D-11-01: Phytosanitary Requirements for Plants for Planting and Fresh Branches to Prevent the Entry and Spread of Anoplophora spp.

This page is part of the Guidance Document Repository (GDR).

Looking for related documents?
Search for related documents in the Guidance Document Repository

Effective Date: December 22, 2011
(Original)

Subject

This directive outlines the phytosanitary requirements for plants for planting and fresh branches that are considered hosts of Anoplophora spp. At the time of writing this directive, specific information pertaining to two species of Anoplophora (A. chinensis and A. glabripennis) was available and therefore included in this document, but it is important to note that the entire genus Anoplophora spp. is regulated by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA). The requirements included in this directive are intended to mitigate the risk of unintentional introduction of these quarantine pests into Canada with imported plants for planting and fresh branches.

Table of Contents

Review

This directive will be reviewed every 5 years unless otherwise needed. For further information or clarification, please contact the CFIA.

Endorsement

Approved by:

Chief Plant Health Officer

Amendment Record

Amendments to this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution section below.

Distribution

  1. Directive mail list (CFIA regional offices, CFIA Plant Health Risk Assessment Unit, United states Department of Agriculture)
  2. Provincial Government, industry (determined by author)
  3. National Industry organizations (determined by author)
  4. Internet

Introduction

The purpose of this directive is to prevent the introduction of Anoplophora spp. into Canada. Anoplophora species are native to China, Japan, Korea and other countries in Asia. Anoplophora chinensis (Forester) (the citrus longhorned beetle (CLHB)) and A. glabripennis (Asian long-horned beetle (ALHB)) are considered to be pests of great concern worldwide and are quarantine pests in many countries, including major trading partners of Canada, such as the United States (U.S.) and many European Union (E.U.) member states. Canada regulates the entire genus as quarantine pests.

Insects belonging to the genus Anoplophora are wood-boring, longhorned beetles belonging to the family Cerambycidae, which can either attack live, healthy trees or weakened and stressed trees. Trees ranging in size from bonsais to mature trees can be attacked. The larval stage is the most damaging as it feeds internally on the vascular systems of the roots, trunk, stem branches or twigs of its hosts. The resulting tunnels weaken the tree and may, over several years, kill it. Secondary infection may also happen as a result of the entry of pathogens through feeding wounds or exit holes. Much of their lifecycle is spent within the trees, these beetles are very difficult to detect until the tree shows signs of stress. It is also very difficult to control these pests as the larval and the pupal stages are protected from contact insecticides and most predators and parasitoids.

The genus Anoplophora has a very large host range. Anoplophora chinensis and A. glabripennis can attack over 100 species in at least 26 and 15 families respectively (CABI, 2005; Lingafeter & Hoebeke, 2002), including several economically important forest, fruit and ornamental plant species. A list of host plants of CLHB and ALHB is included in Appendix 1.

Longhorned beetles have been moved around the world with wood packaging materials, dunnage and with live plants. This document is intended to provide the import requirements to prevent the entry of Anoplophora spp. only, via the plants for planting and fresh branches pathways. Other commodities, which may contribute to the dissemination of these pests, are regulated in other CFIA policies. The policy directive D-98-08 (Entry Requirements for Wood Packaging Materials Produced in All Areas Other Than the Continental United States) specifies the phytosanitary requirements for non-manufactured wood packing materials. The phytosanitary import requirements for forestry products can be found in the policy directive D-02-12 Import requirements for non-processed wood and other non-propagative wood products, except solid wood packaging material, from all areas other than the Continental United States.

The first reported detection of A. chinensis was in 1980 in the Netherlands and since 2000, several breeding populations have been detected in Italy, France, Lithuania and the Netherlands. CLHB poses an economic and ecological threat to horticulture, forestry and woodland trees in Europe and to citrus production in the Mediterranean (DEFRA 2008). In North America, no established populations of CLHB have ever been detected, but a few adult specimens were found in 2001 in a Washington State nursery. This finding was linked to the import of host material from Korea and, after the area underwent an intensive eradication program, the USDA was able to declare eradication as successful in 2007. Other specimens of CLHB were also intercepted on imported host material over the last few years, but these incidents were reported as interceptions only and did not lead to the establishment of a population. CLHB has never been detected in Canada. The potential impacts related to the unintentional introduction of CLHB in Canada are expected to be major, considering that it can attack a wide range of hosts including several economically important fruit, forest and ornamental plant species.

The first discovery of an established population of A. glabripennis outside of its native range was in 1996 in Brooklyn, New York. The beetle was later detected in Long Island, Queens and Manhattan. In 1998, another ALHB was discovered in the suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. Established populations were also detected in two separate New Jersey locations – in Jersey City in 2002 and in Middlesex/Union counties in 2004. In 2007, ALHB was found on Staten and Prall's Islands in New York and in August 2008, it was detected in Worcester, Massachusetts. In June 2011, the USDA confirmed the presence of ALHB in Ohio. Infestations in Illinois and in Jersey City have been declared eradicated. In Europe, breeding populations have been detected in Austria, France, Germany and Italy, and several interceptions have been reported in various European countries. As of November 2010, the Netherlands have confirmed the first detection of an ALHB population, which is currently under eradication.

