Food Safety Practices Guidance for Moulded Chocolate Manufacturers
Chapter 3: Premises
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3.1 Building Exterior
3.1.1 Outside Property and Buildings
Buildings and surrounding areas are designed, constructed and maintained in a manner which prevents conditions that may result in the contamination of food.
Grounds, Roadways and Drainage
- The surrounding land is maintained to control sources of contamination such as debris and pest harbourage areas.
- The building is not located in close proximity to any environmental contaminants.
- Roadways are properly graded, compacted, dust-proofed and drained.
- The surrounding property is adequately drained.
Exterior Building Structure
The building exterior is designed, constructed and maintained to prevent entry of contaminants and pests. For example, the exterior has no unprotected openings; air intakes are appropriately located; and the roof, walls and foundation are maintained to prevent leakage.
3.2 Building Interior
3.2.1 Design, Construction and Maintenance
Building interiors and structures are designed, constructed and maintained so as to prevent conditions that may result in the contamination of food.
Floors, Walls and Ceilings
- Floors, walls and ceilings are constructed of materials that are durable, impervious, smooth, cleanable, and suitable for the production conditions in the area (i.e. materials will not result in the contamination of the environment or food).
- Where appropriate, wall, floor and ceiling joints are sealed and angles are covered to prevent contamination and facilitate cleaning.
- Floors are sufficiently sloped to permit liquids to drain to trapped outlets.
- Ceilings, overhead structures, stairs and elevators are designed and constructed to prevent contamination.
- Floors, walls, ceilings and all overhead structures are maintained to prevent deterioration (e.g. rust, flaking paint) and contamination (e.g. dust, mould).
Windows and Doors
- Windows are sealed or equipped with close-fitting insect screens.
- Where there is a likelihood of breakage of glass windows that could result in the contamination of food, the windows are constructed of alternative materials or are adequately protected;
- Doors have smooth, non-absorbent surfaces and are close-fitting to prevent entry of pest and vermin and self-closing where appropriate.
Process Flow Separation
- Buildings and facilities are designed to facilitate hygienic operations (i.e. there is regulated flow in the process, from the arrival of the raw material at the premises to the finished product).
- Raw materials are isolated from other plant operations.
- Activities are adequately separated by physical or other effective means where cross-contamination (e.g. biological, chemical, allergens) may result. For example:
- all untreated raw materials are kept separate from finished products to prevent microbiological cross-contamination.
- potential allergens are controlled to avoid the possibility of cross-contamination.
- It is preferred that dedicated processing line equipment, moulds and utensils are used for allergen containing products.
- Where common pieces of equipment are used for the processing of allergen containing products and non-allergen containing products, the manufacturer has established a procedure that does not result in the contamination of food products with allergens.
- The manufacturer has established a process flow from incoming materials to the finished products with no cross-overs or other areas that can cause undeclared allergens (e.g. conveyor belts, shared equipment).
- Where mobile equipment (such as hand trucks or fork lifts) moves between incompatible areas, measures are taken to minimize cross-contamination.
- Pallet design, condition and use are specified to avoid contamination.
Lighting is adequate for the activity being conducted. Where appropriate, light bulbs and fixtures are protected to prevent contamination of food or packaging material.
- Lighting is appropriate such that the intended production or inspection activity can be effectively conducted. The lighting does not alter food colour and is not less than the following;
- 540 lux (50 foot candles) in inspection areas (Inspection areas are defined as any point where the food product or container is visually inspected or instruments are monitored.);
- 220 lux (20 foot candles) in work areas;
- 110 lux (10 foot candles) in other areas.
- Light bulbs and fixtures located in areas where there is exposed food and packaging material are of a safety type or are protected to prevent contamination of food and packaging material in case of breakage (e.g. shatterproof bulbs or bulb covers).
Adequate ventilation is provided to prevent excessive heat, steam, condensation and dust, and to minimize entry of contaminated air. Air used for processing techniques is appropriately sourced and treated.
- Ventilation provides sufficient air exchange to prevent unacceptable accumulations of steam, condensation, dust or excessive heat and to minimize entry of contaminated air.
- Ventilation systems are constructed to avoid airflow from contaminated areas (e.g. the receiving area) to clean areas (e.g. packaging and finished product storage) and designed to be adequately maintained and cleaned.
- Ventilation openings are equipped with close-fitting screens or filters as appropriate to prevent the intake of contaminated air (dust, dirt) or entry of insects and rodents. Air filters (e.g. filters for intake air and compressed air) are checked, cleaned or replaced at least as often as the manufacturer specifies or more frequently if a problem is indicated, such as evidence of filter fouling or perforation.
