D-02-12: Phytosanitary import requirements for non-processed wood and other wooden products, bamboo and bamboo products, originating from all areas other than the continental United States (U.S.)

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Effective date: August 31, 2017
(7th Revision)

Subject

This directive outlines the phytosanitary import requirements for the following products originating from all areas of the world other than the continental United States (U.S.): non-processed wood and other wooden products, bamboo poles, bamboo stakes and other bamboo products.

The directive has been revised to clarify existing phytosanitary requirements for wooden and bamboo products.

Note: Empty wooden barrels imported as a commodity must meet the treatment requirements outlined in Appendix 1 of this Directive, and a phytosanitary certificate is required.

Other related directives

The phytosanitary import requirements for wood dunnage, pallets, crating and other wood packaging material such as wooden barrels used to transport other materials (e.g. wine) from areas other than the continental U.S. are outlined in Directive D-98-08: Entry requirements for wood packaging materials produced in all areas other than the Continental United States

The phytosanitary import requirements for fresh and dried branches, cut flowers and other plant parts for ornamental purposes are outlined in Directive D-14-03.

The phytosanitary import requirements for firewood are outlined in Directive D-01-12.

Table of Contents

Review

This directive will be updated as required. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Amendment Record

Amendments of this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution list below.

Distribution List

  1. Directive mail list (CFIA Regions; CFIA Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit; United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service)
  2. Other Government departments
  3. Non-Government Organizations (determined by Author)
  4. National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
  5. Internet

Canada regulates the import of non-processed wood, wood products, bamboo and bamboo products to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of pests of concern to Canadian agriculture, forestry and the environment. Many invasive forest pests, including pine shoot beetle (Tomicus piniperda), emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire), and chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica), have been introduced into and spread within North America as a result of the movement of untreated wood or bamboo products. These pests have had extensive economic and environmental impacts.

Bark that is present on wooden products can harbor pests including surface pathogens and bark beetles. Heat treatment, chemical treatment or debarking will remove the risks associated with bark, although debarking alone will not remove deep wood-boring pests. Untreated wooden commodities with bark originating from off-continent temperate areas present a high risk for introducing quarantine pests into Canada. Therefore, entry of such commodities from off-continent is prohibited.

Wood and bamboo products regulated under this directive are potential pathways for the movement of quarantine pests. Specific phytosanitary import requirements are based on the scientific evaluation of the nature of each product, product end-use, and pest risk mitigating factors. The phytosanitary import requirements (including the use of pre-entry treatments) outlined in this directive have been established to reduce the risk of or lower the potential for introduction into Canada of pests associated with imported wood and bamboo products.

Scope

This directive is intended for use by CFIA inspection staff, Canada Border Services Agency staff, Canadian customs brokers, Canadian importers, foreign exporters, and foreign National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs).

References

ISPM 5, Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms - PDF (559 kb), FAO, Rome (updated annually)

ISPM 7, Phytosanitary certification system, 2011 - PDF (61 kb) FAO, Rome

ISPM 13, Guidelines for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action, 2001 - PDF (84 kb), FAO, Rome

ISPM 15, Regulation of wood packaging material in international trade, 2009 - PDF (244 kb), FAO, Rome

RSPM No. 38, Importation of certain wooden and bamboo commodities into a NAPPO member country - PDF (113 kb), NAPPO, Ottawa

NAPPO, Discussion Document, 2011 NAPPO, Ottawa DD 04: Wooden and Bamboo commodities intended for indoor and outdoor use.

D-14-03, Phytosanitary import requirements for fresh and dried branches, cut flowers and other plant parts for ornamental purposes.

D-98-08,The import requirements for wood dunnage, pallets, crating, wood shavings, sawdust and wood wool as part of wood packaging, or other wood packaging materials from areas of the world other than the continental U.S., CFIA, Ottawa.

D-01-12, Phytosanitary requirements for the importation and domestic movement of firewood, CFIA, Ottawa.

Please consult the CFIA web site, Forestry Section, for details on the cited forestry directives.

This directive supersedes D-02-12 (6th Revision).

Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms

Definitions for terms used in this document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms and in the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) (ISPM 5) Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms - PDF (559 kb).

For the purpose of this directive, wood and wooden products; and bamboo and bamboo products under consideration are defined as:

  • non-processed - untreated raw materials such as sawn timber or bamboo;
  • processed - materials that have been subjected to conditions (such as heat, glue and/or pressure or any combination thereof) that have altered the commodity in a manner to reduce significantly the ability of the wood or bamboo product to provide a habitat for pests;
  • dried - materials having a moisture content of less than 20 percent;
  • bark-free wood - wood from which all bark, except ingrown bark around knots and bark pockets between rings of annual growth, has been removed;
  • debarked wood - wood that has been subjected to any process that results in the removal of bark, to the following tolerance: pieces of bark must be less than 3 cm in width regardless of the length, or greater than 3 cm in width, with the total surface area of an individual piece of bark being less than 50 square cm; (debarked wood is not necessarily bark-free wood);
  • tropical wood species - a species whose whole range is south of the Tropic of Cancer and north of the Tropic of Capricorn, with consideration of the altitude at which it can grow, since mountain species may be able to adapt to areas outside the tropics if they can tolerate low temperatures. The list of tropical wood species is found in Appendix 7;
  • non-tropical wood species - a species whose range lies partially or entirely north of the Tropic of Cancer or south of the Tropic of Capricorn.

