D-04-03: Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) Policy for International Reporting of Quarantine Pests
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Effective Date: February 6, 2009
This policy directive is based on the International Plant Protection Convention's International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures No. 17, Pest Reporting.
This directive describes the CFIA's procedure for reporting the occurrence, outbreak or spread of plant pests that may be of immediate or potential danger to Canada, its neighbour, or countries to which it exports. The directive also sets out who may send the reports, to whom the reports should be sent, the means of communicating the reports, and the format to be used for reporting.
Note: the reporting of pests intercepted in consignments imported to Canada is described in D-01-06, Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.
This directive has been revised to update the review date, as well as minor administrative changes. The content of this directive has not changed.
Table of Contents
- Amendment Record
- Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms
- 1.0 Requirements
- 2.0 Appendice
This directive will be reviewed every 5 years unless otherwise needed. The next review date for this directive is February 6, 2014. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).
Chief Plant Health Officer
Amendments to this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution below.
- Directive mail list (Regions, PHRA, USDA)
- Provincial Government, Industry (via Regions)
- National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
The New Revised Text (1997) of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) states that contracting parties to the IPPC shall cooperate in the exchange of information on plant pests, particularly the reporting of the occurrence, outbreak or spread of pests that may be of immediate or potential danger.
On March 15, 2002, the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures adopted International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) No. 17, Pest reporting. ISPM No. 17 describes the responsibilities of, and requirements for, contracting parties in reporting the occurrence, outbreak and spread of pests in areas for which they are responsible. It also provides guidance on reporting successful eradication of pests and establishment of Pest Free Areas. This directive outlines the Canadian policy for pest reporting in accordance with ISPM No. 17.
The North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO) has also pursued initiatives to facilitate pest reporting. Therefore, in addition to fulfilling reporting obligations under the IPPC, this policy directive includes pest reporting aspects as part of Canada's NAPPO commitments.
This directive is for the use of staff of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, including the Import Service Centres; Canada Border Services Agency; Importers and Exporters.
ISPM No. 2, Framework for pest risk analysis, 2007, FAO, Rome
ISPM No. 5, Glossary of phytosanitary terms, FAO, Rome (updated annually).
ISPM No. 8, Determination of pest status in an area, 1998, FAO, Rome
ISPM No. 11, Pest risk analysis for quarantine pests, including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms, 2004, FAO, Rome
ISPM No. 17, Pest reporting, 2002, FAO, Rome
New Revised Text of the International Plant Protection Convention, 1997, FAO, Rome
Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms
Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.
1.1 Legislative Authority
The Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22
The Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette: Part I (as amended from time to time)
1.2 Types of pest situations to be reported internationally
The IPPC requires countries that are contracting parties to the IPPC to report pests which represent immediate or potential danger (elaborated on further in ISPM No. 17, Pest Reporting). This status is described as the occurrence, outbreak or spread of a pest that is a quarantine pest in the country in which it is detected, or a quarantine pest for neighbouring countries and trading partners. Although the standard also contains provisions for reports of successful eradication of pests, and the establishment of pest free areas, reporting of these situations is not an obligation, and will not be dealt with by this directive.
Pest reports must be prepared and issued for the following three pest situations:
- Occurrence (i.e., when the presence of a new quarantine pest in an area of Canada is detected).
- Outbreak (specifically, of a recently detected quarantine pest population, where the pest is expected to survive for the immediate future, even if the pest is not expected to establish).
- Spread (of a quarantine pest regulated by Canada, or by our trading partners or neighbours, which results in a significant increase in risk).
It should be noted that the reporting of pests intercepted in imported consignments and prevented from entering Canada is dealt with by D-01-06, Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.
1.3 Timing of reporting
Pest reports should be prepared and distributed in a timely manner, without undue delay, after awareness has been gained of the occurrence, outbreak or spread of a quarantine pest. Delays due to the operation of surveillance and associated reporting procedures, and necessary verification and analysis, should be kept to the minimum, particularly where the risk of pest spread is high. To facilitate prompt reporting, preliminary reports which contain only partial information may be issued, pending issuance of a full report once all information is obtained.
1.4 Composition and distribution of reports
1.4.1 Responsibility for writing and issuing the report
The Chief Plant Health Officer is responsible for ensuring that pest reports are prepared and issued. Pest reports must be signed by the Chief Plant Health Officer before being distributed.
1.4.2 Information to appear in the report
A template for pest reporting is provided in Appendix 1. Each pest report must provide the following information:
- the identity of the pest by its scientific name (where possible, to the species level, and below species level if known and relevant);
- the date the pest was detected in Canada;
- the date that the report is issued by the CFIA;
- host(s) or articles concerned (as appropriate). This should include clear identification of any and all commodities potentially affected by the pest in Canada;
- the status of the pest in Canada. ISPM No. 8, Determination of pest status in an area, should be referred to in order to select the appropriate description;
- geographical distribution of the pest in Canada. A map should be provided if appropriate;
- a description of the regulatory status of the pest in Canada. This information should also include an indication of whether the pest is under control in Canada.
If all the required information on the pest situation being reported is not immediately available, then a preliminary report should be made and updates issued as further information becomes available. In all cases, the pest report must indicate whether it is:
- a preliminary report (with further information to come);
- an update to a previous preliminary report; or,
- a complete report (with all required information provided and no further updates anticipated).
Optional information for the pest report includes an indication of whether the situation is considered to be an occurrence, an outbreak, or spread of the pest. The pest report may also include a description of any phytosanitary measures applied or required, as well as a description of their purpose. In addition, other information as indicated for pest records in ISPM No. 8, Determination of pest status in an area may be provided. This optional information may be very beneficial in outlining the degree of control being exercised - and, therefore, a partial measure of the degree of risk presented to trading partners - and it is recommended that this optional information be provided whenever possible.
1.4.3 Communication of the pest report
A link to each pest report is posted on the NAPPO "Phytosanitary Alert" web site (procedure described below). Introductory paragraph text should be provided which contains basic information from the pest report itself (at minimum: name of pest, date of new situation being reported, and location). This introductory text should conclude with a sentence stating "For further information, please consult the web site of CFIA's official pest report."
Hard copies of all original pest reports signed by the Chief Plant Health Officer will be retained on file.
18.104.22.168 Posting on NAPPO "Phytosanitary Alert System" web site
Each pest report should be provided to one of the Canadian representatives of the NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert Panel immediately after being signed by the Chief Plant Health Officer, to be posted on the Phytosanitary Alert site. On those occasions when the Canadian representatives of the NAPPO Phytosanitary Alert Panel are absent, the International Standards Adviser, or another staff member of CFIA nominated by the Chief Plant Health Officer, may post the reports on the Phytosanitary Alert web site.
Appendix 1: Format to be used for pest reports issued by the CFIA
Format to be used for pest reports issued by the CFIA
Official Pest Report - Preliminary / Update / Complete
Canadian Food Inspection Agency
Plant Health and Biosecurity Division
[delete as appropriate; if an update, clarify whether first, second, etc., update]
Identity of pest being reported
[scientific name, to species level or below if known and relevant]
Date of pest report
Date new pest situation determined
Hosts or articles concerned
[identify all commodities with which this pest is associated in Canada]
An indication of whether this pest report is preliminary, an update, or a complete report.
Current status of the identified pest in Canada
[descriptions should match those used in ISPM No. 8, Determination of pest status in an area]
Regulatory status of the pest in Canada
[Quarantine pest / Regulated Non-Quarantine Pest / Not Regulated / To Be Determined]
Geographical distribution of the pest in Canada
[also indicate whether a map, if appropriate, is included, will follow, or is unnecessary]
The nature of the immediate or potential danger [where known, comment on whether the report relates to an occurrence, an outbreak or spread of the pest, what the regulatory status of the pest is in Canada, and the likelihood of further spread]
Where appropriate, indicate the phytosanitary measures that have been or will be applied or required, and their purpose [recommended information].
Where appropriate and available, additional information e.g., other information as indicated for pest records in ISPM Pub. No. 8, Determination of pest status in an area can be provided in this section. Such additional information includes:
- subspecific terms (e.g., strain, biotype, etc.) Used in scientific name
- life stage or state
- taxonomic group
- identification method
- date that the pest was first recorded in Canada if already present (year and month; normally the day will only be required for specific circumstances (e.g. the first detection of a particular pest, pest monitoring)
- locality, e.g. location codes, addresses, geographical coordinates; important conditions such as if under protected cultivation (e.g. greenhouses) should be indicated
- scientific name of host(s), as appropriate
- host damage, or circumstances of collection (e.g. trap or soil sample), as appropriate
- prevalence, indication of the level of pest presence or pest numbers
- bibliographical references, if any.
It is recommended that individual commodity section contact addresses and web links to sources of further information be provided.
Chief Plant Health Officer
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