D- 99-04: Systems Approach Based Oriental Fruit Moth Certification Program
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Effective date: June 1, 2019
This directive outlines an alternative certification program for importing fresh fruit of peach, nectarine, plum and apricot, as well as genetic crosses of apricot such as pluot and plumcot from the United States (U.S.) into British Columbia (BC) to prevent the introduction of Oriental fruit moth. The existing requirements remain an option.
The following change has been made as part of this revision:
- This directive is being updated to remove the phytosanitary requirements for in-transit shipments entering Canada through British Columbia destined to another province.
This document supersedes all previous versions of directive D-99-04.
Note: Fresh fruit of plum and quince are also regulated for Oriental fruit moth. The import requirements for plum and quince, as well as the other hosts of Oriental fruit moth are outlined in directive D-87-29 (please contact your local CFIA office for details).
Table of Contents
- 1.0 Legislative authority
- 2.0 Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms
- 3.0 Introduction
- 4.0 Scope
- 5.0 General requirements
- 5.1 Import requirements
- 5.1.1 Pre-shipment conditions
- 5.1.2 Permit to import
- 5.1.3 Phytosanitary Certificate
- 5.2 Transit requirements
- 5.3 Inspection requirements
- 5.1 Import requirements
- 6.0 Non-compliance
- 7.0 References
- 7.1 Fees
- 7.2 Supporting documents
1.0 Legislative authority
- Plant Protection Act (S.C. 1990, c. 22)
- Plant Protection Regulations (SOR/95-212)
- Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part I (as amended from time to time)
2.0 Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms
Definitions of terms used in this document can be found in the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 5: Glossary of phytosanitary terms or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA's) Plant Health Glossary of Terms.
The Oriental fruit moth does not occur in British Columbia. Surveys using sticky traps with Oriental fruit moth pheromone are carried out annually to verify pest freedom. The Oriental fruit moth is an economic pest of peach, plum, apricots and nectarines, feeding internally on the fruit and attacking the new shoots of fruit trees. The introduction of Oriental fruit moth into the fruit production areas of BC could result in increased production costs, loss of fruit quality, and a loss of export markets.
To prevent the introduction of Oriental fruit moth into BC, hosts and carriers of Oriental fruit moth from infested areas of Canada, the U.S. and other countries presently require fumigation before they may be shipped into BC. This requirement is outlined in other directives (D-87-29 for import requirements and Quarantine Directive: Domestic-7 for domestic requirements); please contact your local CFIA office for further information.
A systems approach has been shown to be an effective alternative means of mitigating the risk of Oriental fruit moth being introduced into Canada on stone fruit. The National Plant Protection Organization developed a systems approach program involving field controls and packing house inspections (Oriental Fruit Moth Certification Program). Growers in the U.S. states listed in Appendix 1 are eligible to participate in the Oriental Fruit Moth Certification Program.
Growers in other U.S. states who wish to utilize the systems approach must demonstrate the effectiveness of the program using a pilot project. U.S. stone fruit certified under this program will not require fumigation with methyl bromide to enter BC. As there is no similar program developed at this time for fruit produced in Canada, regulated fruit shipped from other parts of Canada into BC require fumigation.
4.1 Regulated pests
Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck)
See the List of pests regulated by Canada.
Note: that the CFIA may take action on articles found to be infested with pests of potential quarantine concern even if they are not yet included on this list.
4.2 Regulated articles
Fresh fruit of peach, nectarine, plum and apricot, as well as genetic crosses of apricot such as pluot and plumcot (Prunus sp.), are eligible for shipment to BC under a systems approach.
Note: These articles may also be subject to other requirements in addition to those specific to the scope of this directive. Please consult the list of all Plant Health directives or the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) for more information.
4.3 Regulated areas
Growers from the U.S. states listed in Appendix 1 are eligible for participation in the Systems Approach based Oriental Fruit Moth Certification Program.
5.0 General requirements
Note: This directive describes only the phytosanitary requirements related to Grapholita molesta. Other requirements may also apply. Please consult the list of Plant Health directives and the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) or contact the CFIA for details.
5.1 Import requirements
To import fresh fruit of peach, nectarine, plum or apricot (and apricot crosses) from the U.S. states listed in Appendix 1 into BC, the following is required:
5.1.1 Pre-shipment conditions
220.127.116.11 Approval of growers
The fruit must originate from a grower approved by the National Plant Protection Organization to participate in Oriental Fruit Moth Certification Program.
18.104.22.168 Pest monitoring and controls
All fruit intended for shipment to BC under the Oriental Fruit Moth Certification Program must be grown in an orchard which meets the requirements for pest monitoring and controls as outlined by the National Plant Protection Organization.
The monitoring program used by participating growers must be specific for Oriental fruit moth and effective as a tool for estimating the optimum time for applying chemical controls.
Chemical controls and/or biological controls must be applied, if necessary, to ensure that all fruit shipped to BC is free from all stages of Oriental fruit moth.
All aspects of the pest monitoring and control program must be audited throughout the growing season by the National Plant Protection Organization.
Upon request, detailed information relating to pest monitoring and controls and information specific to each state utilizing the systems approach must be provided to the CFIA.
22.214.171.124 Fruit sampling and examination
Fruit on the packing line must be inspected for internal feeders, specifically for Oriental fruit moth, by packing house employees trained by officials authorized by the National Plant Protection Organization. Fruit examination techniques must incorporate the inspection conditions and procedures described in Appendix 1.
The fruit examination must include cutting of each individual piece of fruit. The number of fruit to be inspected must be based on detecting a pest infestation of 1.0% or greater with a 95% probability of finding at least one infested fruit in a lot.
In practical terms, a minimum of 300 fruit are required to be selected and examined from each days harvest for each grower lot packed. A grower lot is defined as the fruit produced from a same geographic location under the same phytosanitary management system.
The fruit examined must be representative of the entire grower lot. If Oriental fruit moth is detected, shipments from the infested lot will be disqualified for entry into Canada for the remainder of the shipping season.
126.96.36.199 National Plant Protection Organization audit inspections
1% of the boxes in a lot to be examined by inspectors are authorized by the National Plant Protection Organization. At least two fruit per inspected box must be cut and examined for internal feeders. If Oriental fruit moth is detected, shipments from the infested lot will be disqualified for entry into Canada for the remainder of the shipping season.
All boxes must be identified with a grower lot number and the name of the packer in order to facilitate inspection, to allow for trace-back in cases of non-compliance, and to minimize losses to the importer/exporter, should pests be found.
188.8.131.52 Packing house approval
The packing house must be approved for handling fruit for export to BC. The facility must be clean and maintained free of quarantine pests and infested fruit. The packing line used for fruit destined to BC must be cleaned prior to packing. At the time of packing, packing house staff must ensure that there is no mixing of non-eligible fruit (for example, fruit which has not been produced under the Systems Approach based Oriental Fruit Moth Certification Program) with the fruit destined to BC.
The fruit must be safeguarded from contamination from quarantine pests during packing, loading, and transportation.
Growers and packing houses must keep records as requested by the National Plant Protection Organization to demonstrate full compliance to program requirements.
5.1.2 Permit to import
A Canadian Permit to Import issued under the Plant Protection Regulations is not required.
5.1.3 Phytosanitary Certificate
A federal Phytosanitary Certificate is required. This document must be issued under the authority of the National Plant Protection Organization and must accompany each shipment imported into BC. The following additional declaration must appear on the certificate:
"The fruit in this shipment was produced under the Systems Approach based Oriental Fruit Moth Certification Program."
5.2 Transit requirements
Regulated commodities entering British Columbia in transit to out of province destinations must remain unopened and must transit BC directly and expeditiously to the destination province.
5.3 Inspection requirements
Shipments may be subject to inspection and sampling by CFIA on arrival to determine if pests are present. 5% of the boxes must be randomly selected and examined. Any fruit showing signs of pest damage shall be cut and examined. All pests found will be identified to determine if quarantine pests are present. The shipment may be placed under Notice of Quarantine pending the results of a laboratory identification.
The Import Service Centre shall:
- Verify that the Phytosanitary Certificate, including the additional declaration, conforms to the requirements specified under Section 5.1. Import Requirements of this directive.
CFIA inspectors shall:
- Examine shipments at the rate specified for freedom from pests;
- Inspect according to the general instructions in the Plant Health Import Inspection Manual for fresh fruit;
- If any pests are found, take specimens, place the shipment under Notice of Quarantine, and submit specimens for identification, according to the instructions in the Guidelines for Laboratory Submission of Imported Plants, Plant Pests and Related Matter.
Imported articles may be inspected by the CFIA and must meet all requirements when reaching their first point of arrival in Canada. Articles that are found to be infested with pests of quarantine concern or are otherwise non-compliant will be refused entry to Canada, and may be ordered removed from the country or destroyed.
Infested articles may be ordered treated prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests. The importer is responsible for all costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal of the articles, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken.
The CFIA will advise the National Plant Protection Organization of the country of origin and/or re-export of any non-compliance as per directive D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.
The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees, please contact your local CFIA office or visit the CFIA's Fees Notice website.
7.2 Supporting documents
Fact Sheet - Oriental Fruit Moth – Grapholita molesta (Busck)
Appendix 1: U.S. states that have an approved Systems Approach Based Oriental Fruit Moth Certification Program
Appendix 2: Evaluation and inspection of fresh fruit of peach, nectarine, plum and apricot, as well as genetic crosses of apricot for the presence of Oriental Fruit Moth
- hand lens with at least 10 x magnification
- sharp knife (preferably with a long thin blade and sharp point)
The light intensity at the surface of the fruit shall not be less than 540 lux / 50 foot candles.
Under optimal lighting conditions, check the fruit surface using the hand lens and knife to investigate punctures, holes, depressions, blemishes, specks or frass. Oriental Fruit Moth interceptions have been found randomly on the fruit surface (ie. not just in the stem cavity of the fruit) therefore the entire surface must be examined in detail.
The smallest holes may be less than 1 mm in diameter which is a little larger than the lenticels in the fruit skin. The holes are often highlighted by discolourations in the skin which are caused by halos of dead skin cells. The knife can be used to cut thin slices of tissue below a surface imperfection to detect signs of larval infestation (ie. tunnels or frass). In some cases larval tunnels are easily seen because of discoloured brown fruit tissue, but sometimes the tunnel is not brown and close inspection with the lens will be necessary to see that a larva has actually bored into the fruit.
Fresh feeding injury should be cause for closer examination of the entire shipment.
If the injury is fresh but there are no larvae present, more intensive examination of the rest of the shipment should be carried out.
This cavity is a protected area and it is a favourable spot for shelter and feeding used by some insects. Minute amounts of webbing and frass should be examined closely with the hand lens for concealed larvae. The tip of the knife can be used to gently lift or probe webbing under which larvae can hide, but extreme care must be taken not to injure the insects.
Detection of early instars
Early instars can be very difficult to find because of their small size and their lack of body pigment which allows them to match the internal colour of the fruit and escape detection. However because their head capsule is pigmented, one may detect them by this colour anomaly or by their movement. Frass is also a good indication that larvae are present but due to its small size, very careful examination of the fruit is necessary. Early instar frass is often the same size and texture as flour and thus requires a hand lens for detection.
Note: Lighting is probably the most important aid in helping to detect early instars.
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