HACCP Generic Model for Ready-To-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables

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Table of Contents

Introduction

The General Principles of Food Hygiene, Composition and Labelling and the Code of Practice for Minimally Processed, Ready-to-Eat Vegetables (the Code of Practice) continue to be the current Canadian regulatory guidelines for Ready-to-Eat fresh-cut vegetable manufacturers. This HACCP Generic Model for Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables (the generic model), along with the Food Safety Practices Guidance for Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetable Manufacturers, were developed by a committee consisting of representatives of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) and Health Canada. These documents are intended to be food safety resources for the Ready-to-Eat fresh-cut vegetable industry.

The generic model was developed using the CFIA's Food Safety Enhancement Program (FSEP) approach and tools: Sections 1, 2 and 3 of the FSEP Manual, including the 10 forms, as well as the Codex Alimentarius Decision Tree to determine the critical control points (CCPs). It is a practical example for Ready-to-Eat fresh-cut vegetable manufacturers to follow in designing their own facility-specific HACCP plan. The HACCP Generic Model for Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables was used by the committee during the development of the Food Safety Practices Guidance document. This guidance document incorporates Chapters 1 to 8 of the General Principles of Food Hygiene, Composition and Labelling (GPFHCL), as well as Part III and Part IV of the Code of Practice for Minimally Processed Ready-to-Eat Vegetables in addition to other reference material. Using a HACCP approach, it provides guidance on controlling potential hazards. Chapter 1 provides information about developing operational controls for controlling hazards, while Chapters 2 to 8 provide information about developing Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) or Prerequisite Programs, as they are called in the FSEP approach. A hazard summary is provided following the Scope section in the guidance document.

Together, the generic model and guidance document establish a practical system that Ready-to-Eat fresh-cut vegetable manufacturers can use to review all potential health and safety hazards in their operation, allowing a facility to focus on controlling the points that are critical to the safety of the finished product(s).

Limitations

The committee wishes to emphasize that the model described here is a Generic Model. It does not cover all Ready-to-Eat fresh-cut vegetable products and processes, nor does it list all possible associated hazards. This generic model is a template that can be adapted to most Ready-to-Eat fresh-cut vegetable operations. The process flow diagram in this generic model does not reflect the characteristics of any specific manufacturing line of any of the companies consulted by the committee, but rather represents the basic process steps of all companies consulted. The model reflects the entire manufacturing line, from receipt of the vegetables through to the shipping/distribution of Ready-to-Eat fresh-cut vegetables to hospitals, restaurants, institutions and retail outlets and includes the treatment of vegetables with sodium hypochlorite.

The HACCP team at each establishment is responsible for identifying and controlling all hazards specific to its operation and for determining how each hazard is controlled. In order to identify all possible hazards, the HACCP team should consult the Reference Database for Hazard Identification developed by CFIA, along with reference texts and scientific publications, as well as industry associations. A review of the manufacturer's processes and procedures should then be conducted to determine whether each of the hazards actually exist in the facility and to determine where each of those hazards is controlled at each step in the process. Where ingredients, procedures or processes differ from those in the generic model, the HACCP team should determine whether process steps should be added or removed. In addition, a hazard analysis should be conducted to determine whether any hazards should be added or removed and to determine where each of the additional hazards are controlled in the facility. Here are some examples:

  1. Use of whole leaf spinach or baby greens - While this generic model does not include whole leaf spinach or baby greens, if a manufacturer is adding these ingredients, a hazard analysis should be conducted to determine whether any additions or deletions should be made to the incoming ingredients and/or the process flow diagram as they appear in the generic model and to determine whether any hazards should be added to or deleted from those that are identified in order to develop a plant-specific HACCP plan.
  2. Use of a different antimicrobial treatment - While this generic model deals only with the use of sodium hypochlorite, if a different antimicrobial treatment is used by the facility, the manufacturer should conduct a hazard analysis to determine whether any additions or deletions should be made to the incoming ingredients and/or the process flow diagram as they appear in the generic model and to determine whether any hazards should be added to or deleted from those that are identified in order to develop a plant-specific HACCP plan.
  3. Addition of allergenic products (e.g., tree nuts, croutons or salad dressings or any other product containing allergens as an ingredient) - While this generic model does not deal with the addition of croutons or dressings (that may contain allergens) to a packaged salad, if a manufacturer adds any products that are considered allergens, or any products that contain allergenic ingredients, a hazard analysis should be conducted to determine whether any additions or deletions should be made to the incoming ingredients and/or the process flow diagram as it appears in the generic model and to determine whether any hazards should be added to or deleted from those that are identified in order to develop a plant-specific HACCP plan (e.g., at the steps associated with the receiving and storage of allergenic ingredients and/or products, at the steps where allergenic ingredients and/or products are added to the fresh-cut vegetables and at the step where the finished product is labelled).
  4. Temperature differential - If vegetables are received at the facility directly from the field prior to being cooled, the manufacturer should conduct a hazard analysis to determine whether any additions or deletions should be made to the process flow diagram as it appears in the generic model and to determine whether any hazards should be added or deleted to those that are identified in order to develop a plant-specific HACCP plan. A hazard associated with temperature differential between product and wash water should be considered by the manufacturer.

Following the hazard analysis, the manufacturer should compare the plant-specific HACCP plan to the generic model. If the manufacturer determines that a prerequisite program is fully controlling a hazard in its facility, but the generic model indicates a CCP is the control measure for the same hazard, the manufacturer should validate that the identified prerequisite program is able to fully control the hazard as described. For products or processes that differ significantly from this generic model, the HACCP team must still follow the seven principles of HACCP as described in the FSEP Manual. For additional information concerning the use of generic models, the FSEP Manual should be referenced.

The HACCP team at each establishment is also responsible for the validation of the HACCP system. It should first validate the hazards that exist in the facility and then validate the standards for the Prerequisite Programs (GMPs) and the critical limits of the critical control points. If the manufacturer is unable to find a scientific study or government regulation to support the standard or critical limit used in the HACCP plan, the facility should conduct a validation study to validate the control measure through testing. This step is generally completed during the development of the HACCP system. Once the control measure has been established and validated, the facility should carry out a validation to show that its process can consistently meet the standard. A validation of all control measures should be conducted at least once a year. During the yearly validation, all of the standards of the Prerequisite Programs (GMPs) as well as the critical limits of the critical control points should be reviewed to ensure that the control measures continue to be effective in controlling the identified hazards. Manufacturers are reminded that a HACCP plan is a dynamic document that requires modification whenever any changes are made to the establishment, its processes or products. A validation should also be conducted whenever new procedures, policies or control measures are introduced. For additional information on validation of the HACCP system, the FSEP Manual should be referenced.

During the development of the generic model, working through hazard identification and analysis, the Committee discussed and dealt with several issues. The following decisions and/or assumptions were made and are reflected in the generic model.

  1. Although the generic model was developed using the CFIA's FSEP approach, the committee endeavoured to adhere to the GPFHCL and the information found in the guidance document wherever possible. The committee recognized that differences exist between the GPFHCL and the FSEP approach. For example, under the FSEP approach, all of the information concerning transportation, receiving and storage of all incoming ingredients and materials is considered part of the Prerequisite Program (GMP), for Transportation, Purchasing/Receiving/Shipping and Storage, while in the GPFHCL and guidance document the criteria for the receiving of incoming ingredients and packaging materials are considered process related (found in Chapter 1 - Operational Controls [Section 1.4.1 and Section 1.4.2]) and are not considered GMP related (are not considered a Prerequisite Program). All other information for receiving is found in Chapter 6 - Transportation and Storage (Section 6.1) of the GPFHCL and guidance document.

    It was decided that in order to be consistent with the FSEP approach, it would be assumed that manufacturers would identify receiving as a Prerequisite Program (GMP). If a manufacturer chooses to do this, the information from Sections 1.4.1 and 1.4.2 should be included with the information found in Section 6.1 (a prerequisite program). It would be considered acceptable if the manufacturer wishes to maintain a CCP at Receiving.

  2. Where applicable on Forms 5, 6 and 7 in the Controlled at column, the FSEP Prerequisite Program is identified as it is named in the guidance document (i.e., Transportation and Storage not Transportation, Purchasing/Receiving/Shipping and Storage). In addition, the section of the guidance document specific to this step and/or hazard is referenced on Forms 5, 6 and 7 to provide additional reference information for the manufacturer. However, the section of the guidance document is not identified on Form 8. Only the name of the Prerequisite Program as it is identified in the guidance document is identified on Form 8.
  3. Washing of vegetables is assumed to be completed using automated equipment.
  4. The committee recognizes that there are many methods of antimicrobial treatment available for the treatment of fresh-cut vegetables. Sodium hypochlorite is the example of an antimicrobial treatment used in the generic model.
  5. Through in-plant evaluations, it was determined that the absorption of pathogens at cut surfaces as a result of temperature differentials related to vegetables in water and/or vegetables in antimicrobial treatments was a hazard that was not likely to occur. All of the facilities consulted received previously cooled and refrigerated product.
  6. In this generic model, specifically at CCP-2BC, it is assumed that the manufacturer will have developed plant-specific Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) that have been validated to ensure that when the written procedures are followed the critical limit is met and the hazard is controlled. The procedures may be fully described on Form 10 or the SOPs may be referenced as in the generic model.
  7. The mixing/blending step appears in Form 3, the process flow diagram, as described in the Code of Practice. During the plant evaluation visits, it was determined that in general, the mixing/blending steps at most facilities are conducted prior to washing and drying. However, no change was made to the order of the steps in the generic model so as to ensure consistency with the code of practice and to demonstrate the location in the process flow for mixing/blending that has the lowest risk factor.
  8. This generic model includes a metal detector. It is considered a safety measure to control hazardous extraneous (metallic) hazards that are not controlled by the prerequisite programs (e.g., wear and tear of equipment resulting in metal shavings in the product at grinding). If a metal detector is part of the process, the hazards associated with that metal detector should be evaluated and controlled. The manufacturer must realize that the metal detector is only considered a safety measure to the level of the sensitivity of the machine. Below the critical limit, the hazard can no longer be controlled by the metal detector and the facility should determine how the hazard is to be controlled.

