carcass dressing area.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.1.1.5 CFIA Post mortem Inspection Stations

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

2. (1) In these Regulations,

"post mortem inspection" means the inspection of the carcass, blood or parts of a carcass of a food animal by an official veterinarian or by an inspector under the supervision of an official veterinarian; (inspection post mortem)

82. Every operator shall ensure that

  • (a) all blood harvested from a food animal in a registered establishment for processing as an edible meat product is identified in a manner that indicates the carcass of the food animal from which the blood was harvested; and
  • (b) every part that is removed from the carcass of a food animal in a registered establishment is identified in a manner that indicates the carcass from which the part was removed, if the part is removed before the carcass is subjected to a post mortem examination or a post mortem inspection.

83. (1) Subject to subsection (5), every operator of a registered establishment shall ensure that the carcass of a food animal slaughtered in the registered establishment and all blood of the food animal that is harvested for processing as an edible meat product are, in the course of dressing the carcass, presented for

  • (a) a post mortem examination by the operator under the supervision of an official veterinarian, in the case of an animal to which a post mortem examination program applies; or
  • (b) a post mortem inspection by an official veterinarian or by an inspector under the supervision of an official veterinarian, in any other case.

(2) Subject to subsection (3), if an operator or an inspector who is not an official veterinarian finds, in the course of the post mortem examination or the post mortem inspection, that the blood harvested from a food animal or the carcass or a part of the carcass of a food animal shows a deviation from normal appearance, or is derived from a food animal identified as being held, all the blood from the food animal and the carcass and all its parts shall be held and referred to an official veterinarian for detailed inspection and for instructions regarding the disposition of the blood and the carcass and its parts.

(5) The Director may specify how a post mortem examination or post mortem inspection is to be performed, including

  • (a) the methods and equipment that shall be used; and

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Every establishment registered for the slaughter of food animals, shall be provided with a minimum number of CFIA inspection stations to allow the complete inspection of the carcass and its parts. The number of CFIA inspection stations required is outlined in Chapter 17 of the CFIA Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures.

The equipment and the layout for carcass dressing rooms shall provide easy, unobstructed, and safe access to the inspection stations for CFIA inspector(s). The design and layout of an inspection station must also take into account the safety of the CFIA inspector working at the station.

The following requirements apply to establishments where the number of animals slaughtered per hour require one (1) post-mortem inspection station only.

The post-mortem inspection station shall be equipped with:

  • hand washing facilities, as described in section 3.4.3,
  • where hand tools are required for inspection, water sanitizer(s) as described in section 3.4.5
  • facilities for the cleaning and sanitizing of equipment and protective clothing described by section 3.4.6;
  • adequate minimal lighting as described in section 3.4.8;
  • adequate ventilation as described in section 3.4.9; and
  • facilities to accommodate and maintain the identity of organs and parts detained for veterinary diagnosis.

The minimum unobstructed size of post-mortem inspection station is 2440 mm (length) by 1220 mm (depth). Depending on the speed of the slaughter activities and available space on the kill floor, the space dedicated for the inspection station may be shared with the establishment employees provided:

  • all ergonomic factors are met,
  • at the time when the inspection activities are carried out, establishment employees stop their activities and move away from the dedicated space for the inspection station, and
  • the CFIA is satisfied that this arrangement does not jeopardize the safety of the inspection staff and allow for adequate post-mortem inspection.

The design, construction, and installation of the inspection station shall prevent contact between heads, between viscera and between carcasses.

