Greenhouse Vegetable Sector Biosecurity Guide
6.0 Glossary

Best management practices:

For the purposes of this document, best management practices refer to proven and adopted production practices that are specific to each place of production.

Biological controls:

Often referred to as "biocontrols". Biological pest control is the method of controlling pests (including insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases) using other living organisms. It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It is often an important component of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs.


A set of practices used to minimize the transmission of pests including their introduction (bioexclusion), spread (biomanagement), and release (biocontainment).

Controlled Access Zone (CAZ):

An area within the place of production where access is restricted or controlled to prevent pest spread into or out of the area.

Deep burial:

A method of disposal where infested material is buried so it is not exposed to factors that allow re-infestation of the crop.


Refers to plants in good physical condition without symptoms of a pest infestation. Pests may be present on a healthy plant. However, to be considered "healthy" the pest has not negatively affected the physical condition of the plant.

GreenhouseFootnote 4:

A vegetable greenhouse or hothouse means a fully enclosed permanent aluminum or steel structure clad either in glass or impermeable plastic which must:

  1. Use automated irrigation and climate control systems, including heating and ventilation capabilities: and
  2. Utilize hydroponic methods

"Vegetable Greenhouse/Hothouse Production Standards" also include:

  1. Minimizing pesticide use by not utilizing herbicides and following production practices such as Integrated Pest Management; and
  2. Complying with the standards of a globally accepted Food Safety program.

A certified organic greenhouse/hothouse vegetable facility must meet the greenhouse definition, with the exception of (b), as, according to Canadian organic standards (CAN/CGSB-32.310-2006), hydroponics are not allowed, and "soil" must be used as the growth medium.


In the context of greenhouse vegetable production systems, it is the process of growing two of the same crop that differ in age in the same area. For example, young plants are planted next to older plants that are nearing the end of their cycle to ensure continuous production of the crop.


The resources that are used in the production areas, propagation facilities and packing houses that are either biological or inert material such as transplants, material from other domestic or international places of production and packing material, chemicals, equipment, fertilizer, seed and plant material.

Integrated Pest Management (IPM):

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a process for planning and managing sites to prevent pest problems and for making decisions about when and how to intervene when pest problems occur. It is a sustainable approach that combines biological, cultural, physical, and chemical tools to manage pests so that the benefits of pest control are maximized and the health and environmental risks are minimized.


Involves unscheduled and routinely scheduled activities to fix any area of the place of production, device or equipment should it become out of order or broken.

Monitoring program:

Inspection of inputs that are entering the place of production for pests.


Includes waste, garbage and finished product.

PestFootnote 5:

Any living organism injurious to plants, plant products or by-products, which includes insects, diseases, weeds and rodents.

Place of production:

For the purposes of this document the term "place of production" is used to describe a variety of operational realities, including farms, propagation facilities, production greenhouses, packing houses, etc.

RepackingFootnote 6:


  1. Removing market product from its market-ready packaging materials, re-handling the product (for example: re-sorting, re-grading, re-trimming, re-washing, re-fluming), and putting it into market-ready packaging materials. Product may also be combined with other product that differs in some way (for example: type, origin, timeframe).
  2. Activities (for example: icing, labelling/coding, cooling) that occur once product is in the packaging materials.
Restricted Access Zone (RAZ):

An area, generally located inside the controlled access zone, where access by people or equipment, is further restricted, providing an extra level of protection.

Scouting program:

Regular inspection of the crop for pests and pest thresholds.


A biological, physical or environmental agent that disperses a plant pest.


Includes anyone not considered to be an employee, such as service providers, shippers, consultants, federal and provincial inspectors, delivery personnel, utility providers such as electricians and plumbers, IPM specialists, extension specialists, crop consultants, scouts, representatives of seed and greenhouse supply companies, sales and purchasing personnel and others entering the place of production.

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