Food Safety Practices Guidance for Moulded Chocolate Manufacturers
Glossary

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For the purpose of this guidance document, the following expressions have the stated definitions:

Allergens
any substance capable of producing an abnormal immune response in sensitive individuals. Priority food allergens of concern in Canada include: peanuts, tree nuts, milk, soy, wheat, sulphites, sesame seeds, egg and seafood (fish, crustaceans and shellfish).
Capability
a standardized evaluation of the inherent capability of equipment to consistently perform a specified function under actual operating conditions after significant causes of variation have been eliminated.
Chocolate
a product derived from one or more cocoa products (cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and/or cocoa powder), and may contain sweetening agents, milk ingredients, spices and other permitted ingredients. This standard also applies to bittersweet chocolate, semi-sweet chocolate and dark chocolate as per section B.04.006 of the Food and Drug Regulations.
Chocolate product
product derived from one or more cocoa products and includes chocolate, bittersweet chocolate, semi-sweet chocolate, dark chocolate, sweet chocolate, milk chocolate and white chocolate. Standards for chocolate products exist in sections B.04.006 to B.04.009 of the Food and Drug Regulations.
Contamination
the transfer of harmful substances or disease-causing microorganisms to chocolate by hands, food-contact surfaces and utensils that touch contaminated food.
Control
means that an operation performs consistently within pre-determined limits based on process capability, meets process requirements, provides a mechanism to maintain the stability of the process and consistently results in a safe product.
Corrective action
the actions to be taken when the results of any monitoring indicates a loss of control. In addition, this term refers to any action taken to bring the process into control and deal with any affected product when critical limits or other criteria are not met. The action should be prompt and appropriate to the seriousness of the deficiency.
Critical Control Point (CCP)
a point, step or procedure at which control can be applied and a food safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to acceptable levels.
Critical limit
a value which separates acceptability from unacceptability.
Cross-contamination
contamination of foods or packaging material by direct or indirect contact with material from an earlier stage of the process. A regulated process flow and good employee practices will minimize the risk of cross-contamination occurrences.
Deterioration
for the purposes of this document, deterioration can be used interchangeably with spoilage; however, deterioration can also apply to non-food products such as packaging materials. For non-food items, deterioration is a physical or chemical change in the material that may adversely affect the safety of the food.
Deviation
failure to meet the critical limits for a Critical Control Point or failure to meet the limits of acceptability for factors significant to food safety.
Deviation procedure
a pre-determined and documented set of corrective actions (immediate and preventive) which are implemented when a deviation occurs.
Documents
for the purposes of this document, documents refer to written formulae, procedures or specifications used by or required of a manufacturer.
Factors significant to food safety
means any property, characteristic, condition, aspect, or other parameter, variation of which may affect the safety of the product or the process.
Food contact surface
any equipment or utensil which normally comes in contact with the food product or surfaces normally in contact with the product.
Hazard
An agent, condition or circumstance that has the potential to cause illness or injury in the absence of control. Hazards can be biological, chemical or physical.

Biological include:

  • pathogenic bacteria that cause illness by infection (e.g. Salmonella) or intoxication (e.g. Clostridium botulinum, Staphylococcus aureus) and so include bacterial toxins (e.g. botulinum toxin, staphylococcus toxin);
  • viruses and parasites that cause illness by infection.

Chemical include:

  • substances or toxins that are naturally occurring and derived from plants, animals, algae and fungi (e.g. mycotoxins, poisonous mushroom) but not including bacterial toxins;
  • substances intentionally added to the food during growth or food processing and considered safe below certain established limits but unsafe above established limits (e.g. sodium, nitrate);
  • substances that contaminate food accidentally (e.g. cleaning chemicals);
  • food allergens (e.g. peanuts, tree nuts, milk, soy, seafood [fish, crustaceans and shellfish], wheat, sulphites, sesame seeds and egg).

Physical include:

material not normally found in food that can cause physical injury to the person consuming the food (e.g. broken glass, metal fragments, stones, wood slivers, bone pieces).

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)
a systematic approach to identifying and assessing hazards and risks associated with a food operation and defining the means of their control.
Inspection areas
(definition with respect to lighting requirements), inspection areas are defined as any point where food products or containers are visually inspected or instruments are monitored.
Lot
means the amount of product of a specific container size, product style and code produced by a food establishment during a specified period of time.
Microorganisms
include yeasts, moulds, bacteria, viruses and parasites. When used as an adjective the term "microbial" is used.
Monitoring
a planned sequence of observations or measurements to assess whether a CCP (or other activity) is under control.
Mycotoxins
are substances produced by certain fungi (e.g. mould) in agricultural products that are susceptible to fungal infection. Some mycotoxins including aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, patulin, ergot alkaloids, vomitoxin and fumonisin are known to constitute a food safety hazard.
Recall, Periodic testing (Recall)
internal activities conducted periodically to verify the capability of the manufacturer to rapidly identify and control a given lot of product. These activities do not necessarily require that the manufacturer contact customers.
Potable water
water which meets the requirements of the Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality published by Health Canada and any applicable provincial and municipal requirements.
Pre-packaged product
as per the Food and Drugs Act, any food that is contained in a package in the manner in which it is ordinarily sold to or used or purchased by a person.
Prerequisite program
Universal steps or procedures (e.g. Good Manufacturing Practices [GMP]) that control the operational conditions within a food establishment and promote environmental conditions that are favourable for the production of safe food.
Recall (noun)
denotes the process of recalling the affected product and encompasses all tiers of the affected product distribution system.
Recall (verb)
means for an establishment to remove from further sale or use, or to correct, a marketed product that contravenes legislation administered and/or enforced by CFIA.
Records
observations and measurements recorded by a manufacturer to determine adherence to critical limits, limits of acceptability or other specified requirements (for a Critical Control Point or for factors significant to food safety).
Refrigeration
means exposure to a temperature of 4°C or less, but does not mean frozen.
Risk
an estimate of the likelihood of occurrence of a hazard.
Sanitizing
the application of heat or chemical treatments to destroy or substantially reduce the number of microorganisms present that have the potential to cause adverse health effects.
Spoilage
a process whereby food is rendered unacceptable for consumption through microbiological or chemical reaction.
Validation
the obtaining of evidence showing that control measures are capable of being consistently effective. Validation is performed when new control measures or a new food safety control system is designed, or when changes indicate the need for revalidation, in order to confirm that the control measures or food safety control systems, when implemented as intended, are capable of controlling the hazard to the appropriate level and that this level of control can be achieved consistently.
Verification
examination of the accuracy, correctness or effectiveness of validated processes or process controls through testing, investigation or comparison against a standard.
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