1.0 General Requirements

1.1 Legislative Authority

  • The Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22
  • The Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act, S.C. 1997, c. 6
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part I (as amended from time to time)
  • Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Act (1995,
  • Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Regulations (SOR/2000-187)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA (Canadian Food Inspection Agency) charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported products, please contact the National Import Service Centre (NISC). For other information regarding fees, please contact any CFIA office or visit the Fees Notice website.

1.3 Regulated Pests

The List of pests regulated by Canada can be found at /plants/plant-protection/pests/regulated-pests.

The CFIA may take action on material that is infested with pests of potential quarantine concern even if those pests are not yet included on this list.

1.4 Commodities not in the scope of this directive

1.5 Regulated Areas

All countries, except the continental U.S. Please note that regulated commodities re-exported to Canada from the continental U.S. but whose origin is from outside continental U.S. are subject to the phytosanitary import requirements outlined in Sections 2.1.3, 2.1.4 and 2.2.1 of this Directive.

1.6 Exempt commodities (i.e. commodities that are exempt from phytosanitary import requirements)

Processed wood materials that have been subjected to conditions that have altered the commodity in a manner to reduce significantly the ability of the wood items to provide a habitat for pests, such as:

  • aspenite, masonite, plywood, veneer;
  • fibre board, particle board, oriented strand board, wafer board;
  • pre-shaped moulding, end jointed or finger jointed sawn wood, pre-shaped banisters, railings, spindles;
  • commercially processed wooden furniture [i.e. end-jointed or finger-jointed];
  • commercially processed wooden flooring [i.e. planed and shaped];
  • wooden tool handles;
  • pre-made wooden window frames and doors;
  • routered wooden picture frames;
  • kitchenware cedar planks;
  • processed cork (i.e. cork that has undergone a manufacturing process e.g. heat treatment as per Appendix 1);
  • sawdust, wood shavings and wood wool;
  • oak cubes that are less than 1.5 cm in thickness, oak wood shavings and chips as part of wine kits or oak cubes in wine barrels specifically for the purpose of flavouring;
  • dried wooden handicrafts, including baskets, with wooden components that are less than or equal to 1.5 cm in thickness (diameter) and bark-free. These wooden handicrafts may contain dried cones; these dried cones must be entirely coated with a permanent layer of lacquer, paint or other sealant;
  • dried decorative wooden items that are bark-free, accompanying personal effects, and for personal use and not intended for resale;
  • completely finished wooden handicrafts or decorative wood products that are bark-free and constructed entirely from processed wooden materials;
  • dried bamboo furniture, souvenirs and baskets, with individual bamboo pieces that are less than or equal to 1.5 cm in thickness (diameter);
  • dried split bamboo products (any diameter) used for indoor and outdoor purposes;
  • bamboo fibre derived from bamboo pulp for the manufacture of paper and fabric;
  • bamboo laminates that are derived from bamboo that have undergone significant processing (e.g. stripping, splitting, boiling, steaming, kiln drying). Some examples of products made from laminates are bamboo flooring, kitchenware, woven mats and veneer.

All of the above commodities must be free of living pests, free of signs of living pests, and free of soil and debris. Exempted commodities are still subject to inspection at the time of entry into Canada.

1.7 Regulated Commodities

Non-processed, non-propagative wood and bamboo products including:

  • sawn wood (with bark or debarked) including cants;
  • round wood (with bark or debarked) including: poles, railway ties;
  • wood garden stakes, wood turning blanks, wood lathing, wood stickers, wood spacers and wood attached directly to shipments of sawn wood;
  • bark, bark chips, bark mulch and the following with or without bark: wood chips, wood mulch and wood waste;
  • cut Christmas trees;
  • unprocessed cork;
  • other non-processed or non-propagative wood products;
  • decorative wooden items or any other non processed wood product or non propagative wood product imported as handicrafts, or for the purpose of making handicrafts, including garden ornaments and driftwood;
  • artificial Christmas trees containing wooden components or bark;
  • bamboo fences, bamboo poles, bamboo rakes, bamboo stakes, bamboo torches, and other decorative items containing bamboo not listed in Section 1.6.

2.0 Specific requirements

All commodities imported under this directive must meet the specific phytosanitary requirements prescribed below. Consignments may be subject to inspection and must be:

  • free of soil and debris; and
  • free of living pests; and
  • free of signs of living pests.

For those wooden and bamboo products requiring treatment, the following are acceptable treatments as specified in Appendix 1:

  1. Heat Treatment: wood must attain a minimum temperature of 56°C throughout the profile of the wood (including at its core) for a minimum of 30 minutes; or in the case of bamboo and bamboo products throughout the profile of the bamboo;
    or
  2. Fumigated with methyl bromide: wood must be debarked, less than 200 mm in thickness and fumigated.

Note 1: The only acceptable treatment for wood greater than 200 mm in thickness is heat treatment.

Note 2: Wood and wooden products must be debarked to the following tolerance: pieces of bark must be less than 3 cm in width regardless of the length, or greater than 3 cm in width with the total surface area of an individual piece of bark being less than 50 square cm.

