Food Safety Practices Guidance for Fresh Non-Filled Alimentary Paste Manufacturers
Hazard Summary for Fresh Non-Filled Alimentary Paste

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The following table illustrates potential hazards and possible control measures associated with the manufacture of fresh alimentary paste. This table may not cover all possible ingredients, process steps or all potential hazards associated with fresh alimentary paste. The manufacturer is responsible for identifying hazards specific to their operation and for determining how each hazard could be controlled. For additional information, refer to specific sections of this document as provided in the Reference column.

Hazard Summary for Fresh Non-Filled Alimentary Paste
Process Step Potential Hazards Control Measures Reference
Incoming Materials/ Receiving Presence of pathogenic microorganisms (e.g. Salmonella spp., pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes) in flour, and/or in other ingredients (e.g. liquid whole egg, spices and other dry ingredients) and on packaging material.

Obtain a guarantee from supplier(s) that incoming materials and ingredients (e.g. flour, spices, other dry ingredients, liquid whole egg and packaging materials) meet the manufacturer's purchase specifications (e.g. the supplier provides a Letter of Guarantee).

Obtain a Certificate of Analysis for each lot of flour or other ingredients at risk (e.g. spices and liquid whole egg) to confirm that they do not contain Salmonella spp., pathogenic strains of E. coli or pose any other microbial hazard.

Inspect each carrier prior to receiving incoming materials and ingredients to ensure that no conditions exist (e.g. unclean vehicle, state of disrepair) that could have resulted in contamination.

Inspect all incoming ingredients and materials at receiving to confirm purchase specifications are met.

Do not accept and/or use incoming ingredients and materials that do not meet specifications.

At a scheduled frequency, analyze representative samples of incoming ingredients and materials to verify the accuracy of Certificates of Analysis and/or that the incoming ingredients and materials meet purchase specifications as indicated in Letter(s) of Guarantee.

1.4
6.1
1.11
Incoming Materials/ Receiving Growth of microorganisms in liquid whole egg during transportation.

Obtain a guarantee from supplier(s) that liquid whole egg meets the manufacturer's purchase specifications (e.g. the supplier provides a Letter of Guarantee).

Check temperature of incoming liquid whole egg at receiving (4°C or less).

Do not accept and/or use incoming ingredients and materials that do not meet specifications.

1.4
Incoming Materials/ Receiving Presence of nutrients (vitamins and minerals) above the maximum or below the minimum allowable limits in fortified flour.

Obtain a guarantee from supplier(s) that incoming flour meets the manufacturer's purchase specifications (e.g. the supplier provides a Letter of Guarantee).

Inspect all incoming ingredients and materials at receiving to confirm purchase specifications are met.

Do not accept and/or use incoming ingredients and materials that do not meet specifications.

At a scheduled frequency, analyze representative samples of incoming goods to verify the accuracy of Certificates of Analysis and/or that the incoming goods meet purchase specifications as indicated in Letter(s) of Guarantee.

1.4
1.11
Incoming Materials/ Receiving Presence of mycotoxins (e.g. vomitoxin, aflatoxin, ochratoxin) in flour, spices and other dry ingredients.

Obtain a guarantee from supplier(s) that incoming ingredients (e.g. flour, spices, other dry ingredients) meet the manufacturer's purchase specifications (e.g. the supplier provides a Letter of Guarantee).

Inspect all incoming ingredients and materials at receiving to confirm purchase specifications are met.

Do not accept and/or use incoming ingredients and materials that do not meet specifications.

At a scheduled frequency, analyze representative samples of incoming ingredients to verify the accuracy of Certificates of Analysis and/or that the incoming ingredients meet purchase specifications as indicated in Letter(s) of Guarantee.

1.4
1.11
Incoming Materials/ Receiving Presence of ethylene chlorohydrin above limits allowed by regulation and/or presence of irradiation by-products in spices.

Obtain a guarantee from supplier(s) that spices meet the manufacturer's purchase specifications (e.g. the supplier provides a Letter of Guarantee).