Depending on the speed of the slaughter activities Veterinary Held Rail Inspection Station may be incorporated into the post-mortem inspection station:

For establishments requiring more than one (1) post-mortem inspection station the following requirements and safety considerations shall be met:

  • All inspection stations shall be equipped with:
    • hand washing facilities, as described in section 3.4.3, accessible from all elevations where inspection is performed;
    • where hand tools are required for inspection, water sanitizer(s) as described in section 3.4.5, which are accessible from all elevations where inspection is performed;
    • a rust resistant rack and recording stand, where required;
    • facilities for the cleaning and sanitizing of equipment and protective clothing described by section 3.4.6;
    • adequate minimal lighting as described in section 3.4.8; and
    • adequate ventilation as described in section 3.4.9.
  • A rail stop button shall be accessible to an inspector at the viscera inspection station either directly or indirectly through company personnel. In the latter case, a suitable sound system (e.g., bell or buzzer) must be located at the viscera inspection station to enable the inspector to signal for the stopping of the line as required.
  • Every inspection station/platform shall be 1220 mm deep.
  • Every inspection station shall be designed and constructed to prevent the operator's personnel from impinging upon the inspection area.
  • Facilities shall be provided to accommodate and maintain the identity of organs and parts detained for veterinary diagnosis.

In addition to the general requirements, the following is required for the slaughter of calves, steers, heifers, cows and bulls, sheep, goats, horses and farmed game.

  • CFIA Head Inspection Station
    • The minimal unobstructed space (length) for this inspection station is 1520 mm per inspector.
    • The design, construction, and installation of this inspection station shall prevent the contact of one head with another.
  • CFIA Viscera Inspection Station
    • The minimum unobstructed space (length) for this inspection station is 2440 mm. Where multiple viscera inspection stations can be consolidated, 1520 mm per inspection station is acceptable if all other ergonomic factors are met.
  • CFIA Carcass Inspection Station
    • The minimum unobstructed space (length) for this inspection station is 2440 mm.
    • The online carcass inspection station shall be adjustable to accommodate inspectors of different heights. The station shall be capable of being positioned so the eyes of the inspector are level with the lumbosacral area (rump) of the carcass.
  • CFIA Veterinary Held Rail Inspection Station
    • This station shall be independent from the operator's carcass trimming/re-processing station.
    • The minimum unobstructed space (length) for this inspection station is 2440 mm.
    • The veterinary held rail inspection station shall be equipped with an adjustable stand that enables the veterinarian to perform a safe and thorough inspection (visually, by palpation and/or incision) of all carcass surfaces including extremities.
    • Appropriate means shall be provided for conveying of condemned carcasses and portions to the inedible area.

In addition to the general requirements, the following is required for the slaughter of hogs.

  • CFIA Head Inspection Station
    • These requirements apply to the inspection station when the mandibular lymph nodes are left attached to the head for inspection.
    • The minimum unobstructed space (length) for this inspection station is 1520 mm per inspection station if all other ergonomic factors are met.
  • CFIA Viscera Inspection Station
    • The minimum unobstructed space (length) for this inspection station is 1520 mm per inspection station if all other ergonomic factors are met.
  • CFIA Carcass Inspection Station
    • The minimum unobstructed space (length) for this inspection station in is 1520 mm.
  • CFIA Veterinary Held Rail Inspection Station
    • This station shall be independent from the operator's trimming/reprocessing station.
    • The minimum unobstructed space (length) for this station is 2440 mm.
    • If required, a stand constructed of rust resistant metal shall be provided for high and low carcass inspection.
    • Appropriate means shall be provided for conveying of condemned carcasses and portions to the inedible area.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

The CFIA recommends that the post-mortem inspection stations should be consolidated to permit greater efficiency of inspection and allow the CFIA inspection staff to communicate post-mortem inspection findings.

3.5.1.1.6 Carcass, Meat Parts, and Edible Offal Chilling Rooms

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

2. (1) In these Regulations,

"refrigerate" means to lower the temperature of a meat product to, and to maintain the temperature at, 4°C or lower, but does not include to freeze; (réfrigérer)

28. (1) It is a requirement for the registration of an establishment pursuant to subsection 27(3) that the establishment

  • (t) have facilities for the holding and detention of meat products, which facilities are capable of being locked and are under the control of an inspector;

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Adequately refrigerated and conveniently located rooms must be available for the prompt chilling of dressed carcasses, meat parts, and edible offal.