In September 2003, ALHB was detected for the first time in Canada in the Toronto area. The beetle was believed to have been introduced in non-manufactured wood packaging material several years prior to detection. The CFIA removed approximately 26,000 trees as part of eradication efforts. An aggressive eradication plan is in place in Canada and annual surveys are conducted to ensure early detection of any new infestations. Evidence suggests that if eradication efforts are not successful, ALHB could become a major pest of hardwood trees, resulting in large losses, especially for the maple products (approximately $280 million), tourism and hardwood lumber industries (approximately $112 billion). If ALHB were to spread to other parts of Canada, it could threaten other urban forests, as well as natural forests, including provincial and federal parks, recreational areas and protected lands.

Scope

This directive is intended for use by importers of nursery stock, plants for planting and fresh branches from countries where Anoplophora spp. are known to occur. It is also intended for use by CFIA inspectors, the Canada Border Services Agency and foreign National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs) in order to determine the phytosanitary import requirements and domestic movement requirements for plants for planting and fresh branches with respect to the requirements for Anoplophora spp.

References

D-94-14, Permit to Import Requirements for Plant Material from the Continental United States.

D-01-06, Canadian Phytosanitary Policy for the Notification of Non-Compliance and Emergency Action.

D-02-12, Import requirements for non-processed wood and other non-propagative wood products, except solid wood packaging material, from all areas other than the Continental United States.

D-08-04, Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting: Preventing the entry and spread of regulated plant pests associated with the plants for planting pathway.

D-11-05, Phytosanitary requirements for non-manufactured and non-propagative wood products to prevent the introduction from the continental United States and spread within Canada of the Asian long-horned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)

ISPM No. 4 - Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas. 1995. Rome, FAO.

ISPM No. 5 - Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms. Rome, FAO (updated annually).

ISPM No. 6 - Guidelines for surveillance. 1997. Rome, FAO.

ISPM No. 10 - Requirements for the establishment of pest free places of production and pest free production sites, 1999. Rome, FAO.

ISPM No. 14 - The use of integrated measures in a systems approach for pest risk management. 2002. Rome, FAO.

Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 General requirements

1.1 Legislative authority

The Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c.22
The Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part I (as amended from time to time)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the Import Service Centre (ISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice Web Site.

1.3 Regulated pests

The genus Anoplophora spp., including, but not limited to the following:

  • A. chinensis, citrus longhorned beetle
  • A. glabripennis, Asian long-horned beetle or starry sky beetle

1.4 Regulated commodities

All rooted and unrooted plants for planting and fresh branches that are a host of Anoplophora spp. and that have a diameter of 10 mm (0.4 in) or more at their widest point, including artificially dwarfed plants (bonsai and penjing). A list of host plants for Anoplophora spp. can be found in Appendix 1.

1.5 Exempt commodities

All rooted and unrooted host plants for planting and fresh branches which have a diameter less than 10 mm (0.4 in) at their widest point.

Dry material.

1.5.1 Document requirements for exempt commodities

A Phytosanitary Certificate must accompany the material and include the following additional declaration:

"The plant material in this consignment meet the CFIA phytosanitary requirements as described in policy directive D-11-01 to prevent the entry and spread of Anoplophora spp."

Note: Commodities that are exempted under this directive may be regulated under other policy directives. Please consult the CFIA website or the Automated Import Reference System for further information.

1.6 Regulated areas

All countries of the world.

2.0 Import Requirements

The import requirements specified in this policy directive are intended to prevent the entry of Anoplophora spp. only. Additional import requirements may exist for other pests and will be outlined in different policy directives.

2.1 Domestic requirements

For ALHB, the movement of regulated commodities from regulated to non-regulated areas of Canada requires written authorization by the CFIA and is authorized only under the provisions stipulated in the Asian Long-horned Beetle Infested Place Order.

Please contact your local office of the CFIA for more information.

2.2 Regulated commodities from countries other than the Continental U.S where Anoplophora spp. are present

Refer to Appendix 2 for a list of countries where Anoplophora spp. are present.

Note: Fresh branches that are a host of Anoplophora spp. and that have a diameter of 10 mm (0.4 in) or more at their widest point are prohibited from countries (other than the Continental U.S) where Anoplophora spp. are present.

All regulated commodities, other than fresh branches, must have been produced in a pest free area (PFA) established and maintained according to ISPM No. 4 Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas. The establishment and maintenance of a pest free area are based on the implementation of surveys, systems approaches and testing protocols agreed to by the CFIA.

Or

All regulated commodities, other than fresh branches, must have been produced in a pest free place of production (PFPP) or pest free production site (PFPS) established and maintained according to ISPM No. 10 Requirements for the establishment of pest free places of production and pest free production sites. The establishment and maintenance of a pest free place of production or pest free production site are based on the implementation of surveys, systems approaches and testing protocols agreed to by the CFIA.