At a scheduled frequency, analyze representative samples of spices to verify the accuracy of Certificates of Analysis and/or that the incoming spices meet purchase specifications as indicated in Letter(s) of Guarantee.

1.4
1.11
Incoming Materials/ Receiving Presence of undeclared allergens (e.g. soy, wheat, egg, sulphites, milk, tree nuts, peanuts, sesame seeds, fish) in incoming ingredients and/or packaging materials.

Obtain a guarantee from supplier(s) that incoming materials and ingredients (e.g. flour, spices, other dry ingredients, liquid whole egg, packaging materials and gas) meet the manufacturer's purchase specifications (e.g. the supplier provides a Letter of Guarantee).

Inspect each carrier prior to receiving incoming materials and ingredients to ensure that no conditions exist (e.g. unclean vehicle, state of disrepair) that could have resulted in contamination.

Inspect all incoming ingredients and materials at receiving to confirm purchase specifications are met.

Do not accept and/or use incoming ingredients and materials that do not meet specifications.

At a scheduled frequency, analyze representative samples of incoming goods to verify the accuracy of Certificates of Analysis and/or that the incoming goods meet purchase specifications as indicated in Letter(s) of Guarantee.

1.4
6.1
1.11
Incoming Materials/ Receiving Presence of hazardous extraneous material in incoming ingredients and/or packaging materials (e.g. glass, stones, metal, wood).

Obtain a guarantee from supplier(s) that incoming materials and ingredients (e.g. flour, spices, other dry ingredients, liquid whole egg, packaging materials and gas) meet the manufacturer's purchase specifications (e.g. the supplier provides a Letter of Guarantee).

Inspect each carrier prior to receiving incoming materials and ingredients to ensure that no conditions exist (e.g. unclean vehicle, state of disrepair) that could have resulted in contamination.

Inspect all incoming ingredients and materials at receiving to confirm purchase specifications are met.

Do not accept and/or use incoming ingredients and materials that do not meet specifications.

1.4
6.1
Incoming Materials/ Receiving Presence of potentially hazardous chemicals in excess of safe levels (e.g. food additives, pesticides, heavy metals) in ingredients.

Obtain a guarantee from supplier(s) that incoming ingredients (e.g. flour, spices, other dry ingredients, liquid whole egg) meet the manufacturer's purchase specifications (e.g. the supplier provides a Letter of Guarantee).

Inspect each carrier prior to receiving incoming ingredients to ensure that no conditions exist (e.g. unclean vehicle, state of disrepair) that could have resulted in contamination.

Inspect all incoming ingredients at receiving to confirm purchase specifications are met.

Do not accept and/or use incoming ingredients that do not meet specifications.

At a scheduled frequency, analyze representative samples of incoming ingredients to verify the accuracy of Certificates of Analysis and/or that the incoming ingredients meet purchase specifications as indicated in Letter(s) of Guarantee.

1.4
6.1
1.11
Storage of Incoming Materials Growth of microorganisms in liquid whole egg due to elevated storage temperatures (e.g. above 4°C) for an extended period of time (time/temperature abuse). Monitor storage temperatures regularly to ensure that temperatures are controlled to minimize growth of microorganisms. 6.2
Storage of Incoming Materials Growth of microoganisms in liquid whole egg in storage due to a failure to rotate incoming products. Monitor rotation of liquid whole egg in storage regularly to minimize the growth of microorganisms. 6.2
Storage of Incoming Materials Contamination of ingredients with allergens due to inadequate separation from allergens or product containing allergens in storage.

Clearly identify allergens and/or products that contain allergens in storage.

Store allergens and products containing allergens separately from other ingredients and/or products that do not contain allergens.

6.2
Storage of Incoming Materials Contamination of flour stored in a silo where flour containing an allergen was previously stored. Monitor the storage of flour in silos to ensure that dedicated silos are used for flour containing allergens and/or silos are emptied and cleaned prior to the addition of each load of flour. 6.2
Storage of Incoming Materials Contamination of ingredients with non-food chemicals (e.g. cleaning product) due to improper storage procedures. Store non-food chemicals separately from food ingredients and packaging materials. 6.2
Sifting/ Screening Contamination of flour and dry ingredients with hazardous extraneous material due to inadequate cleaning and/or damaged screens. Monitor cleaning of screens and inspect them regularly to ensure that they are free from accumulated material and are in good operating condition (i.e. free from damage). 1.8
2.1
Sifting/ Screening Contamination of ingredients by metal fragments due to equipment and utensil wear and tear. Monitor equipment and utensils regularly to ensure that they are in good operating condition (e.g. not showing signs of wear, no cracks) as part of an effective preventive maintenance program. 1.8
2.1
Ingredient Weighing/ Measuring/ Mixing Presence of undeclared allergens in dough due to the incorrect addition of allergens or rework containing allergens that do not appear in the recipe or in the list of ingredients. Monitor the addition of ingredients, including rework, regularly to ensure that the correct ingredients are added as indicated in the recipe and on the list of ingredients of the final product. 1.6
1.8
Ingredient Weighing/ Measuring/ Mixing Contamination of dough with undeclared allergens due to ingredient changes, substitutions and/or additions that are not properly identified in recipes, formulations and/or on product label.

Update written product formulae to reflect ingredient changes or substitutions.

Review formulae regularly to ensure that allergens present in the recipe are clearly identified.

Assess changes in formula and make appropriate changes (where required) to product labelling.

1.1
1.6
Ingredient Weighing/ Measuring/ Mixing Contamination of dough with undeclared allergens due to a failure to control dust containing allergenic ingredients. Monitor air intake systems and filters regularly to ensure that they are in good operating condition as part of an effective preventive maintenance program. 2.1
3.2
Ingredient Weighing/ Measuring/ Mixing Contamination of dough due to pathogenic microorganisms in the water.

Use only potable water.

Test water and, where necessary, treat water (e.g. filter and/or chlorinate) regularly to ensure it meets Health Canada's Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality.

3.4
Sheeting/ Forming/ Extruding Contamination of dough and/or rework with pathogenic microorganisms due to incorrect addition of defective or suspect product that was not appropriately identified and/or isolated to prevent its use. Control returned, defective or suspect products (e.g. clearly identify and isolate in a designated area) until appropriate safe disposition has been made. 1.10
6.2
Sheeting/ Forming/ Extruding Contamination of dough by metal fragments due to equipment and utensil wear and tear. Monitor equipment and utensils regularly to ensure that they are in good operating condition (e.g. not showing signs of wear, no cracks) as part of an effective preventive maintenance program. 2.1
Cooling/ Drying Contamination of alimentary paste with pathogenic microorganisms due to contact with inappropriately sourced and/or contaminated air used for cooling and/or drying.

Use an appropriate and acceptable source of air and, where necessary, ensure air is filtered.

Monitor air intake systems and filters regularly to ensure that they are in good operating condition as part of an effective preventive maintenance program.