These rooms must be designed, constructed and equipped in a manner which ensures that all product chilled complies with the cooling performance standards set out in pertinent chapters of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.1.2 Poultry (chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese, and farm raised game birds)

Refer to Chapter 19 for specific program requirements concerning poultry (chicken, turkeys, ducks, geese and farm-raised game birds).

For ostrich, rhea, and emus the construction standards applicable to red meat slaughtering and dressing facilities as described in section 3.5.1.1 should be sufficient to conduct slaughter and dressing. However, the applicant shall consult with pertinent sections of the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990, and the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures for additional information where applicable.

For rabbits the construction standards applicable to poultry, slaughtering and dressing facilities should be sufficient. Please refer to Chapter 19 for specific program requirements.

3.5.1.2.1 Live Poultry Receiving and Holding Areas

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

28. (1) It is a requirement for the registration of an establishment pursuant to subsection 27(3) that the establishment

(3) In addition to the requirements set out in subsection (1), every registered establishment in which food animals are slaughtered shall

  • (b) have a separate area that is capable of accommodating crates or that is equipped with pens for:
    • (i) the housing and inspection of food animals of each species apart from food animals of all other species,
    • (iii) the holding of food animals that are injured, sick or suspected of being sick, or identified as being held or condemned in accordance with Part III;
  • (c) be equipped with facilities for
    • (ii) conveying injured or disabled food animals in humane manner, and
    • (iii) slaughtering food animals that have been identified as condemned in accordance with Part III;

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Pre-slaughter holding facilities in poultry slaughtering establishments shall be capable of protecting the birds from the elements in the winter, provide shelter against rain and sufficient shade and ventilation during the remaining seasons of the year.

Rooms shall be designed to accommodate the unloading of poultry and the storage of crates or transport containers, where applicable, under cover. Satisfactory facilities for the humane handling of birds including adequate ventilation are required.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.1.2.2 Cleaning and Disinfecting Facilities for Transport Containers and Crates

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

28. (4) In addition to the requirements set out in subsections (1) and (3), every registered establishment in which birds are slaughtered shall be provided with facilities for cleaning and disinfecting crates and transport containers used for the conveyance of birds to the establishment.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

None

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.1.2.3 Carcass Dressing Facilities

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

2. (1) In these Regulations,

"dress" means

  • (c) in respect of a slaughtered bird, to remove the feathers, hair and head, the feet at the tarsal joints, and the uropygial gland and to eviscerate, and

77. Despite section 79, every food animal that is ritually slaughtered in accordance with Judaic or Islamic law shall be restrained and slaughtered by means of a cut resulting in rapid, simultaneous and complete severance of the jugular veins and carotid arteries, in a manner that causes the animal to lose consciousness immediately.

79. Every food animal that is slaughtered shall, before being bled,

  • (a) be rendered unconscious in a manner that ensures that it does not regain consciousness before death, by one of the following methods:
    • (i) by delivering a blow to the head by means of a penetrating or non-penetrating mechanical device in a manner that causes immediate loss of consciousness,
    • (ii) by exposure to a gas or a gas mixture in a manner that causes a rapid loss of consciousness, or
    • (iii) by the application of an electrical current in a manner that causes immediate loss of consciousness; or
  • (b) be killed by one of the methods set out in paragraph (a) or, in the case of a bird or a domesticated rabbit, by rapid decapitation.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Stunning and Bleeding Facilities

Acceptable facilities shall be provided for the effective humane stunning of all classes of birds to be slaughtered in the establishment.

The bleeding area shall be designed and constructed to ensure adequate bleeding time for death to occur due to blood loss, and to contain the blood in this area.

No special restraining facilities are required for the ritual slaughter of birds due to the slaughter of those food animals in a suspended position.

Scalding and Defeathering

The scalding tank must be adequately vented, equipped with a thermometer, and provided with a directly drained overflow discharge.

Where wax dipping is employed, metal troughs shall be installed to catch the wax. Acceptable facilities for the reclaiming of wax shall be provided. Adequate means for the removal of feathers are required.

Transfer Facilities

Transfer facilities from the slaughtering to evisceration area, where required, shall be designed, constructed and installed to meet specific program requirements and be capable of being cleaned during operation.

Facilities for the Harvest and Processing of Poultry Feet

Facilities for the harvest and processing of poultry feet, where present, shall be designed, constructed, and installed to meet specific program requirements.

Washing and Singeing

Washing and singeing facilities shall be designed, constructed, and installed to meet specific program requirements.

Evisceration

The evisceration room shall be designed and constructed to provide a hygienic environment and meet specific program requirements. The evisceration room shall be equipped with adequate facilities for carcass evisceration, and the collection and removal of edible and inedible portions and carcasses.

The evisceration facilities shall be designed, constructed, and installed to be capable of maintaining all product contact surfaces in a visibly clean state and to prevent the potential contamination of product and the environment.

Where goose necks are employed in lieu of hand-wash facilities, described in section 3.4.3 of this chapter, along the evisceration line, they shall be either capable of providing a continuous flow of warm water or be remote controlled.

Equipment employing vacuum for removal of inedible parts shall be designed, constructed, and installed to meet specific program requirements.

Carcass washing facilities, when installed, shall be directly drained.

Salvaging Station

The design, construction, and installation of salvaging stations shall ensure hygienic environment and prevent cross contact of carcasses.

The salvaging station shall be equipped with directly drained carcass washing facilities meeting program requirements.

The salvaging station shall be equipped with:

  1. a water sanitizer for utensils as described in section 3.4.5 of this chapter;
  2. hand wash facilities as described in section 3.4.3 of this chapter;
  3. appropriate containers for edible and inedible meat products; and
  4. appropriate washing facilities for the station.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.1.2.4 Post mortem Inspection Stations

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

2. (1) In these Regulations,

"post mortem inspection" means the inspection of the carcass, blood or parts of a carcass of a food animal by an official veterinarian or by an inspector under the supervision of an official veterinarian; (inspection post mortem)

82. Every operator shall ensure that

  • (b) every part that is removed from the carcass of a food animal in a registered establishment is identified in a manner that indicates the carcass from which the part was removed, if the part is removed before the carcass is subjected to a post mortem examination or a post mortem inspection.

83. (1) Subject to subsection (5), every operator of a registered establishment shall ensure that the carcass of a food animal slaughtered in the registered establishment and all blood of the food animal that is harvested for processing as an edible meat product are, in the course of dressing the carcass, presented for

  • (a) a post mortem examination by the operator under the supervision of an official veterinarian, in the case of an animal to which a post mortem examination program applies; or
  • (b) a post mortem inspection by an official veterinarian or by an inspector under the supervision of an official veterinarian, in any other case.

(2) Subject to subsection (3), if an operator or an inspector who is not an official veterinarian finds, in the course of the post mortem examination or the post mortem inspection, that the blood harvested from a food animal or the carcass or a part of the carcass of a food animal shows a deviation from normal appearance, or is derived from a food animal identified as being held, all the blood from the food animal and the carcass and all its parts shall be held and referred to an official veterinarian for detailed inspection and for instructions regarding the disposition of the blood and the carcass and its parts.

(5) The Director may specify how a post mortem examination or post mortem inspection is to be performed, including

  • (a) the methods and equipment that shall be used; and

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Traditional Inspection (One Post-mortem Inspection Station)

Satisfactory provision shall be made to permit inspection staff to stop and re-start evisceration lines either directly or indirectly.

Post-mortem inspection station shall be provided with a facility to hang held carcasses, and be provided with satisfactory means of handling condemned material.

The working space at inspection station shall be of sufficient size to accommodate the the CFIA inspector and the trimmer and allow the CFIA inspector to conduct inspection activities without any limitation.

The helper/trimmer shall have access to a water sanitizer for utensils as described in section 3.4.5 of this chapter.

The design and construction of the post-mortem inspection station shall meet all ergonomic requirements including height adjustments where necessary.

Modernized Poultry Inspection Program (MPIP)

A sufficient number of inspection stations shall be provided to accommodate inspection without exceeding the maximum line speed as indicated in Chapter 19 of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures.

The evisceration line shall be level for the entire length of the inspection station.

Satisfactory provision shall be made to permit inspection staff to stop and re-start evisceration lines either directly or indirectly.

Each inspection station shall be provided with a facility to hang held carcasses, and be provided with satisfactory means of handling condemned material.

Each inspector's station shall have a platform, which is adjusted easily and rapidly, with a minimum of 410 mm of vertical adjustment, which covers the entire length of the station (1220 mm) and has a minimum depth of 610 mm. The vertical distance from the bottom of the shackles to the top of the adjustable platform in its lowest position shall not be less than 1520 mm. The platform shall be designed and constructed with a 1070 mm high rail on the backside and with 20 mm foot bumpers on both sides and front to allow safe working conditions.

An easily adjustable platform shall be supplied for CFIA inspectors performing the ISO-based tests for defect detectors as described in Chapter 19 of the Manual of Proceedures. Easily adjustable platforms shall be similar to rapidly adjustable platforms except that rather than being rapidly adjustable by means of hydraulic or air pressure, they shall be easily adjusted (within one minute) by e.g. a hand operated jack or lever. An adjustable platform is not required for workstations used by the CFIA for performing on-line presentation tests.

Veterinary Disposition Stations

The following requirements apply to all veterinary disposition stations for all methods of poultry inspection:

  • There must be dedicated space, a minimum of 1200 mm in length, for the veterinarian to inspect the carcasses without interference from operator's employees or adjacent structures. There shall be unobstructed access between the veterinarian and the disposition stations (racks, carousels, or moving line) to facilitate proper posture without having to reach forward to obtain a carcass, and;
  • Veterinary disposition stations shall be provided with fixed height racks, carousals or a line, each equipped with a powered, rapidly height-adjustable platform, as specified for on-line inspection stations, so as to position the vent of the carcass at a height ranging from 910 mm up to 1220 mm as measured from the level of the platform. Alternatively, veterinary disposition stations shall be provided with easily height adjustable racks or carousals such that the height of the shackles or slots adjusts from 950 mm to 1180 mm above the floor (assuming the veterinarian is standing on the floor).

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

In the past, in establishments with traditional inspection system the length of working space of 1200 mm for one person was deemed satisfactory.

3.5.1.2.5 Carcass, Meat Parts, and Edible Offal Chilling Rooms

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

2. (1) In these Regulations,

"refrigerate" means to lower the temperature of a meat product to, and to maintain the temperature at, 4°C or lower, but does not include to freeze; (réfrigérer)

28. (1) It is a requirement for the registration of an establishment pursuant to subsection 27(3) that the establishment

  • (t) have facilities for the holding and detention of meat products, which facilities are capable of being locked and are under the control of an inspector.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Chilling systems shall be designed, constructed and equipped in a manner which ensures that all chilled product complies with the cooling performance standards set out in pertinent chapters of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.2 Processing of Meat Products

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

2. (1) In these Regulations,

"process" means, in respect of a meat product, to substantially change the appearance or nature of a meat product, and includes to debone, slice, comminute, thermally process, preserve, dehydrate, ferment, render, fractionate, defibrinate or add thereto an ingredient other than a meat product permitted to be added by these Regulations, but does not include to dress, trim, refrigerate, freeze or defrost; (transformer)

36. The temperature in a room or area of a registered establishment where a meat product is processed, packaged, labelled or handled shall be appropriate to ensure the preservation of a meat product.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

For all specific processing requirements, the applicant shall refer to pertinent chapters of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures when designing meat products processing rooms/areas of an establishment.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.3 Storage Rooms

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

2. (1) In these Regulations,

"refrigerate" means to lower the temperature of a meat product to, and to maintain the temperature at, 4°C or lower, but does not include to freeze; (réfrigérer)

28. (1) It is a requirement for the registration of an establishment pursuant to subsection 27(3) that the establishment

  • (t) have facilities for the holding and detention of meat products, which facilities are capable of being locked and are under the control of an inspector;
  • (w) have, for every room where pork products are frozen for the destruction of trichinae or where meat products packed in hermetically sealed containers are incubated, a self-recording thermometer.

34. (8) The walls, ceilings, floors, doors, windows and other parts of any area of a registered establishment where food animals are slaughtered, carcasses are dressed or meat products are refrigerated, frozen, stored, processed, packaged, labelled, shipped, received or otherwise handled shall not be composed of any material, or have applied to them any coating, other than a material or coating that is durable and does not contain any noxious constituent.

37. The temperature and humidity of every room in a registered establishment where a meat product is refrigerated, stored, processed, packaged, labelled, shipped, received or otherwise handled shall be controlled to prevent the formation of moisture on walls, ceilings or equipment.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Coolers

Rooms used for the storage of refrigerated meat products shall be capable of maintaining temperature of stored meat products at 4°C or less, however, temperatures must not be cold enough to cause the product to become frozen.

Rooms intended for chilling of heat treated meat products shall be designed and constructed to meet cooling performance standards as prescribed in pertinent chapters of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures.

Freezers

Freezers shall be designed, constructed, and equipped to comply with the applicable specific program requirements related to the freezing and storage of meat products in frozen state.

Official Incubator

Official incubators shall be designed, constructed, and equipped to meet specific program requirements. The official incubator shall be equipped with a self-recording thermometer mounted outside of the incubator. Both the thermometer and incubator shall have a sealing or locking device.

Storage of Products not Requiring Refrigeration (Dry Storage)

Although subsection 28. (1)(f) of the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 does not prescribe the construction requirements for rooms intended for the storage of products or materials not requiring refrigeration, it is important that those areas be constructed in such a way that they can be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.4 Areas/Rooms Intended for Storage and Handling of Inedible Meat Products

Meat Inspection Act

2. (1) In this Act,

"meat product" means

  • (a) a carcass,
  • (b) the blood of an animal or a product or by-product of a carcass, or
  • (c) a product containing anything described in paragraph (b);

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

28. (1) It is a requirement for the registration of an establishment pursuant to subsection 27(3) that the establishment

  • (f) have floors, walls and ceilings that are hard and smooth and otherwise constructed in such a way that they can be cleaned and are impervious to moisture at the locations in the establishment where
    • (ii) meat products are refrigerated, stored in a refrigerated state, processed, packaged, labelled, shipped, received or otherwise transported;

Ensuing Policy Requirements

These areas/rooms shall be designed and constructed the same way as areas/rooms intended for handling of edible meat products.

The applicant/operator shall refer to Chapter 6 and other applicable chapter(s) of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures for more information.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.5 Rooms/Areas for Storage of Non-food Chemicals

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

34. (11) Every detergent, sanitizer or other chemical agent used in a registered establishment shall be properly labelled and stored and used in a manner that prevents contamination of meat products, ingredients, packaging and labelling material and of the surfaces with which they come into contact.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Where required, these rooms shall be designed and constructed according to the applicable legislation(s) (federal, provincial/territorial, municipal, etc.).

These rooms shall be located in such a way as not to create any potential risk of contamination to meat products.

Battery Charging Areas

Where required by applicable legislation, areas where batteries are charged, stored, or serviced may require proper ventilation. The location of these areas must ensure that meat products will not be contaminated.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.6 Shipping and Receiving Areas

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

28. (1) It is a requirement for the registration of an establishment pursuant to subsection 27(3) that the establishment

  • (j) have loading and unloading facilities

Ensuing Policy Requirements

The shipping and receiving areas shall be capable of being refrigerated and be properly equipped where required by specific program requirements depending on the activities being conducted in these areas.

