D-13-03: Phytosanitary import requirements to prevent the introduction of Lobesia botrana, the European grapevine moth

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Effective date: January 1, 2016
(Original)

Note regarding phased implementation

The requirements in this directive are being implemented in several phases in order to provide stakeholders with time to adapt:

  • Phase 1: April 11, 2016. Requirements for fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) and blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) from all countries in Appendix 2 come into force.
  • Phase 2: July 4, 2016. Requirements for all other fresh fruit listed in Appendix 1 from all countries listed in Appendix 2 come into force, except for kiwi fruit (Actinidia spp.).
  • Phase 3: Under review (exact date to be determined and will be notified in the future). Requirements for all other regulated commodities listed in Appendix 1 (e.g. plants for planting, kiwi fruit) from all countries listed in Appendix 2 come into force.

Subject:

This directive outlines the phytosanitary import requirements for plants and plant parts to prevent the introduction of Lobesia botrana, the European grapevine moth (EGVM), into Canada.

Table of contents

Review

This directive will be updated as required. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Endorsement

Approved by:

space
Chief Plant Health Officer

Amendment record

Amendments to this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution list below.

Distribution list

1. Directive mail list (CFIA regional offices, CFIA Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit, United States Department of Agriculture)
2. Provincial government, industry (determined by author)
3. National industry organizations (determined by author)
4. Internet

Introduction

Lobesia botrana (L. botrana) is predominantly a pest of grapes and reduces both grape yields and quality in all areas of the world where it is present. The larvae feed directly on the fruit; this increases the fruits' susceptibility to fungi, particularly to Aspergillus spp. and Botrytis cinerea.

L. botrana is a polyphagous insect which has a wide range of alternate hosts. This allows for the survival of the insect during periods when grapes are not available for feeding.

The various life stages of L. botrana can be transported over long distances, most commonly as eggs on the stems of infested plant material or as larvae within fruits and fruit clusters. In both cases, this insect is difficult to detect by visual inspection.

L. botrana is present in most of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, as well as in Argentina, Chile and Kenya. L. botrana is not established in North America, although it was detected in California in 2009 and is under eradication. This insect is a quarantine pest for Canada and several other countries, including the United States (U.S.) and Mexico.

L. botrana could survive in Canada's major grape-growing areas (southern Ontario and parts of British Columbia) where it is anticipated that it would have a significant negative impact on grape yields. If this insect were to establish in Canada, it would also impact Canada's ability to export L. botrana host material to countries where L. botrana is a regulated pest.

Scope

This directive is intended for those wishing to import regulated commodities from countries where L. botrana is present. It is also intended for use by Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) staff, the Canada Border Services Agency and National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs).

References

D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for notification of non-compliance and emergency action. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-08-04: Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-95-08: General import requirements for fresh temperate fruits from the world. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-94-34: Import Requirements for Grapevine Propagative Material. CFIA, Ottawa.

Federal Order – Domestic Quarantine for Lobesia botrana (European Grapevine Moth). USDA-APHIS.

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 4: Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas. International Plant Protection Convention, 1996.

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 5: Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms. International Plant Protection Convention, 2015.

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 14: The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management. International Plant Protection Convention, 2002.

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 29: Recognition of pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence. International Plant Protection Convention, 2007.

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) 32: Categorization of commodities according to their pest risk. International Plant Protection Convention, 2009.

Protocol to the Vienna Convention on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Montreal Protocol, 1987.

Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health and Biosecurity Directorate Glossary of Terms or the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM 5) Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms.

1.0 General requirements

1.1 Legislative authority

Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part I (05/13/2000)

Plant Protection Act

Plant Protection Regulations

1.2 Fees

The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported products, please contact the CFIA's National Import Service Centre. For any other information regarding fees, please contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice website.

1.3 Regulated pests

Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller)

Common names: European grapevine moth, grape berry moth, grape fruit moth, vine moth, grape vine moth, Mediterranean vine moth, grape leaf-roller, grape moth.

1.4 Commodities regulated under this directive

  • Grapevines (Vitis spp.)
  • Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.)
  • Unfermented grape pomace for uses other than human consumption, e.g. fertilizer, fodder, combustion, etc. (Vitis spp.)
  • Plants for planting, fresh herbs, and fresh fruits identified as pathways for the introduction of L. botrana , as per Appendix 1.
  • Used bins and conveyances originating from regulated areas.

