D-09-01: Phytosanitary requirements to prevent the introduction and spread of the European brown garden snail (Cornu aspersum [Müller], syn. Helix aspersa [Müller]) from the continental United States

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Effective Date: July 15, 2010
(1st revision)

Subject

This directive provides the phytosanitary requirements for plants for planting originating from areas of the continental United States where the European brown garden snail (Cornu aspersum [Müller], syn. Helix aspersa [Müller]) is known to occur, in order to prevent the introduction and spread of this pest within Canada.

This amendment modifies the requirements for plants with soil from California. Plants imported from California with small amounts of soil (i.e., plants that are not containerized, balled and burlapped, or otherwise accompanied by substantial quantities of soil) are no longer required to be produced in a facility approved by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) as being free of snails. Plants imported with substantial amounts of soil must still originate from a USDA-approved snail-free facility.

Table of Contents

Review

This directive will be reviewed every five years unless otherwise needed. For further information or clarification, please contact the Horticulture Section of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Endorsement

Approved by:

Chief Plant Health Officer

Amendment Record

Amendments of this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution below.

Distribution

  1. Directive mail list (Regions, PHRA, USDA)
  2. Provincial Government, Industry (determined by Author)
  3. National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
  4. Internet

Introduction

Cornu aspersum (syn. Helix aspersa), the European brown garden snail (EBGS), is a quarantine pest of Canada. It has a broad host range and feeds on various fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. Due to this broad host range and its feeding habits, the pest is capable of causing substantial economic damage to the Canadian horticulture industry as well as limited damage to the natural environment.

As C. aspersum can retreat into their shells and avoid desiccation, they can survive in adverse environments for extended periods of time. C. aspersum can remain active at 4.5°C and can survive in a dormant stage to -10°C, enabling the snail to survive in many parts of southern Canada.

As the various life stages of C. aspersum may be present in growing media, soil or related matter associated with plants for planting, it is difficult to adequately inspect the plants visually to ensure freedom from this pest. This directive outlines the phytosanitary import requirements intended to prevent the introduction of C. aspersum with plants both with and without soil and related matter that are imported from regulated states in the United States.

Scope

This directive is intended for the use of CFIA inspection staff, the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA), the National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs) of exporting countries, importers, shippers and brokers and presents the import requirements and inspection procedures for plants for planting that may be infested with C. aspersum.

References

D-01-06: Canadian Phytosanitary Policy for Notification of Non-Compliance and Emergency Action. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-08-04: Plant Protection Import Requirements for Plants and Plant Parts for Planting: Preventing the Entry and Spread of Regulated Plant Pests Associated with the Plants for Planting Pathway. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-95-26: Phytosanitary requirements for soil and related matter, and for items contaminated with soil and related matter. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-96-20: Canadian Growing Media Program, Prior Approval Process and Import Requirements for Plants Rooted in Approved Media. CFIA, Ottawa.

Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms

Definitions of terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 General Requirements

1.1 Legislative Authority

Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22
Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette: Part I (as amended from time to time)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the Import Service Centre (ISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice Web Site.

1.3 Regulated Pest

European brown garden snail, Cornu aspersum (Müller, 1774).

Note: The scientific name of C. aspersum has long been debated by taxonomists. The oldest name in use is Helix aspersa (Müller, 1774). Over the last few decades, the snail has also been known as Cryptomphalus aspersus (Müller, 1774), Cantareus aspersus (Müller, 1774), and most recently Cornu aspersum (Müller, 1774). Cornu aspersum is currently considered the most accurate name.

1.4 Regulated Commodities

All plants intended for planting, with or without soil and growing media, are regulated as described in the requirements below.

1.5 Commodities exempted from the requirements in this directive

In-vitro plants, unrooted cuttings, unrooted plantlets, epiphytes, fresh decorative branches and foliage, cut flowers, fresh fruits and vegetables, and plants grown and exported under the Canadian Growing Media Program (see D-96-20: Canadian Growing Media Program, Prior Approval Process and Import Requirements for Plants Rooted in Approved Media) must be free of all life stages of C. aspersum, but the requirements described below (e.g., additional declarations, production in approved snail-free facilities) do not apply.

1.6 Regulated areas

Continental United States states listed in Appendix 1.

2.0 Specific requirements

Note: General requirements for plants for planting are described in D-08-04: Plant Protection Import Requirements for Plants and Plant Parts for Planting: Preventing the Entry and Spread of Regulated Plant Pests Associated with the Plants for Planting Pathway. Various other pest or commodity-specific requirements may also apply. 

2.1 Regulated continental United States states other than California (see Appendix 1)

All plants must be free of all life stages of C. aspersum.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The Phytosanitary Certificate must list the following additional declaration:

"The plants in this consignment were inspected and found to be free of European brown garden snail (Helix aspersa/Cornu aspersum)."

2.2 California

Note: Growing media, including soil and related matter, in association with plants for planting and originating in California is not prohibited entry to Canada. However, additional declarations related to soil pests may be required on the Phytosanitary Certificate, as per directive D-08-04: Plant Protection Import Requirements for Plants and Plant Parts for Planting: Preventing the Entry and Spread of Regulated Plant Pests Associated with the Plants for Planting Pathway.

2.2.1 Plants that are completely free of all growing media, soil and related matter

The plants must be free of all life stages of C. aspersum.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The Phytosanitary Certificate must list the following additional declaration:

"The plants in this consignment were inspected and found to be free of European brown garden snail (Helix aspersa/Cornu aspersum)."

2.2.2 Plants from which most growing media, soil and related matter has been removed

The plants must undergo a treatment designed to remove most growing media, soil and related matter from the plant root systems. Examples of such treatments include washing or shaking the harvested plants.

The plants must be free of all life stages of C. aspersum.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The Phytosanitary Certificate must list the following additional declaration:

"The plants in this consignment were inspected and found to be free of European brown garden snail (Helix aspersa/Cornu aspersum)."

2.2.3 Plants with growing media, soil and related matter

This section presents the requirements for plants that are imported with substantial amounts of growing media, soil and/or related matter. This includes potted or otherwise containerized plants, plants that are balled and burlapped and any other plant to which a root cleaning treatment has not been applied.

Plants imported with substantial amounts of growing media, soil and/or related matter must be produced in an approved snail-free nursery, greenhouse or holding area (please contact the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) for more information).

The plants must be free of all life stages of C. aspersum.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The Phytosanitary Certificate must include the following additional declaration:

"The rooted plants in this consignment originate from an approved snail-free nursery, greenhouse or holding area, and were inspected and found to be free of European brown garden snail (Helix aspersa/Cornu aspersum)."

3.0 Non-compliance

Consignments must meet all requirements at their first point of arrival in Canada. Consignments that are found to be infested with any pests of quarantine concern will be refused entry, returned to origin, or disposed of at the importer's expense. Those infested with quarantine pests may be ordered treated prior to disposal in order to prevent pest spread. Infested shipments may be rerouted to other destinations at the expense of the importer, provided that such a course of action does not pose a phytosanitary risk.

The CFIA will advise the National Plant Protection Organization of the country of origin of any non-compliance with any of the conditions outlined in this directive as per policy directive D-01-06: Canadian Phytosanitary Policy for Notification of Non-Compliance and Emergency Action. If C. aspersum is intercepted on plants from California originating from an approved snail-free facility, the USDA will be advised and will take appropriate measures, which may include repealing the facility's approval.

4.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: States in the continental United States regulated for European brown garden snail (Cornu aspersum, syn. Helix aspersa)

  • Arizona
  • California
  • Idaho
  • Louisiana
  • Nevada
  • New Mexico
  • Oregon
  • Texas
  • Utah
  • Washington
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