Once a country is approved for the export of regulated material to Canada, the following requirements must be met:

2.2.1 Document Requirements for regulated commodities from countries other than the Continental U.S where Anoplophora spp. are present

A Permit to Import is required.

A Phytosanitary Certificate must accompany the material and include the following additional declaration:

"The plant material in this consignment meet the CFIA phytosanitary requirements as described in policy directive D-11-01 to prevent the entry and spread of Anoplophora spp."

Additional declarations attesting to freedom from other pests may be required depending on the commodity and country of origin.

Note: The import of regulated material, other than fresh branches, from countries where Anoplophora spp. are present is only approved when the material was produced in pest free areas, pest free places of production or pest free production sites within these countries. The material has to be grown in the PFA, PFPP or PFPS for its entire life or for a minimum of three consecutive years immediately prior to export. The approval process of PFA, PFPP or PFPS for individual countries must be initiated by the exporting country by submitting information to the CFIA describing the official control measures implemented against these pests. Official control measures include, but are not limited to, systems approaches, surveys, and surveillance. Until the CFIA has reviewed and recognized the official control measures implemented by the NPPO in the exporting country as sufficient to mitigate the risks of spreading Anoplophora spp., the import of regulated commodities from these countries is prohibited. Please consult ISPM No. 4, 6, 10 and 14, for more information about the establishment of pest free areas, pest free production sites or pest free places of production, and about surveillance and systems approaches.

In the event of discrepancies between the list of plant genera regulated by the CFIA and the foreign NPPO, the CFIA's list of hosts will take precedence.

2.3 Regulated commodities from countries other than the Continental U.S where Anoplophora spp. are known not to occur

A Permit to Import is required.

A Phytosanitary Certificate must accompany the material and include the following additional declaration:

"The plant material in this consignment was solely grown in Name of exporting country and Anoplophora chinensis and A. glabripennis are known not to occur in Name of exporting country."

Additional declarations attesting to freedom from other pests may be required depending on the commodity and country of origin.

2.4 Regulated commodities from states of the Continental U.S where populations of Anoplophora spp. have been detected and are currently under official control

A list of U.S states where populations of Anoplophora glabripennis have been detected is provided in Appendix 2.

The CFIA recognizes the USDA regulated areas where Anoplophora spp. are under official control as defined by the USDA in CFR 301.51 and associated U.S Federal Orders.

Note: Regulated commodities originating from U.S states where populations of Anoplophora spp. have been detected but are from outside of the regulated areas are not subjected to the Anoplophora spp. phytosanitary requirements.

Regulated commodities originating from U.S states where populations of Anoplophora spp. have been detected and from within regulated areas are subjected to the Anoplophora spp. requirements as outlined below.

In order to be approved entry into Canada, regulated commodities from regulated areas must originate from facilities that have entered into a compliance agreement with the USDA and must meet the requirements of the U.S Federal regulations related to A. glabripennis (7 CFR 301.51).

2.4.1 Document requirements for regulated commodities from states of the Continental U.S where populations of Anoplophora spp. have been detected and are currently under official control

A Permit to Import is not required unless specified in D-94-14 Permit to Import Requirements for Plant Material from the Continental United States.

A Phytosanitary Certificate must accompany the material and must include the following additional declaration:

"This shipment conforms to 7 CFR 301.51, which regulates the movement of plant material from areas regulated for A. glabripennis."

Additional declarations attesting to freedom from other pests may be required depending on the commodity and state of origin.

2.5 Regulated commodities from states of the Continental U.S where Anoplophora spp. are known not to occur

A Permit to Import is not required unless specified in D-94-14 Permit to Import Requirements for Plant Material from the Continental United States.

For fresh branches:
A phytosanitary certificate is not required unless specified in D-08-04 Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting: Preventing the entry and spread of regulated plant pests associated with the plants for planting pathway.

For rooted and unrooted plants for planting:
A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. An additional declaration for Anoplophora spp. is not required.

Additional declarations attesting to freedom from other pests may be required depending on the commodity and state of origin.

3.0 Non-compliance

The importer is responsible for any and all costs related to inspection and any costs associated with non-compliant shipments, including removal, return to origin, rerouting, treatment, disposal or any other measure deemed necessary by the CFIA. Canada will provide notification to the exporting country's NPPO of any interception and non-compliance. The detection of quarantine pests during inspection in Canada or any other non-compliance may result in the suspension of the importation of commodities from that country until remedial action is taken at origin.

For more information, please refer to the CFIA policy directive D-01-06 Canadian Phytosanitary Policy for the Notification of Non-Compliance and Emergency Action.

4.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Host genera of Anoplophora spp.

List of host genera of Anoplophora spp.

Appendix 2: Areas, territories and countries regulated for Anoplophora spp.

List of areas, territories and countries where Anoplophora spp. are present

Date modified: