Chapter 3 – Pre-requisite Programs
3.9 Sanitation and Pest Control

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3.9.1 Sanitation Program

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

34. (2) Every operator of a registered establishment shall develop, implement and maintain a written sanitation program to ensure compliance with subsection (1).

(2.1) The sanitation program shall be prepared and maintained in accordance with the FSEP Manual and the Manual of Procedures and shall contain:

  • (a) the name, business address, business telephone number and title of the person who is responsible for carrying out the program at the registered establishment;
  • (b) the measures to be taken to maintain in a sanitary condition before and during operations, the building, equipment, utensils, transport containers and all other facilities of the registered establishment;
  • (c) the frequency of the cleaning and sanitizing activities;
  • (d) a description of the equipment and chemical agents to be used;
  • (e) the concentration, temperature and other specifications for the detergent, sanitizer or other chemical agent to be used; and
  • (f) the monitoring activities put in place by the operator to demonstrate the effectiveness of the sanitation program, including any environmental testing.

(2.2) Every operator shall keep in the registered establishment, for a period of not less than one year after the date of the activity or procedure, records that contain information about

  • (a) monitoring and verification activities, including the results of any test; and
  • (b) any corrective and preventative action taken.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

The written sanitation program must provide sufficient guidance to ensure that personnel responsible for sanitation activities is aware of their responsibilities and have the tools and techniques required to perform sanitation activities in a satisfactory manner. The sanitation program document must be kept up-to-date reflecting current layout of the establishment, and activities therein.

The written sanitation program shall address food contact surfaces and equipment, specialized cleaning procedures for particular equipment (e.g., injectors, grinders, cleaning-in-place, vehicles, etc.), floors, drains, walls, ceilings, lighting fixtures, refrigeration units, overheads and anything else affecting food safety.

Pre-operational procedures shall ensure that a registered establishment is being operated only if the requirements of the sanitation program for the registered establishment are met.

The pre-operational and operational sanitation standard operating procedures should minimise direct and indirect contamination of meat products to the greatest extent possible and practicable.

A properly implemented sanitation program shall ensure that establishment, facilities, and equipment are clean and sanitised prior to start of operations, and includes the operational sanitation procedures, which will ensure that the appropriate hygiene is maintained during operations.

In the case of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products, microbiological verification of sanitation program for food contact and non-food contact surfaces is likely to be of higher intensity than for other types of meat product.

Cleaning and disinfection of live animal holding pens must be part of the written sanitation program. The program shall include, where required by the specific program requirements, special cleaning and sanitizing operations to address animal disease control objectives.

Particular cleaning programmes are required for equipment used in the meat products handling operations (i.e. slaughter, processing, packaging, labelling, etc.).

Pertinent information from the equipment Operating Manual(s) shall be included in the operator's sanitation and equipment maintenance programs.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

The written sanitation program should be developed in parallel with the preventative maintenance activities for establishment, facilities, and equipment.

Microbiological verification of the effectiveness of the sanitation program should be used at a frequency necessary to demonstrate adequacy, and can utilise a range of direct or indirect methods. The operator should use statistical process control or other methods to monitor sanitation trends.

3.9.2 Operational Sanitation

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

28. (1) It is a requirement for the registration of an establishment pursuant to subsection 27(3) that the establishment

  • (o) have adequate means of waste removal and disposal;

34. (1) Every operator of a registered establishment shall possess and maintain the equipment and material necessary to operate the registered establishment in accordance with the Manual of Procedures.

(1.1) The building, equipment, utensils, transport containers and all other facilities of a registered establishment shall be maintained in a sanitary condition.

(3) No equipment shall be cleaned, washed, disinfected or serviced in any room in a registered establishment at any time if, in so doing, there is the slightest risk that a meat product be contaminated.

(5) Every container or other equipment used in the collection and conveyance of an inedible meat product to the inedible products area of a registered establishment shall be clearly identified and thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before being admitted to any other part of the establishment.

(9) All lavatories, sinks and drains in a registered establishment shall be maintained in a manner that prevents any odours or fumes therefrom from pervading any room where meat products are refrigerated, stored, processed, packaged, labelled or otherwise handled.

(11) Every detergent, sanitizer or other chemical agent used in a registered establishment shall be properly labelled and stored and used in a manner that prevents contamination of meat products, ingredients, packaging and labelling material and of the surfaces with which they come into contact.

(11.1) Every detergent, sanitizer or other chemical agent used in a registered establishment shall be handled only by a person trained to use it.

(13) Notices shall be posted in prominent places in a registered establishment instructing employees engaged in the dressing of carcasses or the processing, packaging, labelling, storing or other handling of food to clean their hands immediately after using toilet facilities.

37. The temperature and humidity of every room in a registered establishment where a meat product is refrigerated, stored, processed, packaged, labelled, shipped, received or otherwise handled shall be controlled to prevent the formation of moisture on walls, ceilings or equipment.

54. (3) No inedible meat product shall be denatured in any part of a registered establishment other than the inedible products area.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

The accumulation of proteinaceous material and fat on equipment over the course of a shift shall be prevented as much as practically possible. In order to reduce the hazard posed by such situations, adequate and correct temperature regulation is essential in order to slow down the reproduction rate of micro-organisms.

Water sanitizers, hand washing facilities (including washrooms), etc. must be maintained in an acceptable manner.

Sanitation procedures must be constantly reviewed and examined for potential problems, and amended when necessary.

The operator shall supply the required janitorial services (floor cleaning, waste removal, etc.) to maintain a satisfactory level of hygiene during operations.

On-going Water Potability Testing

Where a registered establishment is supplied with municipal water only, potability analyses of water are required on a semi-annual basis with satisfactory results.

In establishments supplementing municipal supplies with water from private wells or storage tanks, or using water solely from private wells or storage tanks, potability analyses of water are required on a monthly basis with satisfactory results.

Samples of water shall be collected from different outlet(s) for each test. This procedure will ensure that the establishment's water distribution system functions properly and is not a potential source of water contamination.

Cleaning of Equipment and Utensils

Portable equipment and tools shall be cleaned and sanitized in a designated room or area of a registered establishment.

All hand-held tools used by the personnel as well as their protective apparel, are to be considered as an integral part of establishment equipment and must be maintained as such and stored in designated area(s) of the establishment. If individual lockers are used for the storage of personal tools, they shall be separate from those used for clothing.

Water Sanitizer for Utensils

Water sanitizers are very important facet of sanitation during daily operations. They must be sufficient in number and located where required by the specific program requirements (refer to pertinent chapters of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures).

Water sanitizers must be operated at not less than 82°C with adequate water overflow in order to achieve a sufficient reduction in the number of micro-organisms present. It must be remembered that the presence of organic matter on the sanitised surfaces will act as a barrier, thereby protecting the micro-organisms. Surfaces to be sanitised should therefore be as clean as possible before being placed in a water sanitizer.

In certain areas of a registered establishment, where the use of utensils is infrequent and where the risk of contamination of meat products is minimal, water sanitizers need not be connected to a continuous overflow system. This shall be verified against the specific program requirements (refer to pertinent chapters of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures).

Construction requirements for a water sanitizer for utensils can be found in section 3.4.5 of this chapter.

Sanitizing Dips for Utensils

Chemical sanitizers may be is used in lieu of a water sanitizer. They must be used according to the directions on the label, including contact time and rinsing or draining as applicable.

The operator shall demonstrate the efficacy of a chemical sanitizer is equivalent to the water sanitizer.

Hand Washing and Sanitizing

The locations of hand washing facilities shall meet the specific program requirements (refer to the applicable chapters of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures).

In addition to the requirements described in section 3.4.3 hand washing facilities shall be equipped with:

  1. liquid or another dispensable type of soap;
  2. paper towels in suitable dispensers or other appropriate hand-drying facilities; and
  3. properly constructed and easily maintained receptacles for used towels.

Hand sanitizing stations (e.g., dips, gels, sprays, etc.) serve as purposeful adjunct to the hand-washing facilities. They are required and must be used by all personnel, which come in direct contact with microbiologically sensitive meat products e.g. ready-to-eat. The locations of hand sanitizing stations shall not pose any risk of contamination to meat products, and shall meet the specific program requirements (refer to the applicable chapters of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures).

It is further required that they be used in keeping with directions on the label (e.g. correct concentration, contact time). The hand dip solutions shall be renewed throughout the day, as often as necessary, so that they, in themselves, do not become a source of contamination.

Antibacterial soaps can be used in place of hand sanitizing dips. These soaps must be used according to the directions on the label.

For both chemical hand dips and chemical equipment sanitizers, the operator shall perform effectiveness checks (e.g.: necessary concentration, contact time) and keep records of these checks.

Please refer to section 3.6.3.3 of this chapter for information concerning the use of non-food chemicals in a registered establishment.

Waste Disposal

Suitable provision shall be made by the operator for the removal and storage of waste. Waste must not be allowed to accumulate in meat products handling, storage and other working areas, and the adjoining environment except so far as is unavoidable for the proper functioning of the operations.

Waste storage rooms/areas must be kept appropriately clean at all times.

The operator shall establish appropriate frequency of waste removal from a registered establishment based on the establishment design, construction, and activities taking place therein.

The operator shall provide sufficient number of properly designed, constructed, and identified containers for holding different types of waste material throughout the registered establishment.

The operator shall provide regular janitorial service that will remove and replace these containers as often as necessary.

Waste materials from animal transport vehicles, containers and from livestock holding pens shall be collected and disposed of in an appropriate manner and as frequently as necessary in order to prevent the possibility of its becoming a harbouring place for flies and vermin and giving rise to objectionable odours.

Disposal of Condemned and Other Inedible Meat Products

Every container or other equipment used in the collection and conveyance of an inedible meat product to the inedible products area of a registered establishment shall be clearly identified and thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before being admitted to any other part of the establishment.

Inedible meat products shall always be moved directly to their designated areas and should never be rerouted through the areas used for the handling of edible meat products.

The inedible meat products storage areas or rooms must be subjected to a scrupulous cleaning and sanitizing procedures at all times.

Personnel Welfare Facilities

The provision of adequate welfare facilities is an indispensable requirement for the promotion of hygienic practices. The quality of facilities provided to personnel in this area of their work environment is so often reflected in their attitude and work habits relating to sanitation at the workstations.

These facilities must be maintained and provided with adequate janitorial service throughout the day. Close attention must be paid to the possible infestation with vermin.

Outside Premises

The operator shall maintain the outside premises to prevent unsanitary conditions, adulteration of meat products, or interfere with inspection by CFIA personnel. The operator's written pest control program shall address preventing the harbouring and breeding of pests on the outside premises.

Proper maintenance of the outside premises of a registered establishment is essential for ensuring good sanitation.

To maintain adequate pest control and sanitary conditions in general, the operator shall:

  1. not allow trash to accumulate;
  2. store pallets and other equipment properly
  3. keep grass and weeds under control; and
  4. keep the outside premises drained.

The operator shall provide suitable storage facilities for establishment waste. The waste shall be removed from premises on regular basis depending on the type of operations.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

The operator should consult with Assessment for Cleanability of Belting Materials used in Meat and Poultry Processing Equipment - American National Standard ANSI/NSF/3A 14159-3 (refer to section 3.8 of this chapter).

3.9.3 Pest Control

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

34. (10) Every operator of a registered establishment shall develop, implement and maintain a written pest control program that is effective and safe and that conforms to the requirements set out in the FSEP Manual and the Manual of Procedures.

(10.1) No animal shall be used to control pests in a registered establishment.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

A written pest control program is an essential part of maintenance and sanitation of a registered establishment. Therefore, the operator shall maintain and reassess this program where necessary.

The treatment of areas, rooms, facilities and equipment, with an approved pesticide (refer to section 3.6.3.5 of this chapter) should be carried out according to the conditions of use.

Pesticides and other pest control chemicals shall be kept in secure storage, with access being limited to authorised personnel.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

3.9.4 Maintenance Program

Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990 Requirements:

34. (1) Every operator of a registered establishment shall possess and maintain the equipment and material necessary to operate the registered establishment in accordance with the Manual of Procedures.

(1.1) The building, equipment, utensils, transport containers and all other facilities of a registered establishment shall be maintained in a sanitary condition.

Ensuing Policy Requirements

Establishments, facilities, and equipment shall be kept in an appropriate state of repair and condition to facilitate all sanitation procedures and prevent contamination of meat products.

The operator shall develop, carry out, and keep up-to-date a written preventative maintenance program for the registered establishment, and facilities and equipment therein.

The written preventive maintenance program shall ensure that facilities, equipment, and instruments that may affect food safety are maintained and calibrated so they perform consistently and as intended.

This program shall include a list of facilities, equipment, and instruments requiring regular maintenance/calibration, the maintenance procedures, frequencies, the trained individual performing these activities, etc.

The operator shall document maintenance and calibration activities. The frequencies and types of preventive maintenance and calibration activities conducted shall be based on the manufacturer's manuals or equivalent, or are to be based on operating conditions that may affect the condition of equipment.

Non-mandatory Items for Consideration

None

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