1.5 Commodities exempted

  • The following Vitis spp. products:
    • grape must
    • fermented grape pomace
    • unfermented grape pomace intended for human consumption
    • wine
    • grape juice
    • raisins (dried grapes)
  • Products containing or made from regulated taxa (as per Appendix 1) that have been processed to the point where the commodity does not remain capable of being infested with L. botrana (e.g., sliced, peeled, pureed, cooked, pickled, canned, frozen, dried, roasted, pasteurized, etc.).

1.6 Regulated areas

See Appendix 2 for the list of regulated areas.

Note: Material listed in this directive that does not originate from the areas listed in Appendix 2 may be subject to import requirements listed in other CFIA directives.

2.0 Phytosanitary measures

Sections 2.1 through 2.3 describe the L. botrana phytosanitary measures that may be required in order to import regulated articles into Canada from regulated areas. Section 3 details which of these measures are required, depending on the product and the area/country of origin.

2.1 Bilateral agreement and Phytosanitary Management System (Systems Approach)

Regulated commodities may be imported to Canada under a bilateral agreement with the exporting country. A bilateral agreement may include a systems approach, provided it conforms to international guidelines as per International Standard for Phytosanitary Measure (ISPM) 14: The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management", and is approved by the CFIA.

The CFIA will evaluate any proposed systems approach and determine whether it meets Canada's import requirements. If so, the CFIA will grant approval of the program, in writing, to the National Plant Protection Organisation (NPPO) of the exporting country.

Appendix 3 lists countries that have a bilateral agreement with the CFIA for L. botrana or that have implemented CFIA-approved integrated measures in a systems approach in order to manage the risk of L. botrana, and which may export regulated articles to Canada under this option.

2.2 Pest-free area (PFA)

The NPPO of an exporting country that is regulated for L. botrana may determine that certain portions of its territory are free from L. botrana , according to ISPM 4: Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas.

The NPPO must provide the CFIA with information demonstrating that the appropriate guidelines described in the ISPM have been met. The CFIA will review the information and determine whether to recognize the PFAs as per ISPM 29: Recognition of pest free areas and areas of low pest prevalence.

2.3 Treatment

The only treatment currently approved by the CFIA against L. botrana is fumigation with methyl bromide. The treatment schedule is provided in Appendix 4.

Note: As a signatory to the Protocol to the Vienna Convention on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, Montreal Protocol, 1987, Canada is phasing out the use of methyl bromide for quarantine purpose. Exporting countries are encouraged to submit data supporting the efficacy of alternatives to methyl bromide fumigation to the CFIA for review. These alternatives can include, for example, fumigation using other products.

3.0 Specific requirements

Regulated material that is being re-exported to Canada must meet Canada's import requirements for the country of origin. The material must be accompanied by a re-export phytosanitary certificate with attached original phytosanitary certificate from the country of origin or a phytosanitary certificate provided by the NPPO of the re-exporting country.

One of the additional declarations referenced in section 3.1 or 3.2. must be declared on the phytosanitary certificate or re-export phytosanitary certificate. If the required declaration does not appear on the phytosanitary certificate issued by the country of origin, then the NPPO of the re-exporting country must provide rationale and obtain agreement from the CFIA prior to making the required declaration on a phytosanitary certificate issued by the NPPO of the re-exporting country.

If the material has been fumigated, the treatment details must be included on the phytosanitary certificate, whether the treatment occurred in the country of origin or in the re-exporting country.

Note: Requirements are reviewed and revised periodically to address changes in pest status and distribution. It is the importer's responsibility to verify requirements prior to importation.

In addition to the requirements outlined in this directive, other requirements related to the import of fresh fruits or plants for planting material may also apply. It is the importer's responsibility to ensure that the shipment meets all of Canada's requirements prior to import. Fresh fruits and plants for planting that have not previously been imported to Canada from new sources are subject to a pest risk analysis prior to being considered for importation. For more information, please consult:

Fresh fruit

D-95-08: General import requirements for fresh temperate fruits from the world.

Plants for planting

D-08-04: Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting.

Note: Grapevines are prohibited entry to Canada, except from approved sources. Please refer to D-94-34: Import Requirements for Grapevine Propagative Material for additional information.

3.1 Requirements applied to regulated countries other than the U.S

Countries regulated by Canada for L. botrana are listed in Appendix 2.
Commodity Requirements
Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.), unfermented grape (Vitis spp.) pomace imported for uses other than human consumption and other regulated fresh fruit

1. The material must be produced under a CFIA-approved systems approach (see section 2.1). A Phytosanitary Certificate listing the following additional declaration is required:

  • "The material was produced under a CFIA-approved systems approach and was inspected and found free from Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)."

or

2. The material must be produced in a CFIA-approved PFA (see section 2.2). A Phytosanitary Certificate listing the following additional declaration is required:

  • "The material was produced in an area free from Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth) as specified in ISPM 4."

or

3. The material must be fumigated (see section 2.3). A Phytosanitary Certificate describing the details of the fumigation in the treatment section is required.

Grapevines (Vitis spp.)

The following declaration must appear on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

  • "Material is free of quarantine pests of Canada; free from soil, sand and related plant debris; and originated from a source approved by CFIA."

and

Hot water treatment (details required)

Other regulated plants and plant parts
(see Appendix I)

Plants for planting must be free of all flowers and fruit.

1. The material must be produced under a CFIA-approved systems approach (see section 2.1). A Phytosanitary Certificate listing the following additional declaration is required:

  • "The material was produced under a CFIA-approved systems approach and was inspected and found free from Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)."

or

2. The material must be produced in a CFIA-approved PFA (see section 2.2). A Phytosanitary Certificate listing the following additional declaration is required:

  • "The material was produced in an area free from Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth) as specified in ISPM 4."

or

3. The material must be fumigated (see section 2.3). A Phytosanitary Certificate describing the details of the fumigation in the treatment section is required.

Containers and conveyances Must be new or cleaned in a manner that addresses risks from regulated plant pests and removes all organic matter, soil and/or soil-related matter.

3.2 Requirements applied to regulated areas of the U.S

In addition to the requirements listed in the table below, surveys must be conducted to determine the extent of the infestation.

For a list of all the regulated areas in the U.S, please refer to the latest version of USDA's Federal Order – Domestic Quarantine for Lobesia botrana (European Grapevine Moth).

Commodity Requirements
Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) and other regulated fresh fruit

1. The material must be produced according to the requirements of the USDA Federal Order "Domestic Quarantine for Lobesia botrana (European Grapevine Moth)"
A Phytosanitary Certificate listing the following additional declaration is required:

  • "The consignment was inspected and found free of European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana."

or

2. The material must be fumigated (see section 2.3). A Phytosanitary Certificate describing the details of the fumigation in the treatment section is required.
Note: Fumigation is mandatory for bulk grapes/grapes for crush.

Unfermented grape pomace for uses other than human consumption

1. If L. botrana has been detected within 200 metres of the production site or packing facility, the material must be treated with a CFIA-approved treatment for L. botrana. A Phytosanitary Certificate indicating the treatment details is required.

or

2. If L. botrana has not been detected within 200 metres of the production site or packing facility, the material must be inspected prior to crushing and found free of all life stages of L. botrana. A Phytosanitary Certificate indicating the following additional declaration is required:

  • "The consignment was inspected and found free from European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana."
Grapevines
(Vitis spp.)

A Phytosanitary Certificate describing the details of the treatment in the treatment section is required. The following additional declaration is required:

  • "The consignment was inspected and found free from European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana."

1. Plants must be free of all flowers and fruit. Plants must be visually inspected and found free from L. botrana.

and

2a. Dormant grapevines must be treated with a hot water dip for at least 5 minutes at 52.7°C (127°F).

or

2b. Non-dormant grapevines must be treated with a CFIA-approved treatment.

Olive plants (Olea spp.)

A Phytosanitary Certificate listing the following additional declaration is required:

  • "The consignment was inspected and found free from European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana."

1. Plants must be free of all flowers and fruit. Plants must be visually inspected and found free from L. botrana.

or

2. Plants must be treated with a CFIA-approved treatment for L. botrana. Treatment details must be included on the Phytosanitary Certificate. Plants must be visually inspected and found free from L. botrana.

Other regulated plants and plant parts
(see Appendix I)

A Phytosanitary Certificate listing the following additional declaration is required:

  • "The consignment was inspected and found free from European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana."
Containers and conveyances Must be either new or cleaned in a manner that addresses risks from regulated plant pests and removes all organic matter, soil and soil-related matter.

4.0 Non-compliance

Imported consignments may be inspected by the CFIA and must meet all requirements when they reach first point of arrival in Canada. Consignments will be refused entry, and removed from Canada or disposed of, if they do not meet requirements or are found to be infested with any pests of quarantine concern. Treatment may be ordered prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests. The importer is responsible for all costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal. The CFIA will advise the NPPO of the country of origin of any non-compliance with any conditions outlined in this directive as per directive D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for notification of non-compliance and emergency action.

5.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Commodities regulated for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)

Note: Fruits, plants and plant parts of all the taxa listed below are regulated for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)

Highest risk pathway:
Scientific name Common name
Vitis spp. grape, grapevine
Secondary pathways:
Scientific name Common name
Actinidia chinensis kiwi
Berberis vulgaris European barberry
Clematis vitalba old man's beard
Daphne gnidium spurge flax
Diospyros kaki persimmon
Galium mollugo false baby's breath
Hypericum calycinum St. John's Wort
Ligustrum vulgare European privet
Olea europaea olive (except olive fruit)
Prunus spp. Almond, cherry, nectarine, plum, etc.
Punica granatum pomegranate
Rhus glabra smooth sumac
Ribes spp. currant, gooseberry
Rosmarinus officinalis rosemary
Rubus caesius European dewberry
Rubus fructicosus European blackberry
Silene vulgaris bladder campion
Trifolium pratense red clover
Urginea maritima sea squill
Vaccinium spp. blueberry
Ziziphus jujuba jujube

Appendix 2: Areas regulated for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)

2a. Counties in the U.S State of California

For the list of all the regulated areas in the United States, please refer to the latest version of the USDA's Federal Order – Domestic Quarantine for Lobesia botrana (European Grapevine Moth).

2b. Regulated countries other than the United States

  • Algeria
  • Argentina
  • Armenia
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Belgium
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bulgaria
  • Chile
  • Crete
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Egypt
  • Ethiopia
  • France
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kenya
  • Lebanon
  • Libya
  • Lithuania
  • Luxemburg
  • Macedonia
  • Malta
  • Moldova
  • Montenegro
  • Morocco
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Russia
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Switzerland
  • Syria
  • Tajikistan
  • Turkey
  • Turkmenistan
  • Ukraine
  • United Kingdom
  • Uzbekistan

Appendix 3: Countries which have a bilateral arrangement with the CFIA for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)

  • Argentina (for grapes [Vitis spp.], blueberries [Vaccinium spp.], plums [Prunus domestica], cherries [Prunus avium], pomegranates [Punica granatum], peaches [Prunus persica], and kiwis [Actinidia spp.] only)
  • Chile (for all regulated fruits)
  • Italy (for fresh grapes [Vitis spp.] and plums [Prunus domestica and Prunus salicina] only)
    • Note: For fresh plums, the systems approach may not be used for fruit destined to British Columbia.
  • Spain (for fresh stone fruit other than cherries [Prunus spp. other than P. avium and P. cerasus] only)
  • United States (for all regulated fruits)

Appendix 4: Schedule for fumigation with methyl bromide for Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)

Shipments must be fumigated as described below at normal atmospheric pressure.

Temperature
C)
Temperature
F)
Methyl bromide dosage rate
(g/m3)
Methyl bromide dosage rate
(lb/ 1,000 ft3)
Minimum concentration readings at:
0.5 hr
(g)
Minimum concentration readings at:
0.5 hr
(oz)
Minimum concentration readings at:
hrs
(g)
Minimum concentration readings at:
hrs
(oz)
26.5 or above 80 or above 24 1.5 19 19 14 14
21 – 26.4 70 - 79 32 2.0 26 26 19 19
15.5 – 20.9 60 - 69 40 2.5 32 32 24 24
10 – 15.4 50 - 59 48 3.0 38 38 29 29
4.5 – 9.9 40 - 49 64 4.0 48 48 38 38
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