2.1
3.2
Cooling/ Drying Growth of pathogenic microorganisms in alimentary paste due to ineffective cooling/drying caused by malfunctioning equipment (e.g. warm alimentary paste allowing for growth of pathogenic microorganisms). Monitor cooling and drying equipment regularly to ensure that they are in good working condition as part of an effective preventive maintenance program. 2.1
Cooling/ Drying Contamination of alimentary paste by non-food chemicals (e.g. refrigerant) due to a refrigerant leak during cooling. Monitor cooling units regularly to ensure that they are in good condition (e.g. not leaking refrigerant) as part of an effective preventive maintenance program. 2.1
Cutting Contamination of alimentary paste by metal fragments due to equipment and utensil wear and tear. Monitor equipment and utensils regularly to ensure that they are in good operating condition (e.g. not showing signs of wear, no cracks) as part of an effective preventive maintenance program. 2.1
Weighing/ Packaging/ Labelling/ Coding Presence of undeclared allergens (e.g. soy, wheat, eggs) in the finished product due to incorrect label application, use of incorrect packaging and/or use of incorrect list of ingredients on the label and/or illegible label. Monitor labelling procedures regularly to ensure that the label has the correct list of ingredients and that the correct label is applied to the correct product. 1.2
1.9
Weighing/ Packaging/ Labelling/ Coding Incorrect/illegible or missing code and/or best before date on finished product label resulting in an inability to recall product. Monitor product code and/or best before date regularly to ensure correct code and/or best before date is applied to product and the code is accurate and legible. 1.2
1.7
Weighing/ Packaging/ Labelling/ Coding Growth of pathogenic microorganisms, specifically Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum and Staphylococcus aureus in Modified Atmosphere Packaged finished product, in conjunction with an excessive shelf life (best before date). Ensure that the product best before date is supported by an appropriate scientific reference or shelf life study that is related to the product's safety rather than just its quality. The manufacturer could choose to incorporate measures that minimize microbial growth (e.g. pH, water activity (aW), preservatives) into the product formulation. 1.3
Metal Detection Contamination of finished product with metal fragments due to improper calibration of the metal detector. Calibrate the metal detector regularly to ensure that it is functioning as intended. 1.8
2.1
Metal Detection Contamination of finished product with metal fragments due to ineffective detection by the metal detector and/or failure of the metal detector to function appropriately when metal is detected. Monitor and control the function of the metal detector regularly. 1.8
Finished Product Storage Growth of pathogenic microorganisms in finished product due to elevated storage temperatures (above 4°C) for an extended period of time. Monitor storage temperatures regularly to ensure that the temperatures are controlled to minimize growth of pathogenic microorganisms. 6.2
Finished Product Storage Cross-contamination of finished product (e.g. unpackaged product) with allergens due to inadequate separation from product containing allergens in storage.

Clearly identify products that contain allergens in storage.

Store products containing allergens separately from other products that do not contain allergens.

6.2
Finished Product Storage Contamination of finished product with non-food chemicals (e.g. cleaning product) due to improper storage procedures. Store chemicals in a separate location from all food and packaging materials. 6.2
Finished Product Storage Contamination of finished product with pathogenic microorganisms and/or allergens due to a failure to identify and/or isolate returned, defective or suspect product. Control (e.g. clearly identify and isolate in a designated area) returned, defective or suspect products until appropriate safe disposition. 6.2
Shipping/ Distribution Contamination of finished product with pathogenic microorganisms, hazardous extraneous material and/or chemicals due to unsanitary carriers, and/or damaged packaging. Monitor carrier regularly while loading to ensure that transportation conditions (including temperature requirements) meet the requirements for the product being shipped. 6.1
Shipping/ Distribution Growth of pathogenic microorganisms in finished product due to improper distribution temperatures. Monitor carrier regularly while loading to ensure that transportation conditions (including temperature requirements) meet the requirements for the product being shipped. 6.1
All Process Steps Contamination of alimentary paste with pathogenic microorganisms, chemicals, allergens and hazardous extraneous material due to employee error as a result of a lack of training and/or a failure to understand the importance of following written standard operating procedures (SOPs) and/or Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs).

Regularly provide employees (including appropriate managers and responsible persons) with training in standard operating procedures (SOPs) and/or Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) appropriate to their position and the work being done.

Monitor employees performing their duties regularly while work is being done.

5.2
All Process Steps Contamination of alimentary paste with pathogenic microorganisms, chemicals, allergens and/or hazardous extraneous material due to improper employee handling practices.

Provide employee training in proper hygiene and correct handling procedures regularly.

Monitor employee practices regularly.

5.1
5.2
All Process Steps Contamination of alimentary paste with pathogenic microorganisms and/or chemicals (e.g. cleaning products) due to improper cleaning and/or sanitizing of utensils, equipment and facilities and/or the inadequate separation of equipment cleaning and sanitizing facilities.

Monitor sanitation procedures regularly and verify the effectiveness of the sanitation program.

Monitor facilities for cleaning and sanitizing equipment regularly to ensure they are adequately designed, constructed and maintained to prevent contamination.