Definitions

Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables –
For the purposes of this document, Ready-to-Eat (RTE) fresh-cut vegetables means raw fresh vegetables that have been washed and then are peeled, sliced, chopped or shredded prior to being packaged for sale in Canada and are intended to be consumed raw and not intended for further processing (e.g., shredded bagged lettuce, dry coleslaw mix, peeled baby carrots, baby-cut carrots, shredded cabbage, mixed vegetable salads, cauliflower and broccoli florets, sliced tomatoes, sliced sweet peppers and sliced celery). With the possible exception of the addition of dressing or croutons by the end user, the products do not require further preparation (cooking, washing, etc.) before consumption.

Note: The definition does not include washed and trimmed whole leaf spinach, baby greens (lettuces and spinach) or salad preparations with nuts, croutons or salad dressing added to the package.

Pathogenic microorganisms
associated with Ready-to-Eat fresh-cut vegetables and referred to in the model may include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, viruses (Hepatitis A virus, Norovirus, and Rota virus), and parasites (Cyclospora spp. and Cryptosporidium spp.).
Refrigerated Temperatures –
Ready-to-Eat fresh-cut vegetables are labelled with the statement Keep Refrigerated, meaning 4°C or less but not frozen.

HACCP Generic Model: Spices – Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables – Forms

Example of Completed Form 1: Product Description Process for Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables

1. Product name(s)

  • Peeled baby carrots
  • Shredded lettuce
  • Shredded cabbage
  • Mixed vegetable salad
  • Cauliflower and broccoli florets
  • Sliced tomatoes
  • Sliced sweet peppers
  • Sliced celery

Note: the manufacturer may reference a computer file where a complete list of products including various package sizes can be accessed

2. Important product characteristics (Aw, pH, preservatives, etc.)

No barrier to pathogens

3. How the product will be used

  • Raw
  • Ready-to-eat

4. Packaging

  • plastic bags
  • single serving containers (sealed plastic pouches or plastic trays [clam shells])
  • bulk containers (plastic bags in a corrugated cardboard carton)

5. Shelf life

X days at 4°C or less

6. Where it will be sold

  • Retail
  • Hotel/Restaurants/Institution

7. Labelling instructions

  • Best Before date
  • Keep refrigerated

8. Special distribution control

Temperature control (X °C)

Example of Completed Form 2: List of Ingredients and Incoming Material

Legend: Explanation of Codes

(B) = Biological hazard
(C) = Chemical hazard
(P) = Physical hazard

Fresh Vegetables
  • carrots (BCP)
  • lettuce (BCP)
  • broccoli (BCP)
  • cabbage (BCP)
  • cauliflower (BCP)
  • celery (BCP)
  • tomatoes (BCP)
  • sweet peppers (BCP)
Water (well and/or municipal)
  • water (BCP)
Packaging Material
  • plastic pouches (BCP)
  • plastic trays (clam shells) (BCP)
  • plastic bags (BCP)
  • plastic liners (BCP)
  • corrugated cardboard cartons (BCP)
Antimicrobial Treatment
  • sodium hypochlorite (C)
Food Additives
  • preservatives, pH adjusters (citric acid, ascorbic acid) (C)

Example of Completed Form 3: Process Flow Diagram

Process Flow Diagram. Description follows.
Description of Process Flow Diagram

This diagram is a flow chart showing the process for producing ready-to-eat fresh-cut vegetables.

The diagram lists the necessary steps from 1 - 16 to be taken in the ready-to-eat fresh-cut vegetable production process.

Identified in pink ovals are the Critical Control Points (CCPs). These are next to steps 9, Antimicrobial treatment; 10, Rinsing; 13, Packaging/labelling/coding; and 14, Metal detection.

Identified in a blue box is water/well water. This provides inputs to steps 5, Inspection/sorting/trimming; 6, First wash; 8, Washing; 9, Antimicrobial treatment; and 10, Rinsing.

Potential for Biological (B), Chemical (C) and/or Physical (P) hazards is indicated in parentheses next to each process step.

Step 1. Receiving (BCP). Leading to steps 2, Chemical storage; 3, Fresh vegetable storage; and 4, Packaging material/food additives storage.

Step 2. Chemical storage (C). Leading to step 9, Antimicrobial treatment.

Step 3. Fresh vegetable storage. (BCP). Leading to step 5, Inspection/sorting/trimming.

Step 4. Packaging material/food additives storage (BCP). Leading to steps 6, First wash; 8, Washing; 10, Rinsing; and 13, Packaging/labelling/coding.

Step 5. Inspection/sorting/trimming (BCP). Leading to step 6, First wash. Receiving input from water/well water.

Step 6. First wash (BCP). Leading to step 7, Cutting/slicing/shredding/grinding. Receiving input from step 4, Packaging material/food additives storage; and water/well water.

Step 7. Cutting/slicing/shredding/grinding (BCP). Leading to step 8, Washing. Receiving input from step 5, Inspection/sorting/trimming.

Step 8. Washing (BCP). Leading to step 9, Antimicrobial treatment. Receiving input from step 4, Packaging material/food additives storage; and water/well water.

Step 9. Antimicrobial treatment (BCP). CCP-1BC. Leading to step 10, Rinsing. Receiving input from step 2, Chemical storage; and water/well water.

Step 10. Rinsing (BCP). CCP-2BC. Leading to step 11. Receiving input from step 4, Packaging material/food additives storage; and water/well water.

Step 11. Drying (BCP). Leading to steps 12, Blending/mixing; and 13, Packaging/labelling/coding.

Step 12. Blending/mixing (BCP). Leading to step 13, Packaging/labelling/coding.

Step 13. Packaging/labelling/coding (BCP). CCP-3B. Leading to step 14, Metal detection. Receiving input from steps 4, Packaging material/food additives storage; and 11, Drying.

Step 14. Metal detection (BCP). CCP-4P. Leading to step 15, Storage.

Step 15. Storage (1-4°C) (BCP). Leading to step 16, Shipping/distribution.

Step 16. Shipping/distribution (BCP).

Example of Completed Form 4: Plant Schematic

Construct the plant schematic diagram on Form 4.

Note: This form is to be specific for each establishment.

Indicate the flows of raw and finished products as well as employee traffic and, where a possible hazard exists, the movement of waste or garbage.

Include the flows of all ingredients and packaging materials from the moment they are received through storage, preparation, processing, packaging, finished product holding and shipping.

Indicate employee traffic patterns throughout the establishment from the time the employees enter the building. Include movement into change rooms, washrooms, lunchrooms, offices and maintenance areas, as well as employee movement through food production areas of the facility.

This diagram should be your primary tool for identifying potential areas of cross-contamination (e.g., locations where allergen ingredients, food additives, waste or raw ingredients could come into unplanned contact or where employees could cross-contaminate product).

(See Canadian Food Inspection Agency FSEP Manual – Section 3.2.4)

Note: The points of cross-contamination should be marked on the plant schematic and a full description of each of the identified hazards should be recorded on Form 5, 6 and/or 7, Form 8 and, where appropriate, Form 10 (examples of possible hazards that could be identified on Form 4 are provided on Form 5 and Form 6).

Example of Completed Form 5: Biological Hazards Identification

Pathogenic microorganisms where indicated in the generic model may include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Clostridium botulinum, viruses (Hepatitis A virus, Norovirus and Rota virus), and parasites (Cyclospora spp. and Cryptosporidium spp.)

Product name: Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables
List all biological hazards related to ingredients, incoming materials, processing, product flow, etc.
Identified biological hazards (microorganisms, parasites, viruses, etc.)Controlled at
Fresh Vegetables – Presence of pathogenic microorganisms on fresh vegetables due to contamination at the farm level (animal or human faecal material, insects or mould growth). - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3 (of the FSEP Manual)
Section 1.4.1 (of the guidance document)
Fresh Vegetables – Growth of pathogenic microorganisms on fresh vegetables due to time/temperature abuse at the grower's and/or during transportation. - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Section 1.4.1
Fresh Vegetables – Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to damaged packaging materials/unclean vehicles for transporting vegetables. - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Section 1.4.1
Fresh Vegetables – Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to presence of pests (e.g. rodents, insects and birds). - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Section 1.4.1
Fresh Vegetables – Cross-contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms from other raw products (non-ready-to-eat products) such as raw meats, chicken or fish carried on the same truck. - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Section 1.4.1
Fresh Vegetables – Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms from unclean/recycled packaging material used at the growers. - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Section 1.4.1
Water/Well Water – Not meeting the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality published by Health Canada as well as any provincial or municipal requirements. - Premises A4.1.1
Section 3.4.1
Packaging Material – Presence of pathogenic microorganisms due to contamination with faecal material from pests (e.g. insects, birds and rodents.) - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Section 1.4.2
Packaging Material – Presence of pathogenic microorganisms on damaged, unclean or contaminated packaging material due to mishandling at the source. - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Section 1.4.2
#1, #3, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to time/ temperature abuse. - Transportation and Storage B1.1.1, B1.1.2, B2.1.3, B2.2.1 and B2.2.2
Sections 1.6.1, 6.1.2, 6.2.1 and 6.2.3
#1, #3, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to inadequate physical and/or operational separation between incoming (unclean) vegetables and cleaned vegetables (in-process or finished product). - Premises A2.1.1
- Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
- Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
Sections 3.2.1, 4.2.1 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms due to improper employee handling procedures between incoming (unclean) vegetables and cleaned vegetables and/or improper employee hygiene procedures. - Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 1.7.1, 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms due to improper movement and handling of dirty pallets and packaging materials between areas of the facility where vegetables are unclean to areas of the facility where vegetables are clean. - Premises A2.1.1
- Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 3.2.1, 5.1.1. and 5.2.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms due to contamination from overhead structures. - Premises A2.1.1 and A2.1.2
- Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
Sections 3.2.1, 3.2.3 and 4.1.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms due to contact with pests (e.g. insects, rodents, birds). - Sanitation and Pest Control E2.1.1
Section 4.2.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms from unclean utensils, conveyors and equipment as a result of improper cleaning procedures. - Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
Section 4.1.1
#1 Receiving – Acceptance of incoming materials and ingredients not meeting specifications (i.e., not meeting standards as described on specification sheet for each incoming material and/or ingredient). - Transportation and Storage B1.1.1, B1.2.1, B2.1.3 and B2.2.1
Sections 1.4.1, 1.4.2, 6.1.1 and 6.1.2
#1 Receiving – Contamination of vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to damaged packaging materials resulting in exposed product. - Transportation and Storage B1.1.2 and B2.1.3
Sections 1.4.1 and 6.1.1
#1 Receiving – Receiving of vegetables contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms from other raw products (non-ready-to-eat products) such as raw meats, chicken or fish carried on the same truck. - Transportation and Storage B1.1.2
Section 6.1.1
#3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10 – Contamination of fresh vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms due to condensation (e.g. Listeria monocytogenes). - Premises A2.1.2 and A2.3.1
- Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
Sections 3.2.3 and 4.1.1
#3 Vegetable Storage – Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to damaged packaging material resulting from improper storage procedures. - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
Sections 1.7.1 and 6.2.1
#3 Vegetable Storage – Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to damaged packaging material resulting from improper employee handling and hygiene procedures. - Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
#3 Vegetable Storage – Cross-contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to inadequate separation between incoming fresh vegetables and outgoing RTE vegetables stored in the same area. - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
Sections 6.2.1 and 6.2.3
#3 Vegetable Storage – Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to failure to rotate fresh vegetables properly (first in/first out). - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
Section 6.2.1
#3 Vegetable Storage – Cross contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to failure to identify and/or isolate defective or suspect product. - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
Section 6.2.1
#5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13 – Cross contamination of vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to contact with contaminated product. - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
- Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
Sections 1.5.1, 1.6.2, 4.1.1 and 6.2.1
#5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10 – Cross-contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to failure to clean tools between handling of contaminated/unacceptable vegetables and acceptable vegetables. - Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
- Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 4.1.1, 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
#5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10 – Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to contaminated air (e.g. Listeria monocytogenes). - Premises A2.3.1
Section 3.2.3
#5 Inspection/sorting/trimming – Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to contact with unacceptable/decomposed/decayed/damaged vegetables that have not been removed. #9 Antimicrobial Treatment CCP-1BC
Sections 1.5.1 and 1.6.2
#5 Inspection/sorting/trimming – Cross-contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to failure to remove soil/microbial contamination from incoming fresh vegetables. #9 Antimicrobial Treatment CCP-1BC
Sections 1.5.1 and 1.6.2
#6 First wash – Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to failure to remove soil/microbial contamination from incoming fresh vegetables. #9 Antimicrobial Treatment CCP-1BC
Sections 1.5.1 and 1.6.2
#6 First wash – Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to build-up of microbial loads because the frequency of water changes/addition/removal of the recirculated water has been insufficient to prevent the build-up of organic material and microbial contamination of the vegetables (i.e., water serves as a source of contamination). #9 Antimicrobial Treatment CCP-1BC
Sections 1.5.1, 1.6.2 and 3.4.1
#8 Washing – Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to build-up of microbial loads because the frequency of water changes/addition/removal of the recirculated water has been insufficient to prevent the build-up of organic material and microbial contamination of the vegetables (i.e., water serves as a source of contamination). #9 Antimicrobial Treatment CCP-1BC
Sections 1.5.1, 1.6.2 and 3.4.1
#8 Washing – Growth of pathogenic microorganisms on fresh vegetables due to improper washing procedures resulting in build-up of nutrients available to support microbial growth. - Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
Sections 1.5.1 and 2.1.1 to 2.1.3
#8 Washing – Growth of pathogenic microorganisms in wash water due to elevated wash water temperature resulting in contamination of fresh vegetables. - Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
Sections 1.5.1 and 2.1.1 to 2.1.3
#9 Antimicrobial Treatment – Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to prolonged length of time between start of cutting/slicing/grinding/shredding and completion of antimicrobial treatment of RTE vegetables resulting in microbial growth due to presence of nutrients at the cut surfaces. CCP-1BC
Section 1.6.2
#9 Antimicrobial Treatment – Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to time/temperature abuse as a result of elevated antimicrobial treatment temperature resulting in contamination of RTE vegetables. CCP-1BC
Section 1.6.2
#9 Antimicrobial Treatment – Inadequate reduction of pathogenic microorganisms due to ineffective antimicrobial treatment (i.e., insufficient concentrations of antimicrobial treatment, inadequate pH, improper application [including contact time], improper agitation). CCP-1BC
Section 1.6.2
#10 Rinsing – Presence of high levels of pathogenic microorganisms in rinse water due to infrequent water changes/addition/removal resulting in contamination of RTE vegetables. CCP-2BC
Sections 1.6.2 and 3.4.1
#10 Rinsing – Growth of pathogenic microorganisms in rinse water due to time/temperature abuse, i.e., warm rinse water resulting in contamination of RTE vegetables. CCP-2BC
Section 1.6.2
#11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to microbial contamination of the environment, i.e., condensation and/or contaminated air (e.g., Listeria monocytogenes). - Premises A2.3.1
- Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
Sections 3.2.3 and 4.1.1
#11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to improper employee handling and hygiene procedures. - Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
#11, #12, #13 – Cross-contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to failure to clean tools/change tools between handling of contaminated/unacceptable vegetables and acceptable vegetables. - Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
- Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 4.1.1, 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
#11 Drying – Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to excess moisture on the product after washing/rinsing that the drying process failed to remove. - Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
Sections 2.1.1 and 2.1.3
#13 Packaging/Labelling/Coding – Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms from packaging material as a result of damage or soiling of containers/packaging material during storage improper employee handling procedures. - Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
#13 Packaging/Labelling/Coding – Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms from packaging material as a result of damage or soiling of containers/packaging material during storage due to improper storage procedures. - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
Sections 5.1.1 and 6.2.1
#13 Packaging/Labelling/Coding – Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to damaged, improper or faulty package seals. - Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
Sections 2.1.1 to 2.1.3
#13 Packaging/Labelling/Coding – Incorrect, illegible or absent best before date and storage instructions (i.e., Keep Refrigerated) resulting in growth of L. monocytogenes to unacceptable levels at time of consumption. CCP-3B
Sections 1.9.1 and 1.6.2
#13 Packaging/Labelling/Coding – Failure to apply correct/legible lot code resulting in inability to recall product. - Recall F1.1.1 and F1.2.1
Sections 1.9.1 and 8.2.1
#15 Storage – Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to improper stock rotation resulting in RTE vegetables in storage that exceed shelf life. - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
Section 6.2.3
#15 Storage – Contamination of RTE vegetables by fresh vegetables (untreated) due to inadequate separation. - Transportation and Storage B1.1.1 and B1.1.2
Sections 6.1.1, 6.2.1 and 6.2.3
#15, #16 – Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms as a result of damaged and/or exposed RTE vegetables product due to improper employee handling procedures. - Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
#15, #16 – Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms as a result of damaged and/or exposed RTE vegetables product due to improper storage procedures. - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
Section 6.2.3
#16 Shipping/Distribution – Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms as a result of loading onto a carrier that is unacceptable for the transportation of food. - Transportation and Storage B1.1.2
Section 6.1.1
#16 Shipping/Distribution – Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms as a result of transporting on same carrier with non-ready-to-eat product (i.e., raw meat or other product contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms.) - Transportation and Storage B1.1.2 and B2.2.2
Section 6.1.1
#16 Shipping/Distribution – Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to failure to load carrier as per written procedures (i.e., in order to allow for proper air circulation during transport) resulting in time/temperature abuse. - Transportation and Storage B1.1.2
Section 6.1.1
#16 Shipping/Distribution – Contamination with pathogenic microorganisms as a result of improper loading/stacking resulting in damaged packaging material and contamination of finished products. - Transportation and Storage B1.1.2
Section 6.1.1
Form 4 - Plant Schematic – B1 – Entrance to processing room and B2 - Entrance to packaging room - Improper employee hygiene procedures between rooms resulting in contamination with pathogenic microorganisms (i.e., improper use of foot dips/hand dips/change of clothing). - Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
Form 4 - Plant Schematic – B1 – Entrance to processing room and B2 - Entrance to packaging room - Concentration of sanitizers in hand dips/foot dips inadequate to control pathogenic microorganisms. - Premises A2.1.1
Section 3.2.1

Note: The manufacturer should indicate the hazards using letters and/or numbers, e.g., B1 (for the first biological hazard identified on the Plant Schematic) and B2 (for the second biological hazard identified on the Plant Schematic), etc., and record each of the hazards on the Plant Schematic (Form 4) at the point where it occurs.

Example of Completed Form 6: Chemical Hazards Identification

Product name: Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables
List all chemical hazards related to ingredients, incoming materials, processing, product flow, etc.
Identified Chemical HazardsControlled at
Fresh Vegetables – Presence of agricultural chemicals (pesticides and herbicides) on fresh vegetables above the maximum residue limits. Form 9
Fresh Vegetables – Presence of heavy metals and other chemicals in fresh vegetables due to water used for irrigation and fumigation on farm. Form 9
Fresh Vegetables – Contamination of fresh vegetables with agricultural chemicals or non-food chemicals due to improper use of reusable food containers at the farm level. Form 9
Fresh Vegetables – Contamination of fresh vegetables with fuels (e.g., diesel, gasoline), lubricants and machine grease/ oil at the farm level or during transportation (e.g., leakage of fuel oil onto produce). - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3 (of the FSEP Manual)
Section 1.4.1 (of the guidance document)
Water/Well Water – Not meeting the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality published by Health Canada as well as any applicable provincial or municipal requirements. - Premises A4.1.1
Section 3.4.1
Water/Well Water – Presence of heavy metals (e.g., arsenic), pesticides, and/or excess chlorine. - Premises A4.1.1
Section 3.4.1
Packaging Material/Treatment Chemicals – Not food grade and/or not appropriate for intended use. - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Sections 1.4.1 and 1.4.2
Food Additives – Not approved for use in or on food. - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Section 1.4.1
#1, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13 – Contamination with cleaning chemical residues on product contact surfaces, including handling equipment, due to improper sanitation procedures. - Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
Section 4.1.1
#1 - Receiving – Contamination of fresh vegetables and/or packaging materials with non-food chemicals or chemical residues (e.g., cleaners, sanitizers, lubricants, oils) as a result of improper receiving procedures. - Transportation and Storage B1.1.1, B1.1.2, B2.2.2 and B2.2.3
Section 6.2.1
#1 - Receiving – Contamination of fresh vegetables and/or packaging materials with non-food chemicals or chemical residues (e.g., cleaners, sanitizers, lubricants, oils) as a result of improper sanitation procedures. - Sanitation and Pest control E1.1.1
Section 4.1.1
#1 - Receiving – Contamination of fresh vegetables and/or packaging materials with non-food chemicals or chemical residues (e.g., cleaners, sanitizers, lubricants, oils) as a result of
improper equipment maintenance procedures resulting in contamination with lubricants/oils etc.
- Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
Sections 2.1.1 to 2.1.3
#1 - Receiving – Acceptance of incoming materials and ingredients not meeting specifications (i.e., not meeting firm's standards as described on specification sheets for each incoming material and/or ingredient). - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Sections 1.4.1, 1.4.2, 6.2.1 and 6.2.2
#2, #3, #4 – Contamination of fresh vegetables and/or packaging materials as a result of improper storage or use of chemicals. - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2 and B2.2.3
- Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
- Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
Sections 2.1.1 to 2.1.3, 4.1.1 and 6.2.2
#2, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of exposed vegetables and/or packaging materials with cleaning solutions, sanitizers, lubricants and/or their residues as a result of damaged packaging material and/or open or exposed product due to improper storage of vegetables/packaging materials. - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
Sections 6.2.1 and 6.2.2
#2, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of exposed vegetables and/or packaging materials with cleaning solutions, sanitizers, lubricants and/or their residues as a result of damaged packaging material and/or open or exposed product due to improper handling by employees. - Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
#2, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of exposed vegetables and/or packaging materials with cleaning solutions, sanitizers, lubricants and/or their residues as a result of damaged packaging material and/or open or exposed product due to improper sanitation procedures. - Sanitation and Pest control E1.1.1
Section 4.1.1
#2, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of exposed vegetables and/or packaging materials with non-food chemicals (e.g., lubricants, oils, hydraulic fluid) from machinery and equipment as a result of improper equipment maintenance procedures. - Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
Sections 2.1.1 to 2.1.3
#9 Antimicrobial Treatment – Contamination of RTE vegetables with excess concentrations of antimicrobial treatment chemical due to improper mixing and/or application and/or agitation. CCP-1BC
Section 1.6.2
 #10 Rinsing – Presence of residual antimicrobial agent on RTE vegetables due to inadequate rinsing. CCP-2BC
Section 1.6.2
#13 Packaging/Labelling/Coding – Contamination of RTE vegetables with inks/solvents as a result of equipment that is not properly maintained and/or set up. - Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
Sections 2.1.1 to 2.1.3
#13 Packaging/Labelling/Coding – Contamination of RTE vegetables with inks/ solvents as a result of improper storage of inks/solvents. - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
Section 6.2.2
#16 Shipping/Distribution – Contamination of RTE vegetables with non-compatible goods carried on the same transport vehicle (i.e., non-food or food grade chemicals). - Transportation and Storage B1.1.1
Section 6.1.1

Example of Completed Form 7: Physical Hazards Identification

Product name: Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables
List all physical hazards related to ingredients, incoming materials, processing, product flow, etc.
Identified Physical hazardsControlled at
Fresh Vegetables – Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) as a result of improper handling at the source - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3 (of the FSEP Manual)
Section 1.4.1 (of the guidance document)
Packaging Material – Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) as a result of improper handling at the source. - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Section 1.4.2
Antimicrobial Agents – Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) as a result of improper handling at the source. - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Section 1.4.1
Water – Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic). #14 Metal Detection
CCP-4P
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of packaging materials, ingredients and vegetables with hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) as a result of dirty or poorly maintained overhead structures. - Premises A2.1.1 and A2.1.2
Section 3.2.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of packaging materials, ingredients and vegetables with hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) as a result of improper maintenance procedures. - Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
Sections 2.1.1 to 2.1.3
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with hazardous extraneous (metallic and/or non-metallic) material as a result of damaged packaging material resulting in exposed or open product due to improper storage procedures. - Transportation and Storage B2.2.2 and B2.1.3
Sections 6.2.1 and 6.2.2
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with hazardous extraneous (metallic and/or non-metallic) material as a result of damaged packaging material resulting in exposed or open product due to improper employee handling procedures. - Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16 – Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) due to improper employee handling procedures (i.e., metal, wood, glass, plastic). - Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
Sections 5.1.1 and 5.2.1
#1 - Receiving – Acceptance of incoming materials and ingredients not meeting specifications (i.e., not meeting standards as described on specification sheets). - Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Sections 1.4.1 and 1.4.2
#5, #7, #12 –Contamination of vegetables with hazardous extraneous material (metallic) due to wear and tear and/or rubbing of machine parts (e.g., metal shavings resulting from metal rubbing against metal during cutting/slicing). #14 Metal Detector CCP-4P
Section 1.6.2
#14 – Metal Detection – Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic) in vegetables due to failure of the metal detector to detect metal. CCP-4P
Section 1.6.2
#14 – Metal Detection – Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic) in vegetables due to failure of the metal detector to function as intended when metal is detected (e.g., line stops, alarm sounds, product is kicked off the line).CCP-4P
Section 1.6.2
#16 - Shipping/Distribution – Contamination of RTE vegetables with hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) due to improper condition of transportation vehicle. - Transportation and B1.1.1 and B1.1.2
Section 6.1.1
#16 - Shipping/Distribution – Contamination of RTE vegetables with hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) due to improper loading and arranging procedures resulting in damaged or exposed product. - Transportation and Storage B1.1.2
Section 6.1.1

Example of Completed Form 8: Critical Control Point (CCP) Determination

Product name: Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables
Incoming material/
process/ hazards on schematic diagram

Category and identified hazard

Determine if fully controlled by prerequisite program.

* If yes = indicate Prerequisite Program and proceed to next identified hazard.

* If no = proceed to question 1 (Q1).

Q1. Could a control measure(s) be used by the operator at any process step?

* If no = not CCP. Identify how this hazard will be controlled before and after the process. Then proceed to the next identified hazard.

* If yes = describe the measure and proceed to Q2.

Q2. Is it likely that contamination with the identified hazard could occur in excess of the acceptable level or could increase to an unacceptable level?

* If no = not CCP. Proceed to the next identified hazard.

* If yes = proceed to Q3.

Q3. Is this process step specifically designed to eliminate or reduce the likely occurrence of the identified hazard to an acceptable level?

* If no = proceed to Q4.

* If yes = CCP. Enter its number in the last column.

Q4. Will a subsequent step eliminate the identified hazard or reduce its likely occurrence to an acceptable level?

* If no = CCP. Enter its number in the last column.

* If yes = not a CCP. Identify subsequent step (controlling) and proceed to the next identified hazard.

CCP number

* Proceed to next identified hazard.

Fresh Vegetables

Biological

Presence of pathogenic microorganisms on fresh vegetables due to contamination at the farm level (animal or human faecal material, insects or mould growth).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Fresh Vegetables

Biological

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms on fresh vegetables due to time/temperature abuse at the growers and/or during transportation.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Fresh Vegetables

Biological

Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to presence of pests (rodents, insects and birds).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Fresh Vegetables

Biological

Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to damaged packaging materials/ unclean vehicles for transporting vegetables.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Fresh Vegetables

Biological

Cross-contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms from other raw products (non-ready-to-eat products) such as raw meats, chicken or fish carried on the same truck.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Fresh Vegetables

Biological

Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms from unclean/recycled packaging material used at the grower's.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Fresh Vegetables

Chemical

Presence of agricultural chemicals (pesticides and herbicides) on fresh vegetables above the maximum residue limits.

No

No

Form 9

Fresh Vegetables

Chemical
Presence of heavy metals and other chemicals in fresh vegetables as a result of water used for irrigation and fumigation on the farm.

No

No

Form 9

Fresh Vegetables

Chemical

Contamination of fresh vegetables with agricultural chemicals or non-food chemicals due to improper use of reusable food containers at the farm level.

No

No

Form 9

Fresh Vegetables

Chemical

Contamination of fresh vegetables with fuels (e.g., diesel, gasoline), lubricants and machine grease/oil at the farm level or during transportation (e.g., leakage of fuel oil onto produce).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Fresh Vegetables

Physical

Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) as a result of improper handling at the source.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Water/
Well Water

Biological and Chemical

Not meeting the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality published by Health Canada as well as any provincial or municipal requirements.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Premises A4.1.1
Water/
Well Water

Chemical

Presence of heavy metals (e.g., arsenic), pesticides, and/or excess chlorine.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Premises A4.1.1
Water/
Well Water

Physical

Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic).

No

Yes

- all product sent through a functioning metal detector

Yes

N/A

#14 Metal Detection
CCP-4P

Packaging Material

Biological

Presence of pathogenic microorganisms due to contamination with faecal material from pests (e.g., insects, birds, rodents).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Packaging Material

Biological

Presence of pathogenic microorganisms on damaged, unclean or contaminated packaging material due to mishandling at the source.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Packaging Material/ Treatment Chemicals

Chemical

Not food grade and/or not appropriate for intended use.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Packaging Materials

Physical

Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) as a result of improper handling at the source.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Food Additives

Chemical

Not approved for use on or in food.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
Antimicrobial Treatment

Physical

Presence of hazardous extraneous (metallic and/or non-metallic) material as a result of improper handling at source.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
#1, #3, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Biological

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to time/temperature abuse.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.1, B1.1.2, B2.1.3, B2.2.1 and B2.2.2
#1, #3, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Biological

Contamination of vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to inadequate physical and/or operational separation between incoming (unclean) vegetables and cleaned vegetables (in-process or finished product).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Premises A2.1.1
  2. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
  3. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Biological

Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms due to improper employee handling procedures between incoming (unclean) vegetables and cleaned vegetables and/or improper employee hygiene.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Biological

Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms due to improper movement and handling of dirty pallets and packaging materials between areas of the facility where vegetables are unclean to areas of the facility where vegetables are clean.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Premises A2.1.1
  2. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Biological

Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms due to contamination from overhead structures.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Premises A2.1.1 and A2.1.2
  2. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Biological

Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms due to contact with pests (insects, rodents, birds).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

Sanitation and Pest Control E2.1.1

#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Biological

Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms from unclean utensils, conveyors and equipment as a result of improper cleaning procedures.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
#1, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13

Chemical

Contamination with cleaning chemical residues on product contact surfaces, including handling equipment, due to improper sanitation procedures.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Physical

Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with hazardous extraneous (metallic and/or non-metallic) material as a result of damaged packaging material resulting in exposed or open product due to

  1. improper storage procedures and/or
  2. improper employee handling procedures.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2 and B2.1.3
  2. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Physical

Contamination of packaging materials, ingredients and/or vegetables with hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) as a result of

  1. dirty or poorly maintained overhead structures and/or
  2. improper maintenance procedures.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Premises A2.1.1 and A2.1.2
  2. Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
#1, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Physical

Contamination of vegetables and/or packaging materials with hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) due to improper employee handling procedures (i.e., metal, wood, glass, plastic).
Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
#1 - Receiving

Biological

Acceptance of incoming materials and ingredients not meeting specifications (i.e., not meeting standards as described on specification sheet for each incoming material/ingredient).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.1, B1.2.1, B2.1.3 and B2.2.1
#1 - Receiving

Biological

Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to damaged packaging materials resulting in exposed product.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.2 and B2.1.3
#1 - Receiving

Biological

Receiving of fresh vegetables contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms from other raw products (non-ready-to-eat-products) such as raw meats, chicken or fish carried on the same truck.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.2
#1 - Receiving

Chemical

Acceptance of incoming materials and ingredients not meeting specifications (i.e., not meeting standards as described on specification sheet for each incoming material/ingredient).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
#1 - Receiving

Chemical

Contamination of fresh vegetables and/or packaging materials with non-food chemicals or chemical residues (e.g., cleaners, sanitizers, lubricants, oils) as a result of

  1. improper receiving procedures
  2. improper sanitation procedures
  3. improper equipment maintenance procedures resulting in contamination with lubricants/oils etc.

Yes

Prerequisite program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.1, B1.1.2, B2.2.2 and B2.2.3
  2. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
  3. Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
#1 - Receiving

Physical

Acceptance of incoming materials and ingredients not meeting specifications (i.e., not meeting standards as described on specification sheet of each incoming material/ingredient).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.1.3
#2 #3, #4

Chemical

Contamination of fresh vegetables and/or packaging materials as a result of Improper storage or use of chemicals.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2 and B2.2.3
  2. Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
  3. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
#2, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Chemical

Contamination of exposed vegetables and/or packaging materials with cleaning solutions, sanitizers, lubricants and/or their residues as a result of damaged packaging material and/or open or exposed product due to

  1. improper storage of vegetables/packaging materials and/or
  2. improper handling by employees and/or
  3. improper sanitation procedures.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
  2. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
  3. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
#2, #3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Chemical

Contamination of exposed vegetables and/or packaging materials with non-food chemicals (e.g., lubricants, oils, hydraulic fluid) from machinery and equipment as a result of improper equipment maintenance procedures.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
#3, #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10

Biological

Contamination of fresh vegetables and/or packaging materials with pathogenic microorganisms due to condensation (e.g., Listeria monocytogenes).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Premises A2.1.2 and A2.3.1
  2. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
#3 Vegetable Storage

Biological

Cross-contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to inadequate separation between incoming fresh vegetables and outgoing RTE vegetables stored in the same area.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
#3 Vegetable Storage

Biological
Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to damaged packaging material resulting from

  1. improper storage procedures and/or
  2. improper employee handling procedures.

Yes
Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
  2. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
#3 Vegetable Storage

Biological

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to failure to rotate fresh vegetables properly (first in/first out).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
#3 Vegetable Storage

Biological
Cross-contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic organisms due to failure to identify and/or isolate returned, defective or suspect product.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
#5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10, #11, #12, #13

Biological

Cross-contamination of vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to contact with contaminated product.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
  2. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
#5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10

Biological

Cross-contamination of vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to failure to clean tools between handling of contaminated/ unacceptable vegetables and acceptable vegetables.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
  2. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
#5, #6, #7, #8, #9, #10

Biological

Contamination of vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to contaminated air (e.g. Listeria monocytogenes).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Premises A2.3.1
#5, #7, #12

Physical

Contamination of vegetables with hazardous extraneous material (metallic) due to wear and tear and/or rubbing of machine parts (e.g., metal shavings resulting from metal rubbing against metal during cutting/slicing).

No

Pass all product through a functioning metal detector

Yes No

Yes

#14 Metal Detection
CCP-4P

#5 Inspection/
sorting/
trimming

Biological

Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to contact with unacceptable/ decomposed/ decayed/ damaged vegetables that have not been removed.

No

Inspection and removal of unacceptable vegetables Yes No

Yes

#9 Antimicrobial Treatment
CCP-1BC

#5 Inspection/
sorting/
trimming

Biological

Cross-contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to a failure to remove soil/contamination from incoming fresh vegetables.

No

Inspection and trimming of contaminated portions of vegetables or removal of vegetables

Yes No

Yes

#9 Antimicrobial Treatment CCP-1BC

#6 First Wash

Biological

Cross-contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to a failure to remove soil/microbial contamination from incoming fresh vegetables.

No

Yes

Proper first wash and disinfection/antimicrobial treatment.

Yes No

Yes

#9 Antimicrobial Treatment
CCP-1BC

#6 First Wash

Biological

Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to build-up of microbial loads because the frequency of water changes/addition/removal of the recirculated water has been insufficient to prevent the build-up of organic material and prevent microbial contamination of the vegetables (i.e., water serves as a source of contamination).

No

Yes

Monitor the frequency of water changes to prevent the build-up of organic material in the water and to prevent microbial contamination of the product

Yes No

Yes

#9 Antimicrobial Treatment
CCP-1BC

#8 Washing

Biological

Contamination of fresh vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to build-up of microbial loads because the frequency of water changes/addition/removal of the recirculated water has been insufficient to prevent the build-up of organic material and prevent microbial contamination of the vegetables (i.e., water serves as a source of contamination).

No

Yes

Monitor the frequency of water changes to prevent the build-up of organic material in the water and to prevent microbial contamination of the product

Yes No

Yes

#9 Antimicrobial Treatment
CCP-1BC

#8 Washing

Biological

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms in wash water due to elevated wash water temperature resulting in contamination of fresh vegetables.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
#8 Washing

Biological

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms on fresh vegetables due to improper washing procedures resulting in build-up of nutrients available to support microbial growth.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
#9 Antimicrobial Treatment

Biological

Inadequate reduction of pathogenic microorganisms due to ineffective antimicrobial treatment (i.e., insufficient concentrations of antimicrobial treatment, inadequate pH, improper application (including contact time), improper agitation).

No

Yes

Proper mixing and application of the antimicrobial treatment on the vegetables

Yes Yes

CCP-1BC

#9 Antimicrobial Treatment

Biological

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to prolonged length of time between start of cutting/ slicing/ grinding/ shredding and completion of antimicrobial treatment of RTE vegetables resulting in microbial growth due to presence of nutrients at the cut surfaces.

No

Yes

Monitor time between start of cutting/ slicing/ grinding/ shredding to the completion of the antimicrobial treatment for each batch/lot.

Yes No No

CCP-1BC

#9 Antimicrobial Treatment

Biological

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to time/ temperature abuse as a result of elevated antimicrobial treatment temperature resulting in contamination of RTE vegetables.

No

Yes

Monitor antimicrobial treatment liquid temperature

Yes No No

CCP-1BC

#9 Antimicrobial Treatment

Chemical

Contamination of RTE vegetables with excess concentrations of antimicrobial treatment chemical due to improper mixing, and/or application, and/or agitation.

No

Yes

Proper mixing and application of the disinfectant on the vegetables

Yes No No

CCP-1BC

#10 Rinsing

Biological

Presence of high levels of pathogenic microorganisms in rinse water due to infrequent changes/addition/removal resulting in contamination of RTE vegetables.

No

Yes

Monitoring the procedure to ensure that the rinse water is changed/or changeovers are performed frequently.

Yes No No CCP-2BC
#10 Rinsing

Biological

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms in rinse water due to time/ temperature abuse as a result of warm rinse water resulting in contamination of RTE vegetables.

No

Yes

Monitoring the procedure to ensure that the rinse water is cold.

Yes No No CCP-2BC
#10 Rinsing

Chemical

Presence of residual antimicrobial treatment on the RTE vegetables due to inadequate rinsing.

No

Yes

Monitoring rinsing procedures

Yes Yes CCP-2BC
#11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Biological

Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to microbial contamination of the environment, i.e., condensation and/or contaminated air (e.g., Listeria monocytogenes).

Yes

Prerequisite program:

  1. Premises A2.3.1
  2. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
#11, #12, #13, #14, #15, #16

Biological

Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to improper employee handling and hygiene procedures.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
#11, #12, #13

Biological

Cross-contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to failure to clean tools/change tools between handling of contaminated/unacceptable vegetables and acceptable vegetables.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Sanitation and Pest Control E1.1.1
  2. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
#11 - Drying

Biological

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to the availability of excess moisture on the product after washing/rinsing that the process failed to remove during drying.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
#13 - Packaging/
Labelling/
Coding

Biological

Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms from packaging material as a result of damage or soiling of containers/packaging material during storage due to

  1. improper employee handling procedures and/or
  2. improper storage procedures.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
  2. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
#13 - Packaging/
Labelling/
Coding

Biological

Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms due to damaged, improper, or faulty package seals.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
#13 - Packaging/
Labelling/
Coding

Biological

Incorrect, illegible or absent Best Before date and storage instructions (i.e., Keep Refrigerated) resulting in growth of L. monocytogenes to unacceptable levels at time of consumption.

No

Yes

Monitor application of Best Before date and storage instructions on the label.

Yes Yes CCP-3B
#13 - Packaging/
Labelling/
Coding

Biological

Failure to apply correct/legible lot code resulting in inability to recall product.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Recall F1.1.1 and F1.2.1
#13 - Packaging/
Labelling/
Coding

Chemical

Contamination of RTE vegetables with inks/solvents as a result of

  1. equipment that is not properly maintained and/or set up
  2. improper storage of inks/solvents

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Equipment C1.1.1 and C1.2.1
  2. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
#14 Metal Detection

Physical

Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic) in vegetables due to failure of the metal detector to detect metal.

No

Yes

All product is put through a functioning metal detector

Yes Yes CCP-4P
#14 Metal Detection

Physical

Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic) in vegetables due to failure of the metal detector to function as intended when metal is detected (e.g., line stops, alarm sounds, product is kicked off the line).

No

Yes

Test functioning of the metal detector at regular intervals

Yes Yes CCP-4P
#15 Storage

Biological

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to improper stock rotation resulting in RTE vegetables in storage that exceeds shelf life.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
#15 Storage

Biological

Contamination of RTE vegetables by fresh vegetables (untreated) due to inadequate separation.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.1 and B1.1.2
#15, #16

Biological

Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms as a result of damaged and/or exposed RTE vegetables due to

  1. improper employee handling procedures
  2. improper storage procedures

Yes

Prerequisite Programs:

  1. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1
  2. Transportation and Storage B2.2.2
#16 - Shipping/
Distribution

Biological

Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms as a result of loading product onto a carrier that is unacceptable for the transportation of food.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.2
#16 - Shipping/
Distribution

Biological

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to failure to load carrier as per written procedures (i.e., in order to allow for proper air circulation during transport) resulting in time/temperature abuse.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.2
#16 - Shipping/
Distribution

Biological

Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms as a result of improper loading/stacking resulting in damaged packaging material and contamination of finished product.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.2
#16 - Shipping/
Distribution

Biological

Contamination of RTE vegetables with pathogenic microorganisms as a result of transporting on same carrier with non-ready-to-eat products (i.e., raw meat or other products contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.2 and B2.2.2
#16 - Shipping/
Distribution

Chemical

Contamination of RTE vegetables with non-compatible goods carried on the same transport vehicle (i.e., non-food or food grade chemicals).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.1
#16 - Shipping/
Distribution

Physical

Contamination of RTE vegetables with hazardous extraneous material (metallic and/or non-metallic) due to

  1. improper condition of transportation vehicle
  2. improper loading and arranging procedures resulting in damaged and/or exposed product.

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Transportation and Storage B1.1.1 and B1.1.2
  2. Transportation and Storage B1.1.2
Form 4 – Plant Schematic – B1 – Entrance to processing room & B2 – Entrance to packaging room

Biological

Improper employee hygiene procedures between rooms resulting in contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. (i.e., improper use of foot dips/ hand dips/ change of clothing).

Yes

Prerequisite Program:

  1. Personnel D1.1.1 and D2.1.1

Example of Completed Form 9: Hazards not controlled by the Operator

Product name: Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables
List here any biological, chemical and physical hazards that are not controlled by the operator
HazardsIndicate how the hazard could be addressed (cooking instructions, public education, best-before date, etc.)
Fresh Vegetables– Presence of agricultural chemicals (pesticides and herbicides) on fresh vegetables above the maximum residue limits. Farm level - Educate farmers about Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
Fresh Vegetables– Presence of heavy metals and other chemicals in fresh vegetables due to water used for irrigation and fumigation on farm. Farm level - Educate farmers about Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
Fresh Vegetables– Contamination of fresh vegetables with agricultural chemicals, non-food chemicals due to improper use of reusable containers at the farm level. Farm level - Educate farmers about Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)

Example of Completed Form 10: HACCP Plan

Product name: Ready-to-Eat Fresh-Cut Vegetables
Process StepCCP
Hazard Number
Hazard DescriptionCritical LimitsMonitoring ProceduresDeviation ProceduresVerification ProceduresHACCP Records
#9 Antimicrobial Treatment

CCP-1BC

Biological
Inadequate reduction of pathogenic microorganisms due to ineffective disinfection/ antimicrobial treatment (i.e., insufficient concentrations of antimicrobial treatment , inadequate pH, improper application (including contact time) and improper agitation).

Growth of pathogenic organisms due to prolonged length of time between start of cutting/ slicing/ shredding/ grinding and completion of antimicrobial treatment of RTE vegetables, resulting in microbial growth due to presence of nutrients at the cut surfaces.

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms due to time/temperature abuse as a result of elevated temperature of the antimicrobial treatment liquid, resulting in contamination of RTE vegetables.

Chemical
Contamination of vegetables with excess concentrations of antimicrobial treatment chemical due to improper mixing and/or application and/or agitation.

Water temperature X degrees prior to addition of antimicrobial treatment solution and vegetables.

Water pH 6–7 prior to addition of antimicrobial treatment solution.

Available chlorine: 100–150 ppm total chlorine.
Or
Residual chlorine:
2–7 ppm free residual chlorine after contact time.

Contact time: not more than X minutes.

Time between the start of cutting/slicing/
shredding/grinding to the completion of the antimicrobial treatment not to exceed X minutes for each batch/lot.

For each batch/lot of vegetables the CCP-1BC Monitor:

  • takes the temperature of the water/antimicrobial treatment liquid using a hand-held thermometer, and
  • the pH of the water using litmus paper and,
  • mixes the disinfectant required (as per CCP-1BC Monitoring Procedures) to ensure that the critical limits are met,
  • tests the antimicrobial treatment as per the SOP for Antimicrobial Treatment to ensure the concentration meets the critical limit,
  • adds the antimicrobial treatment solution to the vegetables and records the time at the start of treatment and the completion of treatment (or the belt speed/ contact time, etc.) to ensure adequate contact time with all vegetables as per the SOP for Antimicrobial Treatments.

The CCP-1BC Monitor records the time at the completion of the antimicrobial treatment and records it on the CCP-1BC Monitoring Record, calculating the total time from the start of cutting/slicing/shredding/grinding to the completion of the antimicrobial treatment to ensure that the critical limit is met.

Records the volume of the disinfectant used, the volume of water used (total volume of disinfectant solution used), the available chlorine or the free residual chlorine after contact time, the pH of the water, the belt speed or contact time and the total time from the start of cutting slicing/shredding/grinding to the completion of the antimicrobial treatment on the CCP-1BC Monitoring Record. Initials and dates.

If the temperature or pH of the water does not meet the critical limit prior to mixing the antimicrobial treatment solution, or if the antimicrobial treatment exceeds the ppm or does not meet the ppm as indicated in the SOP for Antimicrobial Treatments, the antimicrobial treatment is not mixed properly, the contact time or belt speed does not meet the critical limit and/or if the time between the cutting/ slicing/ grinding/ shredding and the completion of the antimicrobial treatment does not meet the critical limit, the CCP-1BC Monitor takes corrective action to control the product and/or correct the deviation. This may include the following: adjusting the solution as per the CCP-1BC Temperature & pH Monitoring Procedures and retesting the solution to ensure that the critical limits are met, cooling the water, adding ice, discarding the solution and mixing a new solution, reducing the contact time, and/or holding all product since the last good check as per the Hold Procedures and notifying CCP-1BC Authorized Person.

Records all findings, corrective actions, date and initials on
CCP-1BC Monitoring Record.

CCP-1BC Authorized Person performs a food safety assessment as per Food Safety Assessment Procedures. If food safety has been compromised, the product is held, tested and subsequently released, reworked or destroyed.
If food safety has not been compromised, the CCP-1BC Authorized Person releases the product.

CCP-1BC Authorized Person reviews all corrective actions to ensure they are completed and effective in controlling the deviation as well as any affected product. If any issues are identified, takes immediate corrective action as described above.

CCP-1BC Authorized Person determines the root cause of the deviation to assess whether this is an isolated incident and/or whether preventive corrective actions must be developed to prevent reoccurrence.

CCP-1BC Authorized Person records the description of the deviation, the corrective action (including date completed) and preventive measures on CCP-1BC Deviation Record. Signs and dates.

Once per Y time period the CCP-1BC Verifier observes the CCP-1BC Monitor performing the monitoring function to ensure the CCP-2BC SOP for Rinsing Vegetables and the SOP for Rinse Water Sampling for Antimicrobial Levels as well as the deviation procedures, where applicable, are being followed. Signs the CCP-1BC Monitoring Record, dates and records observation to indicate it was a procedure check.

Once per Y time period the CCP-1BC Verifier reviews X number of CCP-1BC Monitoring Records and associated CCP-1BC Deviation Records and corrective actions completed since the last verification for completeness and compliance to ensure critical limits have been met. Signs and dates.

If deviations are found for any of the above procedures, the CCP-1BC Verifier follows the deviation procedures for this CCP. When the CCP-1BC Monitor is not following procedures, reinforcement training or retraining will be provided. CCP-1BC Verifier records the corrective actions, preventative measures, date(s) completed and person(s) responsible on CCP-1BC Deviation Record. Signs and dates.

CCP-1BC Monitoring Record

CCP-1BC Deviation Record

CCP-1BC Verification Record

SOP for Antimicrobial Treatments

CCP-1BC Temperature pH Monitoring Procedures

Food Safety Assessment Procedures

Hold Procedures

#10 Rinse

CCP-2BC

Biological
Presence of high levels of pathogenic microorganisms in rinse water due to infrequent water changes/addition/
removals resulting in contamination of RTE vegetables.

Growth of pathogenic microorganisms in rinse water due to time/temperature abuse as a result of warm rinse water resulting in contamination of RTE vegetables.

Chemical
Presence of residual antimicrobial treatment solution on RTE vegetables due to inadequate rinsing.

 

Plant Employee follows CCP-2BC SOP for Rinsing Vegetables as written.

Water used for rinsing the vegetables must be X degrees or less and must be changed for each rinse.

Concentration of antimicrobial treatment solution in rinse water at the end of the final rinse must not exceed Y (Note: Manufacturer to define the critical limit based on the antimicrobial treatment solution being used, e.g., the critical limit for sodium hypochlorite might be that chlorine levels must not exceed what is allowed in the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality).

X times daily, the CCP-2BC Monitor observes the Plant Employee rinsing vegetables to ensure all procedures are followed as per the CCP-2BC SOP for Rinsing Vegetables.

X times daily, the CCP-2BC Monitor takes the temperature of rinse water using a hand-held thermometer (e.g., prior to the addition of the vegetables at the start of the rinse step and at the end of the rinse step) as per the CCP-2BC SOP for Rinsing Vegetables to ensure that the temperature of the rinse water does not exceed X degrees.

Every rinse, the CCP-2BC Monitor samples rinse water at the end of the rinse and tests for level of antimicrobial treatment solution in the rinse water as per SOP for Rinse Water Sampling for Antimicrobial Levels (e.g., for chlorine levels - colorimetric test strips or hand-held meters).

The CCP-2BC Monitor records all findings and observations on the CCP-2BC Monitoring Record. Signs and dates.

Received results of rinse water testing are reviewed by the CCP-2BC Authorized Person to ensure that the critical limits are met. Signs and dates.

If critical limits are not met, the CCP-2BC Monitor takes corrective actions as per CCP-2BC SOP for Rinsing Vegetables. Corrective actions may include instructing Plant Employee to change the rinse water, to remove and add rinse water and/or add ice to cool the rinse water temperature down to meet the critical limit, retesting the rinse water temperature as per the Monitoring Procedures to ensure the critical limit is met prior to the addition of the vegetables, stopping the rinsing procedures, and/or notifying the CCP-2BC Authorized Person.

Records the description of the deviation and actions taken on CCP-2BC Monitoring Record.

The CCP-2BC Authorized Person puts all affected product on hold as per Hold Procedures and makes an assessment as to whether food safety has been compromised as per written Food Safety Assessment Procedures. If food safety has been compromised the product is held, tested and subsequently released, reworked or destroyed. If food safety has not been compromised, the CCP-2BC Authorized Person releases the product.

When the Plant Employee is not following procedures, reinforcement training or retraining will be provided.

CCP-2BC Authorized Person reviews all corrective actions to ensure they are completed and effective in controlling the deviation as well as any affected product. If any issues are identified, takes immediate corrective action as described above.

CCP-2BC Authorized Person determines the root cause of the deviation to assess whether this is an isolated incident and/or whether preventive corrective actions must be developed to prevent reoccurrence.

CCP-2BC Authorized Person records the description of the deviation, the corrective action (including date completed) and preventive measures on CCP-2BC Deviation Record. Signs and dates.

Once per Y time period, the CCP-2BC Verifier observes the CCP-2BC Monitor performing the monitoring function to ensure the CCP-2BC SOP for Rinsing Vegetables is being followed and the critical limit for water temperature and chlorine levels in the rinse water are being met. Signs the CCP-2BC Monitoring Record, dates and records observation to indicate it was a procedure check.

Every Y time period CCP-2BC Verifier reviews X number of CCP-2BC Monitoring Records and associated CCP-2BC Deviation Records and corrective actions completed since the last verification for completeness and compliance to ensure critical limits have been met. Signs and dates.

If deviations are found for any of the above procedures, the CCP-2BC Verifier follows the Deviation Procedures for this CCP. When the CCP-2BC Monitor is not following procedures, reinforcement training or retraining will be provided.

CCP-2BC Verifier records the corrective actions, preventive measures, date(s) completed and person(s) responsible on CCP-2BC Deviation Record. Signs and dates.

CCP-2BC SOP for Rinsing Vegetables

CCP-2BC Monitoring Record

CCP-2BC Deviation Record

Hold Procedures

Food Safety Assessment Procedures

CCP-2BC SOP for Rinsing Vegetables

SOP for Rinse Water Sampling for Antimicrobial Levels

#13 Packaging/Labelling

CCP-3B

Biological
Incorrect, illegible or absent Best Before date and storage instructions (i.e., Keep Refrigerated) resulting in growth of L. monocytogenes to unacceptable levels at time of consumption.

Correct, legible Best before date and Keep Refrigerated appears on each package of vegetables.

At X frequency (e.g., the start of the day, after each break, after lunch, after each product change-over and at the end of the day), CCP-3B Monitor compares the best before date stamped on the package of vegetables to ensure that it matches the required best before date as indicated in the SOP for Best Before Dates and that the storage instructions on the package are correct and legible (i.e., Keep Refrigerated). Records the time of the check and the best before date on the CCP-3B Monitoring Record. Initials next to the notation. Signs and dates the record.

If the package does not indicate Keep Refrigerated and/or the Best before date is not correct, is not legible or is missing, the CCP-3B Monitor takes corrective actions as per CCP-3B SOP for Date. Corrective actions may include instructing the Plant Employee to repackage product into packages that have the required Best before date and/or Keep Refrigerated indicated, correcting the Best before date in the equipment, and/or notifying the CCP-3B Authorized Person.

Records the description of the deviation and actions taken on CCP-3B Monitoring Record.

The CCP-3B Authorized Person puts all affected product on hold as per Hold Procedures and makes an assessment as to whether food safety has been compromised as per written Food Safety Assessment Procedures. If food safety has been compromised the product is held, tested and subsequently released, reworked or destroyed. If food safety has not been compromised the CCP-3B Authorized Person releases the product.

When the Plant Employee is not following procedures, reinforcement training or retraining will be provided.

CCP-3B Authorized Person reviews all corrective actions to ensure they are completed and effective in controlling the deviation and ensures that any affected product is effectively controlled. If any issues are identified, takes immediate corrective action as described above.

CCP-3B Authorized Person determines the root cause of the deviation to assess whether this is an isolated incident and/or whether preventive corrective actions must be developed to prevent reoccurrence.

CCP-3B Authorized Person records the description of the deviation, the corrective action (including date completed) and preventive measures on CCP-3B Deviation Record. Signs and dates.

Once per Y time period, the CCP-3B Verifier observes the CCP-3B Monitor performing the monitoring function to ensure the CCP-3B SOP for best before dates is being followed and the critical limits are being met. Signs the CCP-3B Monitoring Record, dates and records observation to indicate it was a procedure check.

Every Y time period, CCP-3B Verifier reviews X number of CCP-3B Monitoring Records and associated CCP-3B Deviation Records and corrective actions completed since the last verification for completeness to ensure critical limits have been met. Signs and dates.

If deviations are found for any of the above procedures, the CCP-3B Verifier follows the Deviation Procedures for this CCP. When the CCP-3B Monitor is not following procedures, reinforcement training or retraining will be provided.

CCP-3B Verifier records the corrective actions, preventive measures, date(s) completed and person(s) responsible on CCP-3B Deviation Record. Signs and dates.

CCP-3B Monitoring Record

CCP-3B Deviation Record

Hold Procedures

Food Safety Assessment Procedures

SOP for Best Before Dates

#14 Metal Detector

CCP-4P

Physical
Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic) in the RTE vegetables due to the failure of the metal detector to detect metal

Presence of hazardous extraneous material (metallic) in vegetables due to failure of the metal detector to function as intended (e.g., line stops, alarm sounds, product is kicked off the line) when metal is detected

All product must go through a functioning metal detector.

Metal detector must detect each of the following metal wands during a test of the metal detector as described in the CCP-4P SOP for Metal Detector:

  • mm ferrous
  • mm non-ferrous
  • mm stainless

Metal detector must function normally when metal or metal wand is detected (Note: the manufacturer must define what function normally means for the metal detector at the facility (e.g., alarm must sound, conveyor must stop and product must be kicked off).

Plant Employees are responsible for passing all product through a functioning metal detector as per the CCP-4P SOP for Metal Detector.

Once every Y time period, the CCP-4P Monitor observes the metal detector in use to ensure that all product is passing through the metal detector.

Once every Y time period, the Monitor passes each of the following metal wands through the metal detector, placing them on top of the product:

  • mm ferrous
  • mm non-ferrous
  • mm stainless

as per the CCP-4P SOP for Metal Detector. For each metal wand, the Monitor observes the metal detector to ensure the metal detector is detecting the metal wand and observes the functioning of the metal detector to ensure that when the metal wands pass through the metal detector, the metal detector is functioning normally i.e., appropriate alarms and/or line stoppage/product kick out occurs.

Records all findings and observations on the CCP-4P Monitoring Record. Signs and dates.

If all product is not passing through a functioning metal detector, the CCP-4P Monitor places all of the product produced since the last good test on hold as per the Hold Procedures and notifies the CCP-4P Authorized Person. All product is returned to the line to be passed through a functioning metal detector as per the CCP-4P SOP for Metal Detector.

For each of the metal wands indicated in the critical limits, if the metal detector is not detecting the metal wand when tests, the CCP-4P Monitor repeats the test. If the metal detector does not detect the metal wand a second time, the CCP-4P Monitor notifies the CCP-4P Authorized Person. Records all findings on the CCP-4P Monitoring Record.

If the metal detector is not functioning as intended (i.e., the appropriate alarms and/or line stoppage/product kick out does not occur), when each of the metal wands is passed through the metal detector, the CCP-4P Monitor repeats the test as per the CCP-4P SOP for Metal Detector. If the metal detector does not function as intended, notifies the CCP-4P Authorized Person. Records all findings and actions taken on the CC-4P Monitoring Record.

If the metal detector indicates that metal is detected in the product (i.e., the appropriate alarms and/or line stoppage/ product kick out occurs), the Plant Employee stops the line and notifies the CCP-4P Monitor. The CCP-4P Monitor passes product through the metal detector at least two more times to ensure that the metal detector is functioning normally. If the metal detector continues to identify metal in the product, notifies the CCP-4P Authorized Person.

The CCP-4P Monitor records all deviations and corrective actions on the CCP-4P Monitoring Record.

The CCP-4P Authorized Person puts all affected product and/or product produced since the last good check on hold as per Hold Procedures and makes an assessment as to whether food safety has been compromised as per written Food Safety Assessment Procedures. If food safety has been compromised, the product is held, tested and subsequently released, returned to supplier, reworked or destroyed.

If food safety has not been compromised the CCP-4P Authorized Person releases the product. This may include notifying maintenance and/or the Outside Contractor to have the metal detector adjusted/recalibrated.

CCP-4P Authorized Person reviews all corrective actions to ensure they are completed and effective in controlling the deviation as well as any affected product. If any issues are identified, takes immediate corrective action as described above.

CCP-4P Authorized Person determines the root cause of the deviation to assess whether this is an isolated incident and/or whether preventive corrective actions must be developed to prevent reoccurrence.

CCP-4P Authorized Person records the description of the deviation, the corrective action (including date completed) and preventive measures on the CCP-4P Deviation Record. Signs and dates.

Once per Y time period, the CCP-4P Verifier observes the CCP-4P Monitor performing the monitoring function to ensure the CCP-4P SOP for Metal Detector is being followed and the critical limits are being met. Signs the CCP-4P Monitoring Record, dates and records observation to indicate it was a procedure check.

Every Y time period, CCP-4P Verifier reviews X number of CCP-4P Monitoring Records and associated CCP-3B Deviation Records and corrective actions completed since the last verification for completeness to ensure critical limits have been met. Signs and dates.

If deviations are found for any of the above procedures, the CCP-4P Verifier follows the Deviation Procedures for this CCP. When the CCP-4P Monitor is not following procedures, reinforcement training or retraining will be provided.

CCP-4P Verifier records the corrective actions, preventive measures, date(s) completed and person(s) responsible on CCP-4P Deviation Record. Signs and dates.

CCP-4P Monitoring Record

CCP-4P Deviation Record

CCP-4P SOP for Metal Detector

Hold Procedures

Food Safety Assessment Procedures

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