Additional requirements may exist for specific pests and/or commodities prescribed in other directives. The information on these requirements may be found by consulting CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS).

2.1 Phytosanitary import requirements for wood, wooden products, bamboo, and bamboo products

2.1.1 Phytosanitary import requirements for debarked sawn wood (including turning blanks) of non-tropical species

Wood turning blanks are blocks of sawn wood intended to be shaped on a lathe to manufacture wooden objects such as bowls, spindles, etc.

Species not listed in Appendix 7 are considered to be non-tropical. The CFIA may re-evaluate the status of a non-tropical species if an Application for a Permit to Import form (CFIA/ACIA 5256) with information indicating that the species survives only in tropical environments is submitted by the importer.

  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A Phytosanitary Certificate from the exporting country is required. It must specify treatment details as per Appendix 1 (e.g. type of treatment, rate of application, duration and minimum temperature) in the treatment section.
  • A Fumigation Certificate in lieu of providing the treatment details in the Phytosanitary Certificate will not be accepted.

2.1.2 Phytosanitary import requirements for wooden or bamboo products as specified in the list below

  • handicrafts or decorative products containing non-processed wood or bamboo components greater than 1.5 cm in thickness (diameter);
  • driftwood;
  • artificial Christmas trees with wooden components or bark;
  • bamboo stakes and poles of any size;
  • wooden handicrafts and decorative wood products constructed of any wood of any dimension containing bark.
  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A Phytosanitary Certificate from the exporting country is required. The certificate must specify treatment details as per Appendix 1 (e.g. type of treatment, rate of application, duration and minimum temperature) in the treatment section.
  • A Fumigation Certificate in lieu of providing the treatment details in the Phytosanitary Certificate will not be accepted.

2.1.3 Phytosanitary import requirements for wooden or bamboo products as specified in the list below from a country of re-export when the product originates from a third country

  • debarked sawn wood (including turning blanks) of non-tropical species;
  • handicrafts or decorative products containing non-processed wood or bamboo components greater than 1.5 cm in thickness (diameter);
  • driftwood;
  • artificial Christmas trees with wooden components or bark;
  • bamboo stakes and poles of any size;
  • wooden handicrafts and decorative wood products constructed of any wood of any dimension containing bark.
  • A Permit to Import is not required.

    When the country of re-export requires a Phytosanitary Certificate for the import of the commodity and the Phytosanitary Certificate specifies a treatment meeting Canada's import requirements, a Phytosanitary Certificate for Re-export issued by the NPPO of the re-exporting country is required. The re-exporting country must verify that the Canadian phytosanitary import requirements for the regulated commodity have been met in the country of origin.

  • A Phytosanitary Certificate for Re-export issued by the NPPO of the re-exporting country and a copy of the original Phytosanitary Certificate from the country of export specifying treatment details as per Appendix 1 (e.g. type of treatment, rate of application, duration and minimum temperature) in the treatment section of the certificate is required.

When the country of re-export does not require a phytosanitary certificate for the import of the commodity, the commodity must be treated and certified by the re-exporting country to meet Canadian import requirements. In this case:

  • A Phytosanitary Certificate from the country of re-export stating the treatment details in the treatment section of the certificate is required.
If the product is re-exported from the continental U.S.:
  • A copy of the original Phytosanitary Certificate with treatment details stamped with a USDA-APHIS stamp and signed by the authorizing Office may be provided in lieu of a U.S. Phytosanitary Certificate for Re-export.

    Note: A Fumigation Certificate or Heat Treatment Certificate in lieu of providing the treatment details in the Phytosanitary Certificate will not be accepted.

2.1.4 Phytosanitary import requirements for wooden or bamboo products as specified in the list below originating from outside the continental U.S. that are treated or re-treated in the continental U.S. and then re-exported to Canada

  • debarked sawn wood (including turning blanks) of non-tropical species;
  • handicrafts or decorative products containing non-processed wood or bamboo components greater than 1.5 cm in thickness (diameter);
  • driftwood;
  • artificial Christmas trees with wooden components or bark;
  • bamboo stakes and poles of any size;
  • wooden handicrafts and decorative wood products constructed of any wood of any dimension containing bark.
  • A Phytosanitary Certificate specifying the origin of the product; in addition to all applicable treatment details as per Appendix 1 (e.g. type of treatment, rate of application, duration and minimum temperature) in the treatment section of the Phytosanitary Certificate; or
  • A heat treatment certificate or treatment document as per the heat treatment conditions outlined in Appendix 1, endorsed by the American Lumber Standards Committee (ALSC) accredited Grading Agency; or
  • A Fumigation Certificate, as per fumigation conditions outlined in Appendix 1 in lieu of a Phytosanitary Certificate from fumigation facilities recognized by the USDA-APHIS. Please contact USDA-APHIS for a list of these recognized fumigation facilities.

It is the responsibility of the importer to ensure that the heat treatment certificate, treatment document, or fumigation certificate is clearly linked to the imported shipment.

2.2 Phytosanitary import requirements for debarked sawn wood of tropical species

Tropical wood species are identified in Appendix 7. Wood species not listed in Appendix 7 are considered to be non-tropical and subjected to phytosanitary import requirements as for debarked sawn wood of non-tropical species. The CFIA may re-evaluate the status of a non-tropical species if an Application for a Permit to Import form (CFIA/ACIA 5256) with information indicating that the species survives only in tropical environments, is submitted by the importer.

  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A Phytosanitary Certificate, issued by the NPPO of the exporting country, is required. The Phytosanitary Certificate must identify the species (listed in Appendix 7) and origin of the tropical sawn wood.

2.2.1 Phytosanitary import requirements for debarked sawn wood of tropical species from a country of re-export when the sawn wood originates from a Third Country

  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A Phytosanitary Certificate for Re-export or a Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the NPPO of the re-exporting country is required. The Phytosanitary Certificate or the Phytosanitary Certificate for Re-export, must identify the species and origin of the tropical sawn wood.

When the country of re-export requires a Phytosanitary Certificate for the original import of tropical sawn wood, and the consignment meets Canada's phytosanitary import requirements, a Phytosanitary Certificate for Re-export may be issued.

When the country of re-export does not require a Phytosanitary Certificate for the import of tropical sawn wood, the CFIA import requirements may be fulfilled with an additional visual inspection based on the inspection criteria listed below:

  • free of pests; and
  • free of signs of living pests, and
  • of a species listed in Appendix 7.

In this case, the country of re-export may issue a Phytosanitary Certificate.

Wood species not listed in Appendix 7 may be imported in accordance with the requirements of Section 2.1.1.

2.3 Phytosanitary import requirements for wood and wooden products as specified in the list below

  • round wood of tropical and non-tropical species;
  • sawn wood not meeting the requirements outlined under Section 2.1
  • wood chips, bark, bark chips, bark mulch;
  • wood waste;
  • telephone poles;
  • cants, railway ties;
  • cut Christmas trees.
  • A Permit to Import is required, and
  • Prior approval from the CFIA is required before importation of these products from countries other than the continental United States.

As part of the approval process, a pest risk assessment is required to evaluate the plant health risk posed by the commodity, to determine the efficacy of proposed treatment options and to identify any known pests potentially associated with the wood including bacteria and phytoplasmas, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects, mites, molluscs and weeds and the potential to introduce those pests.

The CFIA may approve the import of wood chips, bark chips, bark, bark mulch, wood waste, round wood, telephone poles, cants, railway ties, cut Christmas trees, and sawn wood not meeting the requirements specified under Section 2.1 upon the completion of the pest risk analysis and the evaluation of proposed treatment measures and certification systems.

If required, the CFIA may recognize private or government treatment facilities in the exporting country operating under a system acceptable to the CFIA (e.g. fumigation, heat treatment) and monitored and endorsed by the NPPO of the exporting country.

Post-entry treatment in Canada is not permitted and importers must contact a local CFIA office at /about-the-cfia/offices in advance of arranging for importation of any wood product regulated under Section 2.3.

2.4 Phytosanitary import requirements for unprocessed cork of Quercus suber

  • A Permit to Import is not required;
  • A Phytosanitary Certificate from the exporting country specifying treatment details as per Appendix 1 (e.g. type of treatment, rate of application, duration and minimum temperature) in the treatment section of the certificate is required.
  • A Fumigation Certificate in lieu of providing the treatment details in the Phytosanitary Certificate will not be accepted.

2.5 Phytosanitary import requirements for wood cubes and wood chips (bark-free) for smoking meat or winemaking

  • A Permit to Import is required.
  • A Phytosanitary Certificate from the exporting country specifying treatment details as per Appendix 1 (e.g. type of treatment, rate of application, duration and minimum temperature) in the treatment section of the certificate is required.
  • A Fumigation Certificate in lieu of providing the treatment details in the Phytosanitary Certificate will not be accepted.

2.6 Phytosanitary import requirements for non-propagative dried tree and shrub roots, branches and bark intended for cosmetic or medicinal use

  • A phytosanitary certificate from the exporting country is required. Please contact Health Canada to confirm any additional import requirements for these products; other government departments may also need to be contacted.

3.0 Requirements for items imported for scientific research, industrial processing, educational or exhibition purposes

  • A Permit to Import is required.
  • In order for an import permit to be issued pursuant to Section 43 of the Plant Protection Regulations, the regulated material must be for one of the specific purposes of: scientific research, education, processing, industrial or exhibition. The importer must be able and willing to comply with the conditions outlined in the permit, and take every precaution to prevent the spread of any pest or biological obstacle to the control of a pest.

4.0 Non-compliance

Any regulated material as defined in Section 1.7 that is found not to meet the phytosanitary import requirements specified above is non-compliant and will be required to be removed from Canada or disposed of in a manner approved by the CFIA. Non-compliant material found to be infested with a pest or found to have signs or symptoms of live pests may be treated prior to it being ordered removed from Canada or disposed of in a manner approved by the CFIA.

Notification of non-compliance will be issued and emergency action will be taken in accordance with Directive D-01-06, Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.

Costs associated with non-compliant commodities are the responsibility of the importer.

CFIA-approved methods of disposing of non-compliant commodities are defined in Appendix 5.

5.0 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

It is the responsibility of the importer to check whether the tropical or non-tropical wood species being imported is listed under CITES. If so, additional permits from Environment Canada may be required. For more information consult the CITES web site.

6.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Canadian Food Inspection Agency approved treatments
Appendix 2: Summary of the phytosanitary import requirements for non-processed and non-propagative wood products
Appendix 3: Summary of the phytosanitary import requirements for wooden handicrafts, decorative wood products, and artificial Christmas trees with wooden components or bark
Appendix 4: Summary of the phytosanitary import requirements for bamboo and bamboo products
Appendix 5: Canadian Food Inspection Agency approved disposal methods
Appendix 6: CITES Identification Guide – Tropical Wood Species
Appendix 7: List of tropical wood species that are exempted from treatment

Appendix 1: Canadian Food Inspection Agency approved treatments

Heat treatment standard

Heat treatment must reach a minimum temperature of 56°C throughout the profile of the wood (including its core) for a minimum of 30 minutes; or in the case of bamboo and bamboo products throughout the profile of the bamboo.

Methyl bromide

Canada is a signatory of The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1992) agreeing to the reduction and eventual phase out of methyl bromide use. The CFIA encourages the use of alternative treatments.

The minimum temperature during the entire treatment must not be less than 10°C and the minimum exposure time must be at least 24 hours. Monitoring of concentrations must be carried out at a minimum of 2, 4 and 24 hours after application of the fumigant.

Regulated products may be fumigated with methyl bromide in the following manner:

Methyl bromide fumigation schedule
Temperature
C)
Dosage (g/m3) Minimum concentration (g/m3) at 2 hours Minimum concentration (g/m3) at 4 hours Minimum concentration (g/m3) at 24 hours
21.0 or above 48 36 31 24
16.0 – 20.9 56 42 36 28
10.0 – 15.9 64 48 42 32

A Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the certifying NPPO is required to specify the fumigation details: the average commodity temperature, the dosage (grams/m3) of methyl bromide used and exposure time.

Appendix 2: Summary of the phytosanitary import requirements for non-processed and non-propagative wood products

Commodity Entry Conditions Import Permit Phytosanitary Certificate Policy Reference
Bark, bark chips, cants, round wood of tropical or non-tropical species, railway ties, telephone poles, sawn wood with bark, wood chips, cut Christmas trees.
  • Prior approval from CFIA required before import, and
  • Require a Pest Risk Assessment.
Yes D-02-12
Section 2.3
Non tropical sawn wood
  • Debarked, and
  • Must be free of pests and signs of living pests, and
  • Heat treated or less than 200 mm in thickness and fumigated with methyl bromide (Appendix 1).
No Yes D-02-12
Section 2.1.1
Tropical sawn wood
  • Debarked, and
  • Free of pests and signs of living pests, and
  • Species listed in Appendix 7.
No Yes D-02-12
Section 2.2
Turning blanks (blocks of sawn wood shaped on a lathe to manufacture wooden objects such as bowls, spindles, etc.)
  • Debarked, and
  • Free of pests and signs of living pests, and
  • Heat treated or less than 200 mm in thickness and fumigated with methyl bromide (Appendix 1).
No Yes D-02-12
Section 2.1.1
Wood cubes and wood chips (bark-free) for smoking meat or winemaking process Yes Yes D-02-12
Section 2.5
Unprocessed cork of Quercus suber
  • Free of pests and signs of living pests, and
  • Heat treated or fumigated with methyl bromide (Appendix 1).
No Yes D-02-12
Section 2.4
Wooden barrels as a commodity for wine and spirits Consult CFIA Directive D-98-08 D-98-08 D-98-08 D-98-08
Wood packaging e.g. dunnage, pallets, crates Consult CFIA Directive D-98-08 D-98-08 D-98-08 D-98-08
  • All commodities may be subject to inspection before release and must be free of soil and debris.

Appendix 3: Summary of phytosanitary import requirements for wooden handicrafts, decorative wood products made of non-processed wooden components or bark, and artificial Christmas trees with wooden components or bark

Commodity Entry Conditions Import Permit Phytosanitary Certificate Policy Reference
Wooden handicrafts or decorative wood products containing wood greater than 1.5 cm in thickness or diameter, with or without bark; or containing wood less than or equal to 1.5 cm in thickness or diameter, with bark.

Driftwood and artificial Christmas trees with wooden components or bark.

  • Heat treatment; or
  • Methyl bromide fumigation (Appendix 1).
No Yes D-02-12
Section 2.1.2
Bark and branches with bark for cosmetic or medicinal use.
  • Free of pests and signs of living pests, and
  • Contact Health Canada for other requirements.
No Yes D-02-12
Section 2.6
Health Canada
  • The above reference list is not all inclusive or exhaustive; contact a local CFIA office to confirm the import requirements prior to the import of a commodity.
  • All commodities may be subject to inspection before release and must be free of soil, debris, pests and signs of living pests.
  • The import requirements for regulated commodities from the United States are contained in pest-specific directives.
  • The import requirements for propagative plants and plant products are regulated by the CFIA, Horticulture Section

Appendix 4: Summary of phytosanitary import requirements for bamboo and bamboo products

Commodity Entry Conditions Import Permit Phytosanitary Certificate Policy Reference
Whole pieces of bamboo poles and bamboo stakes of any size.
  • Methyl bromide fumigation or Heat treatment (Appendix 1).
No Yes D-02-12
Section 2.1.2
Bamboo products (baskets, decorative items, bird cages, etc.) containing individual pieces or composite products containing bamboo pieces that are less than or equal to 1.5 cm in thickness (diameter).
  • Dried with moisture content < 20%.
No No D-02-12
Section 1.6
Bamboo products (baskets, decorative items, bird cages, etc.) containing individual pieces or composite products containing bamboo pieces that are greater than 1.5 cm diameter.
  • Methyl bromide fumigation or Heat treatment (Appendix 1).
No Yes D-02-12
Section 2.1.2
Bamboo fibre and other products derived from bamboo pulp such as paper and textiles. No No D-02-12
Section 1.6
Bamboo laminates including highly processed bamboo products such as flooring, panels, veneers, etc. No No D-02-12
Section 1.6
  • All commodities may be subject to inspection before release and must be free of soil, debris, pests and signs of living pests.

Appendix 5 - Canadian Food Inspection Agency approved disposal methods

The CFIA may permit the movement of non compliant wood and wood products to be disposed of or treated in the following ways:

  • incineration;
  • deep burial to a minimum depth of 2 metres with immediate soil coverage;
  • mechanical chipping to a size of 1.5 cm or less in any two dimensions to produce wood by products such as wood dust, wood mulch or wood fuel. Raw wood by products must either undergo a sanitation process (e.g. steam, heat, compost) to render them free of potential regulated pests or be contained and used for secondary processing;
  • secondary processing to produce wood by products such as paper, finish mulch, recycled fibre board and oriented strand board;
  • other methods as approved by the CFIA.

Non compliant wood and wood products, and bamboo and bamboo products must be disposed of by the importer and under the direct oversight of the CFIA within two (2) business days of detection of non-compliance. However, under exceptional circumstances the CFIA may permit short-term storage, while waiting for disposal. In order to permit short term storage, the non-compliant material must be contained in a manner that would preclude the escape of pests. The method of short-term storage must be approved in writing by a CFIA inspector. Additionally, the CFIA inspector can order additional treatments or containment of the non-compliant products if required.

The movement of non-compliant material must be authorized by the CFIA. During transportation for disposal, non-compliant material must be carried in a sealed container or be enclosed by a tarpaulin to provide assurance that soil contaminants and pests cannot be lost or freed while on route to the disposal area.

Appendix 6: CITES Identification Guide - Tropical Wood Species

CITES Identification Guide - Tropical Wood Species

Appendix 7: List of tropical wood species that are exempt from treatment

  1. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) requires the scientific name of a species, i.e. the Latin name, in order to determine if sawn wood is admissible into Canada as a tropical wood species.
  2. Only species that have been assessed by the CFIA are listed. Non-listed species will be subjected to phytosanitary import requirements as for debarked sawn wood of non-tropical species.
  3. Only debarked sawn wood of the species listed is exempt from treatment.
  4. The status of a species, as tropical or non-tropical, may change following successive assessments.
  5. The species listed hereunder may also be regulated by the Convention in Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), administered by the Canadian Wildlife Services of Environment Canada, (as per comments in column 2).
List of tropical wood species that are exempted from treatment
Species Name Comments
Acacia mangiumn/a
Afzelia africanan/a
Afzelia bipindensisn/a
Afzelia pachyloban/a
Agathis borneensisn/a
Agathis macrophylla
(Agathis vitiensis)
n/a
Agathis microstachyan/a
Albizia coriarian/a
Alexa imperatricisn/a
Alstonia boonein/a
Alstonia congensisn/a
Amanoa caribaean/a
Amburana cearensisn/a
Amphimas pterocarpoidesn/a
Anisoptera spp.n/a
Anopyxis klaineanan/a
Anthonotha fragransn/a
Antiaris toxicaria var. africana
(Antiaris africana)
n/a
Apeiba asperan/a
Aphanocalyx heitzii
(Monopetalanthus heitzii)
n/a
Aspidosperma curranii
(Aspidosperma megalocarpon
subsp. curranii)
n/a
Aspidosperma excelsumn/a
Aspidosperma sandwithianumn/a
Astronium graveolensn/a
Astronium lecointein/a
Astronium macrocalyxn/a
Aucoumea klaineanan/a
Autranella congolensisn/a
Bagassa guianensisn/a
Baikiaea plurijugan/a
Baillonella toxisperma
(Mimusops djave)
n/a
Berlinia confusan/a
Bertholletia excelsan/a
Bobgunnia madagascariensis
(Swartzia madagascariensis)
n/a
Bombax buonopozensen/a
Bowdichia nitidan/a
Bowdichia virgilioidesn/a
Brachystegia leonensisn/a
Brosimum acutifoliumn/a
Brosimum alicastrumn/a
Brosimum guianensen/a
Brosimum rubescensn/a
Brosimum utilen/a
Brya ebenusn/a
Bursera graveolensn/a
Byrsonima trinitensisn/a
Caesalpinia echinataCITES
Caldcluvia australiensisn/a
Calophyllum neoebudicumn/a
Calycophyllum candidissimumn/a
Calycophyllum spruceanumn/a
Campnosperma panamensen/a
Canarium schweinfurthiin/a
Canarium vanikoroensen/a
Carapa guianensisn/a
Carapa proceran/a
Cardwellia sublimisn/a
Cariniana pyriformisn/a
Caryocar villosumn/a
Catalpa longissiman/a
Catostemma fragransn/a
Cecropia schreberianan/a
Cedrelinga cateniformisn/a
Celtis zenkerin/a
Centrolobium spp.n/a
Ceratopetalum succirubrumn/a
Chimarrhis hookerin/a
Chlorocardium rodiein/a
Chlorocardium venenosumn/a
Chloroleucon tortumn/a
Chloroxylon swietenian/a
Chrysophyllum lacourtianum
(Gambeya lacourtiana)
n/a
Cistanthera papaverifera
(Nesogordonia papaverifera)
n/a
Clathrotropis brachypetalan/a
Clathrotropis macrocarpan/a
Copaifera aromatican/a
Copaifera officinalisn/a
Copaifera salikoundan/a
Cordia dodecandran/a
Cordia elaeagnoidesn/a
Cordia milleniin/a
Corynanthe spp.n/a
Couma macrocarpan/a
Couratari spp.n/a
Cylicodiscus gabunensisn/a
Cynometra anantan/a
Dacrydium nausoriensen/a
Dacrydium nidulumn/a
Dacryodes excelsan/a
Dalbergia cearensisCITES
Dalbergia cochinchinensisCITES
Dalbergia tucurensisCITES
Daniellia ogean/a
Daniellia thuriferan/a
Detarium senegalensen/a
Dialium guianensen/a
Dicorynia guianensisn/a
Dicorynia paraensisn/a
Didelotia africanan/a
Dinizia excelsan/a
Diospyros celebican/a
Diospyros crassifloran/a
Diospyros munn/a
Diospyros perrieriCITES
Diospyros rumphii
(Diospyros macassar)
n/a
Diplotropis purpurean/a
Dipterocarpus acutangulusn/a
Dipterocarpus alatusn/a
Dipterocarpus baudiin/a
Dipterocarpus cornutusn/a
Dipterocarpus costulatusn/a
Dipterocarpus kerriin/a
Dipterocarpus verrucosusn/a
Dipteryx micranthan/a
Dipteryx odoratan/a
Dipteryx oleifera
(Dipteryx panamensis)
CITES
Dipteryx punctatan/a
Distemonanthus benthamianusn/a
Dracontomelon dao
(Dracontomelon edule, Dracontomelon sylvestre)
n/a
Dryobalanops spp.n/a
Durio spp.n/a
Dyera costulatan/a
Dyera polyphylla
(Dyera lowii)
n/a
Endlicheria sericean/a
Endospermum macrophyllumn/a
Entandrophragma angolensen/a
Entandrophragma candollein/a
Entandrophragma congoensen/a
Entandrophragma cylindricumn/a
Entandrophragma excelsumn/a
Entandrophragma utilen/a
Enterolobium schomburgkiin/a
Eperua falcatan/a
Erisma uncinatumn/a
Erythrophleum ivorensen/a
Erythrophleum suaveolensn/a
Erythroxylum areolatumn/a
Eschweilera subglandulosan/a
Eucalyptus urophyllan/a
Euplassa pinnatan/a
Euxylophora paraensisn/a
Fagraea gracilipesn/a
Faramea occidentalisn/a
Fleroya stipulosa
(Hallea stipulosa, Mitragyna stipulosa)
n/a
Flindersia bourjotianan/a
Flindersia laevicarpan/a
Flindersia pimentelianan/a
Ganophyllum giganteumn/a
Garcinia myrtifolian/a
Geissospermum sericeumn/a
Gilbertiodendron dewevrein/a
Gluta elegansn/a
Gluta papuanan/a
Gmelina vitiensisn/a
Gonystylus spp.CITES
Gossweilerodendron balsamiferumn/a
Goupia glabran/a
Guarea cedratan/a
Guarea laurentiin/a
Guarea thompsoniin/a
Guarea caribaean/a
Guibourtia arnoldianan/a
Guibourtia demeusein/a
Guibourtia ehien/a
Guibourtia tessmanniin/a
Hampea appendiculatan/a
Heritiera albifloran/a
Heritiera borneensisn/a
Heritiera densiflora
(Tarrietia densiflora)
n/a
Heritiera javanican/a
Heritiera simplicifolian/a
Heritiera sumatranan/a
Heritiera utilis
(Tarrietia utilis)
n/a
Holoptelea grandisn/a
Hopea irianan/a
Hopea papuanan/a
Humiria balsamiferan/a
Hymenaea oblongifolian/a
Hymenolobium spp.n/a
Inga ingoidesn/a
Intsia palembanica
(Intsia bakeri)
n/a
Julbernardia pellegrinianan/a
Julbernardia seretiin/a
Khaya anthothecan/a
Khaya grandifoliolan/a
Khaya ivorensisn/a
Khaya senegalensisn/a
Koompassia excelsan/a
Koompassia malaccensisn/a
Lannea welwitschiin/a
Lecythis zabucajon/a
Leptolobium panamensen/a
Licania heteromorphan/a
Licania macrophyllan/a
Licania sparsipilisn/a
Licania ternatensisn/a
Licaria cannellan/a
Lonchocarpus castilloin/a
Lophira alata
(Lophira procera)
n/a
Lovoa trichilioides
(Lovoa klaineana)
n/a
Luehea seemanniin/a
Macrolobium pendulumn/a
Maesopsis eminiin/a
Magnolia tsiampacca subsp. tsiampacca (Elmerrillia papuana)n/a
Mammea africanan/a
Manilkara bidentata
(Manilkara surinamensis)
n/a
Manilkara chiclen/a
Manilkara huberin/a
Mansonia altissiman/a
Martiodendron parviflorumn/a
Melanoxylum braunan/a
Melicoccus oliviformis
(Talisia oliviformis)
n/a
Metopium brownein/a
Mezilaurus itauban/a
Miconia mirabilisn/a
Miconia trichotoma
(Acinodendron trichotomum, Melastoma trichotomum)
n/a
Microberlinia spp.n/a
Micropholis gardnerianan/a
Micropholis melinonianan/a
Mildbraediodendron excelsumn/a
Milicia excelsa
(Chlorophora excelsa)
n/a
Milicia regia
(Chlorophora regia)
n/a
Millettia laurentiin/a
Mora excelsan/a
Mora gonggrijpiin/a
Myrocarpus fastigiatusn/a
Nauclea diderrichiin/a
Neorites kevedianan/a
Ocotea cymbarumn/a
Ocotea glomeratan/a
Ocotea infrafoveolatan/a
Ocotea leucoxylonn/a
Octomeles sumatranan/a
Oenocarpus batauan/a
Ormosia monosperman/a
Oxystigma oxyphyllumn/a
Pachira quinata
(Bombacopsis quinata)
n/a
Palaquium gutta
(Palaquium acuminatum)
n/a
Palaquium hexandrumn/a
Palaquium maingayin/a
Palaquium rostratumn/a
Palaquium xanthochymumn/a
Parahancornia fasciculatan/a
Parashorea macrophyllan/a
Parashorea malaanonan
(Parashorea plicata)
n/a
Parashorea tomentellan/a
Parinari excelsan/a
Peltogyne spp.n/a
Pericopsis elata
(Afrormosia elata)
CITES
Petersianthus macrocarpusn/a
Phytelephas macrocarpan/a
Piptadenia flavan/a
Piptadeniastrum africanum
(Piptadenia africana)
n/a
Piscidia carthagenensisn/a
Pithecellobium roseumn/a
Planchonia papuanan/a
Platonia insignisn/a
Platymiscium dimorphandrumn/a
Platymiscium pinnatumn/a
Platymiscium trinitatisn/a
Platymiscium ulein/a
Platymiscium yucatanumn/a
Poga oleosan/a
Pometia pinnatan/a
Pouteria altissima
(Aningeria altissima)
n/a
Pouteria pierrei
(Aningeria robusta)
n/a
Pouteria proceran/a
Pouteria superba
(Aningeria superba)
n/a
Pseudopiptadenia psilostachyan/a
Pseudopiptadenia suaveolensn/a
Pseudosamanea guachapele
(Albizia guachapele)
n/a
Pseudosindora palustris
(Copaifera palustris)
n/a
Pterocarpus acapulcensisn/a
Pterocarpus erinaceusn/a
Pterocarpus soyauxiin/a
Pterygota bequaertiin/a
Pterygota macrocarpan/a
Pycnanthus angolensisn/a
Qualea albiflora
(Ruizterania albiflora)
n/a
Qualea coerulean/a
Qualea paraensisn/a
Qualea rosean/a
Retrophyllum vitiense
(Nageia vitiensis)
n/a
Rhodostemonodaphne grandisn/a
Ricinodendron heudelotiin/a
Rinorea paniculatan/a
Sapium ellipticumn/a
Schrebera arborean/a
Scorodocarpus borneensisn/a
Scyphocephalium ochocoan/a
Serianthes melanesican/a
Sextonia pubescensn/a
Sextonia rubran/a
Shorea spp. (except Shorea assamica and Shorea robusta)n/a
Simarouba amaran/a
Simarouba versicolorn/a
Simira salvadorensisn/a
Sloanea caribaean/a
Staudtia kamerunensisn/a
Sterculia apetalan/a
Sterculia caribaean/a
Sterculia oblonga
(Eribroma oblonga)
n/a
Sterculia pruriensn/a
Sterculia rhinopetalan/a
Sterculia rugosan/a
Swartzia spp.n/a
Swietenia macrophylla
(Swietenia candollei)
CITES
Symphonia globuliferan/a
Tabebuia spp.n/a
Tabernaemontana donnell-smithii
(Stemmadenia donnell-smithii)
n/a
Tachigali micropetalan/a
Tapura latifolian/a
Terminalia amazonian/a
Terminalia ivorensisn/a
Tessmannia africanan/a
Testulea gabonensisn/a
Tieghemella africanan/a
Tieghemella heckeliin/a
Trattinnickia spp.n/a
Triplochiton scleroxylonn/a
Turraeanthus africanusn/a
Uapaca guineensisn/a
Vatairea guianensisn/a
Vatairea lundelliin/a
Virola spp. (except Virola bicuhyba)n/a
Vochysia spp.n/a
Vouacapoua americanan/a
Zanthoxylum gilletii
(Fagara macrophylla)
n/a
Zanthoxylum heitzii
(Fagara heitzii)
n/a
Zygia racemosan/a
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