3.3
4.1
All Process Steps Cross-contamination of alimentary paste with allergens (e.g. soy, wheat, egg) due to a failure to use dedicated equipment and utensils. Monitor procedures regularly to ensure that, where applicable, products containing allergenic ingredients are manufactured in dedicated equipment using dedicated utensils. 3.2
All Process Steps Cross-contamination of alimentary paste with undeclared allergens as a result of improper cleaning of equipment and utensils between products that contain allergens and products that do not contain allergens.

Monitor sanitation procedures regularly and verify the effectiveness of the sanitation program.

Monitor the use of utensils and equipment regularly to ensure that there is no cross-utilization between products and/or between product lines to prevent cross-contamination of allergens between products containing allergens and products that do not.

3.2
4.1
All Process Steps Cross-contamination of alimentary paste with allergens from one production line to an adjoining line due to inadequate separation as the result of poor plant design. Ensure plant layout (design) provides adequate separation from one production line to another in order to prevent cross-contamination of allergenic ingredients. 2.1
3.2
All Process Steps Growth of pathogenic microorganisms in liquid whole egg, rework, in-line alimentary paste and/or finished product due to exposure to elevated processing room temperatures (e.g. above 4°C) for an extended period of time (time/temperature abuse). Monitor the time, temperature and, where applicable, humidity regularly during preparation, mixing and holding of ingredients (e.g. liquid whole egg), in-process products (e.g. dough) and finished products to minimize growth of microorganisms. 1.6
1.8
All Process Steps Contamination of alimentary paste from pathogenic microorganisms, hazardous extraneous material, and/or chemicals (including lubricants) due to improper equipment design (including construction materials), improper equipment installation and/or improper equipment maintenance (including inadequate clean up after maintenance).

Use only equipment that has been properly designed and installed to ensure that it will not contaminate food.

Monitor equipment maintenance (including clean-up after maintenance) regularly to ensure maintenance activities are effective and procedures and program are effective.

2.1
All Process Steps Contamination of alimentary paste from pathogenic microorganisms, chemicals and/or hazardous extraneous material due to contamination from overhead structures (e.g. leaking pipes, flaking paint). Monitor overheads regularly to ensure that they are in good condition (e.g. no leaking pipes or flaking paint) as part of an effective preventive maintenance program. 3.2
All Process Steps Contamination of alimentary paste with pathogenic microorganisms due to contaminated air. Monitor air intake systems and filters regularly to ensure that they are in good operating condition as part of an effective preventive maintenance program. 2.1
3.2
All Process Steps Contamination of alimentary paste with pathogenic microorganisms or allergens due to lack of adherence by employees and visitors to rules controlling cross-contamination between rooms or areas in the processing facility (e.g. use of foot dips, hand dips, change of clothing).

Develop policies and/or protocols for the movement of employees and visitors in processing areas.

Regularly provide employees (including appropriate managers and responsible persons) with training in standard operating procedures (SOPs) and/or Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs) appropriate to their position and the work being done.

Monitor the movement and activities of employees and visitors.

Post instructional signs.

5.1
5.2
All Process Steps Contamination of alimentary paste with pathogenic microorganisms due to a failure to maintain the concentration of sanitizers in hand dips/foot dips at a level adequate to control pathogenic microorganisms. Monitor the concentration of sanitizers in hand dips/foot dips regularly. 3.3
All Process Steps Contamination of alimentary paste with non-food chemicals, cleaning solutions, sanitizers and/or their residues as a result of improper usage, storage, handling or sanitation procedures.

Store non-food chemicals separately from food in a manner that prevents contamination.

Store and mix non-food chemicals in clean, correctly labelled containers that include instructions for use.

Monitor employees dispensing and handling non-food chemicals regularly to ensure that these tasks are only performed by authorized and properly trained personnel.

5.2
6.2
All Process Steps Contamination of alimentary paste with pathogenic microorganisms due to the presence of rodents, birds or insects. Monitor the effectiveness of the pest control program regularly. 4.2
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