The receiving area of the registered establishment shall be provided with a designated space for the receiving of returned meat products. The operator shall refer to section 3.6.3.2 of this document for information related to the receiving of returned meat products.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.7 Inspection Facilities for Imported or Detained Meat Products

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

28. (6) In addition to the requirements set out in subsection (1), every registered establishment in which meat products are refrigerated, frozen or stored in a refrigerated or frozen condition and in which imported or detained meat products are inspected shall have

  • (b) office facilities for the use of inspectors and facilities for the protection and storage of the equipment and supplies of inspectors.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Refrigerated and Frozen Meat Products

Where required by an import program, registered establishments shall be provided with an inspection room or designated area with adequate space and facilities for the anticipated volume and located within a compatible area.

The inspection area or room shall meet the following requirements:

  1. the minimum floor space must be 18 m2;
  2. the floor shall be sloped to an adequate number of floor drains;
  3. the room shall be equipped to maintain a temperature not higher than 21°C;
  4. a sufficient number of defrosting tables or shelving shall be provided;
  5. directly drained inspection tables shall be constructed of stainless steel and have a width of at least 750 mm. If the tables are against a wall, a back plate is necessary to prevent product contact with the wall;
  6. the room or area shall be equipped with a supply of hot and cold water with adequate hand wash facilities and equipment cleaning facilities as described in sections 3.4.3 and 3.4.6 respectively; and
  7. the room shall be equipped with a water sanitizer for utensils as described in section 3.4.5 of this chapter.

Applicants shall refer to the applicable chapters of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures for detailed requirements concerning the inspection of imported or detained meat products.

Non-refrigerated Meat Products

Where required by import program, registered establishment shall be provided with an inspection room or designated area with adequate space and facilities for the anticipated volume and located within a compatible area.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.5.8 Personnel Welfare Rooms

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

28. (1) It is a requirement for the registration of an establishment pursuant to subsection 27(3) that the establishment

  • (m) have lavatories and, where appropriate, dressing rooms and lunch rooms that are
    • (i) capable of being kept in a clean and sanitary condition,
    • (ii) adequate in size and equipment for the number of people using them,
    • (iii) well lit and ventilated, and
    • (iv) in the case of lavatories separate from and not leading directly into any room used for handling food;

34. (13) Notices shall be posted in prominent places in a registered establishment instructing employees engaged in the dressing of carcasses or the processing, packaging, labelling, storing or other handling of food to clean their hands immediately after using toilet facilities.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Welfare rooms shall be designed and constructed to be capable of being kept in a clean and sanitary condition.

Number and locations of personnel welfare rooms shall be appropriate for the type of activities taking place in a registered establishment.

Washrooms

Shall be separate from and not lead directly to any room where meat products are handled, and separate from dressing rooms and lunchrooms.

Washrooms shall be adequate in size, equipped for the maximum number of personnel, and comply with requirements prescribed by applicable legislation (federal, provincial/territorial, or municipal).

Floors must be of smooth, hard, and impervious materials and properly drained.

Walls shall be constructed of smooth, hard, and impervious material up to an appropriate height.

Where doors are installed, they shall be self-closing and the full height and width of the opening. A louvered section in the lower panel is acceptable for ventilation purposes.

Washrooms shall be provided with a sufficient number of hand washing facilities to meet the needs of the maximum number of employees (refer to section 3.4.3 of this chapter).

Dressing Rooms

Dressing rooms shall be equipped with appropriate facilities for the storage and separation of personnel's street clothing from protective clothing.

Where installed, individual lockers for the use of personnel shall be designed and constructed to be capable of being kept in a clean and sanitary condition. Individual lockers shall be properly ventilated. Their installation shall allow for easy cleaning and inspection of the areas located under, above and behind them.

