Chapter 4 - Meat Processing Controls and Procedures
Glossary of Terms

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Adulterated:

for the purposes of this chapter, in respect of a meat product intended for sale, use or consumption as an edible meat product in Canada, means containing an ingredient, food additive, poison, decomposed substance, visible contamination, any pathogenic microorganisms that are injurious to health or failing to meet the standards set out in Part I, Standards and Identification of Edible Meat Products of the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Assembled/Combination Products:

foods that contain as ingredients foods from more than one food commodity. Some examples include pizza (bread-type crust, vegetables, meat and cheese), lasagna (pasta, vegetables and cheese).

Compatible:

in respect of activities taking place in a registered establishment, activities that can take place at the same time, in the same area and do not create a risk of adulterating meat products. In respect of food or other materials, products that are capable of existing together in the same area, at the same time without creating a risk of adulterating meat products.

Casing:

means a skin-like container used for a meat product, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Component:

an individual unit of food that is combined with one or more other individual units of food to form an ingredient, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Condemn:

means, in respect of a meat product, to determine that the meat product is inedible, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Container:

means a package in which a meat product is placed to be offered for sale, or intended to be offered for sale, but does not include a lining, a bulk container, or a transport container, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Control Program:

a control program consisting of actions and activities that can be used to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level.

Critical Control Point:

a point in a process at which control is to be applied in order to prevent or eliminate a hazard or reduce a hazard to an acceptable level, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Critical Limit:

the minimum or maximum value to which a hazard must be controlled at a critical control point to prevent or eliminate the hazard or reduce it to an acceptable level, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Cured:

in respect of an edible meat product, that salt together with at least 100 parts per million (ppm), but not more than 200 ppm, of sodium nitrite, potassium nitrite, sodium nitrate or potassium nitrate, or any combination thereof, except in the case of side bacon, where the maximum is 120 ppm, calculated prior to any smoking, cooking or fermentation.

Durable Life:

the period, commencing on the day on which a meat product is packaged, during which the meat product, when it is stored under conditions appropriate to that product, will retain, without any appreciable deterioration, its normal edibility, palatability, nutritional value and any other qualities claimed for it by the manufacturer, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Edible:

in respect of a meat product, a meat product that is fit for use as human food, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Edible Rendering:

to extract fats and oils from edible animal tissues by the application of heat for consumption as an edible product.

Egg:

includes a processed egg as defined in the Processed Egg Regulations, or an egg that has been graded Canada A under the Egg Regulations, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Extended Meat Product:

means an edible meat product to which a meat product extender has been added, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Fermentation:

means a process which promotes the growth of lactic acid bacteria in order to acidify the product.

Filler:

includes milk, egg, yeast or any vegetable material or any derivative or combination thereof that is edible, and that is not visibly distinguishable after addition to the meat product, but does not include beetroot, tomato or a food additive with the exception of modified starches, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Finely Textured Meat:

means an edible meat product that does not contain more than 0.15 per cent of calcium in the product and any bone particles larger than 1.5 mm in size and a maximum of 20% of the bone particles larger than 1 mm in size, that was obtained by removing most of the bone and cartilage from a comminuted meat product from which the bone and cartilage had not been previously removed.

Flavour Enhancer:

means an ingredient that enhances the natural flavour of a meat product, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Food:

includes any article manufactured, sold or represented for use as food or drink for human beings, chewing gum, and any ingredient that may be mixed with food for any purpose, as defined by the Food and Drugs Act.

Food Contact Surface:

A food contact surface (FCS) is any surface or object that comes into contact with the meat product.

Fresh Meat Product:

not cooked or preserved.

FSEP Manual:

the Food Safety Enhancement Program Manual (FSEP) published by the Agency, as amended from time to time.

Gelling Agent:

means gelatin, agar or carrageenan, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

HACCP plan:

a hazard analysis critical control points plan that is prepared in accordance with the FSEP Manual for a process or product and that specifies, in respect of the process or product, all the hazards, critical control points, critical limits, monitoring procedures, deviation procedures, verification procedures and records, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Ham:

the edible meat product that is derived from the hind leg of a dressed swine carcass above the tarsal joint, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Hazard:

means a biological, chemical or physical agent or factor that has the potential to cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption in the absence of its control, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Ingredient:

an individual unit of food that is combined with one or more other individual units of food so that the individual unit are no longer distinguishable as separate units.

Inspection:

for the purposes of this chapter, includes the examination of a product or sample from a shipment or other collection of products, or, in respect of a process, the verification or monitoring of the process.

Intact Meat Products:

piece of meat whose internal structure has not been modified. Non-comminuted meat products are considered to be intact meat products.

Lethality Treatment:

refers to the treatment delivered to a meat product to achieve a reduction in the viable pathogenic organisms.

pH:

measures acidity or alkalinity on a scale of 0 to 14 with 7 as the neutral point.

Post-Cook Stabilization:

The set of measures applied to protect a cooked meat product against the possible outgrowth of heat shocked Clostridium spp. spores to dangerous levels during the interval following cooking. Refer to section 4.5 for these requirements.

Post-Lethality Procedure:

procedures implemented by operators in the post-lethality processing environment to control or eliminate pathogenic microorganisms in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. For example, a post-lethality treatment is considered satisfactory when it achieves at least 3-log reduction in number of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat products, e.g., High-Pressure Processing (HPP) at 87000 psi for 3 minutes.

Low-acid Meat Product:

an edible meat product which has a pH value above 4.6 and a water activity above 0.85, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Meat:

the edible part of a carcass that is the muscle associated with the skeleton, tongue, diaphragm, heart, gizzard or mammalian oesophagus, with or without accompanying and overlying fat, together with those parts of the bones, skin, sinews, nerves, blood vessels and other tissues that normally accompany the muscle and are not ordinarily removed in dressing a carcass, but does not include the muscle associated with the lips, snout, scalp or ears, mechanically separated meat or meat to which an ingredient other than meat has been added, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Meat By-product:

edible blood, an edible organ or edible tissue that was derived from the carcass of a food animal, but does not include meat or mechanically separated meat, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Meat Product:

includes a carcass, the blood of an animal or a product or by-product of a carcass, or any product containing blood, a product of by-product of an animal, as defined by the Meat Inspection Act.

Mechanically Separated Meat:

means an edible meat product that does not contain more than 0.027 per cent of calcium for every one per cent of protein in the product or any bone particles larger than 2 mm in size and that was obtained by removing most of the bone and cartilage from a comminuted meat product from which the bone and cartilage had not been previously removed, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Non Ready-to-Eat (NRTE) meat products:

a meat product that has not received a full lethality treatment for pathogens of concern at the establishment, e.g., par-fried breaded chicken nuggets, or, the meat component in an assembled food is in the ready-to-eat stage while at least one other ingredient is in the non ready-to-eat stage and will require further cooking for lethality before consumption, e.g., pizza with raw dough, frozen entrees with NRTE vegetables and clearly labelled with adequate cooking instructions.

Package:

means an inner or outer receptacle or covering used or to be used in connection with a meat product, as defined by the Meat Inspection Act.

Prepared:

a meat product that has been cooked or dehydrated or to which has been added any substance other than meat, a meat by-product or mechanically separated meat, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Prerequisite Programs:

steps or procedures that control the operational conditions within a food establishment allowing for environmental conditions that are favourable to the production of safe food. The programs cover premises; transportation, receiving, storage and shipping; equipment; personnel; sanitation and pest control; health and safety recall procedures, and allergen control.

Preserved:

salted, pickled, dried, cured, smoked or treated by other similar means, but does not include refrigerated or frozen.

Process:

to substantially change the appearance or nature of a meat product. Example include to debone, comminute, preserve, dehydrate, ferment, render or assemble with an ingredient other than a meat product, but does not include to dress, trim, refrigerate, freeze or defrost.

Ready-to-eat Meat Product:

a meat product that has been subjected to a lethality process sufficient to inactivate vegetative pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins and control spores of foodborne pathogenic bacteria so that the meat product does not require further preparation before consumption except washing, thawing or exposing the product to sufficient heat to warm the product without cooking it, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Recipe:

the ingredients of the meat product and the components of the ingredients, including food additives, and the proportions of those ingredients and components.

Refrigerate:

means to lower the temperature of a meat product to, and to maintain the temperature at, 4°C or lower, but does not include to freeze, as per the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990.

Thermal Lethality:

the ability of a given heating process to kill bacteria. It is most often expressed in quantitative terms, i.e., as the amount of heat energy that must be applied to a specific meat product to achieve a given log10 reduction of a particular microorganism.

1 log10 reduction = a tenfold reduction (1 x 101) = a 1D reduction
2 log10 reduction = a hundredfold reduction (1 x 102) = a 2D reduction
3 log10 reduction = a thousandfold reduction (1 x 103) = a 3D reduction etc.

For example, a 3D reduction would destroy 99.9% of the organisms.

Unsanitary Conditions:

conditions or circumstances that might contaminate a food with dirt or filth, or render injurious to health, as defined by the Food and Drugs Act.

Unstandardized Food:

for the purposes of this chapter, means any food for which a standard is not prescribed in the Food and Drug Regulations or the Meat Inspection Regulations.

Water Activity (aw):

the amount of free or available water in a meat product.

"Where necessary", "Where appropriate", "Adequate" and "Sufficient":

Where this chapter of the Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures uses the terminology "where necessary", "where appropriate", "adequate", or "sufficient", it is up to the operator of a registered establishment in first instance to decide whether a requirement is necessary, appropriate, adequate, or sufficient to achieve the objectives of the Meat Inspection Regulations, 1990. In determining whether a requirement is necessary, appropriate, adequate, or sufficient to achieve the objectives of the Regulations, account should be taken of the nature of the operation/activity and of its intended use. The operator may justify his choice under the procedures based on the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles or under the operational procedures of a registered establishment.

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