- Air used as a processing technique which comes in contact with food (e.g. pneumatic instrumentation or air blowers) is appropriately sourced and treated (e.g. air intakes, filters, compressors) to reduce any source of contamination.
3.2.4 Waste Disposal
Sewage, effluent and waste storage and disposal systems are designed, constructed and maintained to prevent contamination.
- Drainage and sewage systems are equipped with appropriate traps and vents.
- Establishments are designed and constructed so that there is no cross-connection between the sewage system and any other waste effluent system in the establishment.
- Effluent or sewage lines do not pass directly over or through production areas unless they are controlled to prevent contamination.
- Adequate facilities and equipment are provided and maintained for the storage of waste and inedible material prior to their removal from the establishment. These facilities are designed to prevent contamination.
- Containers used for waste are clearly identified, leakproof, moisture resistant, easy to clean and, where appropriate, covered.
- Waste is removed and containers are cleaned and sanitized at an appropriate frequency to minimize the potential for contamination.
3.3 Sanitary Facilities
3.3.1 Employee Facilities
Employee facilities are designed, constructed and maintained to permit effective employee hygiene and to prevent contamination.
- Processing areas are provided with an adequate number of conveniently located hand-washing stations (preferably hands-free) with trapped waste pipes to drains.
- Washrooms, lunchrooms and change rooms are adequately ventilated and maintained in a clean condition. They are separate from and do not lead directly into food processing areas.
- Washrooms have hand wash facilities with a sufficient number of maintained sinks that are properly trapped to drains.
- Toilet facilities are maintained in good repair at all times.
- Handwash facilities are adequately maintained and have hot and cold running potable water distributed from a single nozzle, soap, sanitary hand-drying supplies or devices, and, where required, a cleanable waste receptacle.
- Handwash stations, hand dips and footbaths are maintained in all applicable areas of the facility.
- Notices to wash hands are posted in appropriate areas.
3.3.2 Equipment Cleaning and Sanitizing Facilities
Facilities for cleaning and sanitizing equipment are adequately designed, constructed and maintained to prevent contamination.
- Facilities are constructed of corrosion resistant materials which are capable of being easily cleaned, and are provided with potable water at temperatures appropriate for the cleaning chemicals used.
- Equipment cleaning and sanitizing facilities are adequately separated from food storage, processing and packaging areas, to prevent contamination.
3.4 Water and Steam Quality
The potability of hot and cold water is controlled to prevent contamination.
- Potable water meets the requirements of Health Canada's Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality and any applicable provincial and municipal requirements. Water is analysed by the chocolate manufacturer at a frequency adequate to confirm its potability. For microbial analysis, water from a municipal water source is analysed semi-annually and water from other sources is analysed on a monthly basis. For chemical analysis, water from non-municipal sources is adequately analysed at the initial start-up of the well, as a minimum.
- Chocolate manufacturer has contingency plans in place to deal with provincial/municipal orders to boil water and unsatisfactory water analysis results.
- There are no cross-connections between potable and non-potable water supplies and all hoses, taps and other similar sources of potential contamination are designed to prevent back-flow or back-siphonage.
- Water treatment chemicals, where used, are appropriate for the intended use and are used in accordance with the chemical manufacturer`s instructions.
- The chemical treatment of water is monitored and controlled to deliver the desired concentration and to prevent contamination.
- Recirculated water, where used, is treated, monitored and maintained as appropriate to the intended purpose. Recirculated water has a separate distribution system which is clearly identified.
- Where filters are used they are kept effective and maintained in a sanitary manner.
- In areas for food processing, handling, packaging and storage, water temperatures and pressures are adequate for all operational and clean-up needs.
See Section 7.4.1 for expected Water/Steam Quality Records.
The potability of steam which is in direct contact with food or food contact surfaces is controlled to prevent product contamination. Steam supply is adequate to meet operational requirements.
Note: Where steam is not in direct contact with food or food contact surfaces, this section is not applicable.
- Boiler treatment chemicals used are appropriate for the intended use and are used in accordance with the chemical manufacturer`s instructions.
- Boiler feed water is tested regularly and the chemical treatment is controlled to prevent contamination.
- The steam supply is generated from potable water and is adequate to meet operational requirements.
- Traps are provided as necessary to ensure adequate condensate removal and elimination of foreign materials.
See Section 7.4.1 for expected Water/Steam Quality Records.
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