Lunch Room

Where personnel have their meals in a registered establishment, the establishment shall be equipped with appropriate lunch room(s).

Lunch room(s) shall be designed and constructed to be capable of being kept in a clean and sanitary condition. Location of lunch room(s) shall prevent their contamination, and at the same time, prevent contamination of other areas of a registered establishment.

Facilities for the Storage of Clean Protective Clothing

The registered establishment shall be provided with facilities for the storage of clean protective clothing.

Their design and construction shall ensure the protective clothing is kept in a sanitary condition.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

Where required by applicable federal, provincial/territorial or municipal legislation, a registered establishment may have to be provided with separate washrooms and dressing rooms for both sexes.

The CFIA recommends that separate welfare rooms be provided for:

  1. personnel working in further processing operations, if slaughtering and eviscerating operations are conducted;
  2. personnel handling ready-to-eat meat products, if raw products are handled in the same establishment; and
  3. personnel working exclusively in live animals receiving, and inedible meat products areas

3.5.9 Facilities for CFIA Inspectors

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

28. (3) In addition to the requirements set out in subsection (1), every registered establishment in which food animals are slaughtered shall

  • (a) be equipped with
    • (i) a private, furnished workspace for the use of inspectors, with access to dressing rooms, shower facilities and lavatories, and
    • (ii) lockers and cabinets suitable for the protection and storage of the equipment and supplies of inspectors

(5) In addition to the requirements set out in subsection (1), every registered establishment in which meat products are processed, packaged or labelled shall have

  • (c) office facilities for the use of inspectors and facilities for the protection and storage of the equipment and supplies of inspectors.

(6) In addition to the requirements set out in subsection (1), every registered establishment in which meat products are refrigerated, frozen or stored in a refrigerated or frozen condition and in which imported or detained meat products are inspected shall have

  • (b) office facilities for the use of inspectors and facilities for the protection and storage of the equipment and supplies of inspectors.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

The operator is responsible for furnishing the CFIA inspector's office and rooms intended for their use.

Applicants/Operators of registered establishments shall request a copy of the CFIA internal document titled "Third Party Premises Design Standards and Guidelines" from the Area Responsible Officer, which contains specific information concerning the design and construction of office space and it's furnishing, washrooms, dressing and lunch rooms, and laboratory area for the use of the CFIA inspectors working in a registered establishment.

Veterinary Workstations Within the CFIA Office in a Poultry Slaughtering Establishment (MPIP)

There shall be a minimum of 500 lux lighting as measured at the top of the desk(s) throughout the CFIA inspection office.

The operator shall supply the veterinary workstation with a desk for the computer, an adjustable keyboard holder, a stand, or shelf suitable for the printer and an adjustable footrest.

The operator shall also supply a chair complete with adjustable height and adjustable lumbar support, a five-base support, a waterfall edge, and substantial cushioning for each desk in the CFIA office.

Electronic Data Processing Equipment

Should the operator wish the CFIA inspector(s) to make use of electronic data processing equipment (e.g., for the computerization of condemnation data), the operator may, subject to agreement with the appropriate Area Executive Director (Operations), supply such equipment to the inspection staff.

The purpose, terms, and conditions of use for any such equipment should be clearly documented and agreed upon by the operator and the responsible inspector. The agreement should clearly state that the equipment is for official departmental work and will not be used for personal purposes.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

Historically office space of 11 m2 for one (1) inspector and 1.4 m2 for each additional inspector, in establishments registered for the slaughter of food animals, was found sufficient. The CFIA recommends that a separate office space be provided in establishments registered for other activities than slaughter, for the exclusive use of the CFIA inspector(s) in order to maintain confidentiality and privacy. This benefits the operator and the CFIA inspector(s). This is particularly important in establishments where the following inspection activities are conducted:

  1. export verification and certification; and
  2. inspection of imported or detained meat products.
Date modified: