D-11-05: Phytosanitary Requirements for Non-Manufactured and Non-Propagative Wood Products to Prevent the Introduction from the Continental United States and Spread Within Canada of the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)

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Effective Date: February 12, 2014
(2nd Revision)

Subject

This directive contains the phytosanitary import and domestic requirements for non-manufactured and non-propagative wood products to prevent the entry of the Asian longhorned beetle (ALHB), Anoplophora glabripennis, from the continental United States (U.S.) and spread from regulated area of Canada. This directive regulates commodity pathways for import from the continental U.S. and domestic movement within Canada. Specifically, it governs the movement of logs, lumber, wood and bark chips and dried branches in the host genera Acer (Maple), Aesculus (Horsechestnut), Albizia (White Silk), Betula (Birch), Celtis (Hackberry), Cercidiphyllum (Katsura), Koelreuteria (Goldenrain Tree), Platanus (Plane or Sycamore), Populus (Poplar), Salix (Willow), Sorbus (Mountain Ash), and Ulmus (Elm), and firewood of all species.

This directive has been revised to include the new ALHB regulated area in parts of the City of Mississauga and City of Toronto in the Province of Ontario, Canada. Furthermore, two host genera (Cercidiphyllum (Katsura) and Koelreuteria (Goldenrain Tree)) have been added to the list of regulated genera.

On September 20th 2013, the CFIA announced that the presence of ALHB was confirmed in an industrial area near Pearson International Airport, Mississauga, Ontario. The Asian Longhorned Beetle Infested Place Order was established on December 3, 2013 resulting in domestic movement requirements of regulated articles out of the Mississauga /Toronto regulated area.

In addition to meeting the requirements outlined in this directive, regulated commodities must also meet all other existing Canadian phytosanitary import requirements for any other pests regulated by Canada.

Table of Contents

Review

This directive will be reviewed every five years unless otherwise needed. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Endorsement

Approved by:

Chief Plant Health Officer

Amendment Record

Amendments of this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution below.

Distribution

  1. Directive mail list (Areas, Regions, PHRA, USDA, other federal government departments)
  2. Provincial Government, Industry (via Regions)
  3. National Industry Organizations (the Hardwood Lumber Bureau, Canadian Lumber Standard Accreditation Board, other Lumber industry representatives) and the public
  4. Internet

Introduction

Asian longhorned beetle (ALHB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), also known as the starry-sky beetle, is an introduced wood boring beetle native to Asia that attacks and kills many species of live, healthy hardwood trees. A breeding population was detected in 1996 for the first time in North America in New York City, New York, U.S.A. In 1998, a separate ALHB infestation was discovered in Chicago, Illinois. This infestation was declared eradicated in 2008. ALHB has also been detected in two separate New Jersey locations; in Jersey City in 2002 and in Middlesex/Union counties in 2004. In 2007, ALHB was found on Staten and Prall's Islands in New York. In Massachusetts, ALHB has been found in Worcester in 2008 and Boston in 2010. ALHB was found in Ohio in 2011. In Canada, ALHB was first detected in September 2003 in the Toronto/Vaughan industrial area of Ontario. In September 2013, the CFIA confirmed a new detection of ALHB in an Ontario industrial area near Pearson International Airport. On December 3, 2013, The Asian LongHorned Beetle Infested Place Order was established in the parts of the City of Mississauga and the City of Toronto.

During its larval stage, ALHB feeds on and tunnels through the vascular system and heartwood of the tree, eventually killing it. Due to the fact that the insect spends the majority of its life cycle inside the tree, it can be challenging to detect until the tree is showing signs of stress. Control of the pest is also difficult.

The deciduous trees that are host to ALHB form a major component of forests and urban landscapes in both Canada and the U.S., and are commonly found from the Atlantic Provinces through to western Canada. ALHB host trees aid in maintaining the health of the environment by providing habitat to numerous animals, including birds. They are also contribute to good air quality and the ecological health of soil, and are of very high value to the maple syrup, tourism, and hardwood industries in Canada. The loss of ALHB host trees would reduce or eliminate sources of food and shelter for wildlife, decrease biodiversity, and diminish the health of Canadian forests, as well as rural and urban landscapes. For example, in 2008, there were 11.9 million visitors to Canada's National Parks, demonstrating the importance of Canada's forests and natural ecosystems to Canadians and tourists alike (according to The State of Canada's Forests: Annual Report, 2010. Ottawa, 2010, NRCan.)

ALHB host trees are of considerable economic importance to Canada, valued at several billion dollars annually and representing a major component of hardwood and manufactured products. ALHB host trees are used for a variety of purposes, including flooring, furniture, tools, and sports equipment. ALHB host trees are also a major component of all nursery stock sales in Canada, valued at more than $500 million annually (Statistics Canada data Online). The presence of ALHB could have a major impact on the demand for, and production of, nursery stock in both Canada and the U.S. The movement of infested nursery stock, logs and firewood from infested areas facilitates potential long-distance dispersal of this pest and constitutes an ecological risk to Canada's forests.

Scope

D-11-05 outlines requirements for domestic movement of regulated commodities, and the importation of regulated commodities from the continental U.S. Movement of regulated commodities may also be governed by other CFIA Directives including, but not restricted to, those listed in the reference section.

References

CFIA Directive D-11-01, Phytosanitary Requirements for Plants for Planting and Fresh Decorative Branches to Prevent the Entry and Spread of Anoplophora spp.

CFIA Directive D-08-04, Plant Protection Import Requirements for Plants and Plant Parts for Planting: Preventing the Entry and Spread of Regulated Plant Pests Associated with the Plants for Planting Pathway

CFIA Directive D-03-02, Canadian Heat Treated Wood Products Certification Program (CHTWPCP).

CFIA Directive D-02-12, Import Requirements of Non-manufactured Wood and Other Non-propagative Wood Products, Except Solid Wood Packaging Material, From All Areas Other Than the Continental United States.

CFIA Directive D-01-12, Phytosanitary Requirements for the Importation and Domestic Movement of Firewood.

CFIA Directive D-01-06, Canadian Phytosanitary Policy for the Notification of Non-compliance and Emergency Action.

CFIA Directive D-01-05, The Canadian Wood Packaging Certification Program (CWPCP).

CFIA Directive D-98-08, Entry Requirements for Wood Packaging Materials Produced in All Areas Other Than the Continental United States.

CFIA PI-007, The Technical Heat Treatment Guidelines and Operating Conditions Manual.

ISPM No. 20, Guidelines for a Phytosanitary Import Regulatory System. 2004, FAO, Rome.

ISPM No. 13, Guidelines for the Notification of Non-compliance and Emergency Action. 2001, FAO, Rome.

ISPM No. 5, Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms., FAO, Rome. (updated annually)

ISPM No. 4, Requirements for the Establishment of Pest Free Areas. 1995, FAO, Rome.

ISPM No.10, Requirements for the Establishment of Pest Free Places of Production and Pest free Production Sites. 1999, FAO, Rome.

Pest Risk Assessment: Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)

This directive supersedes Directive D-01-12 (firewood) with respect to restrictions on firewood movement in areas regulated for ALHB.

This directive supersedes Directive D-11-05 (1st revision).

Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 Phytosanitary Requirements

1.1 Legislative Authority

Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22
Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Act, S.C. 1997, c. 6
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part (as amended from time to time)
Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Act, S.C. 1995, c. 40.
Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Regulations, SOR/2000-187.

1.2 Fees

The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the National Import Service Centre (NISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice Web Site.

1.3 Regulated Pests

All life stages of the Asian longhorned beetle (ALHB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky).

1.4 Regulated Commodities

Regulated commodities include:

Any non-propagative parts of trees including dried branches, wood, bark, logs, lumber, and pulpwood, as well as wood and bark chips of the Acer (Maple), Aesculus (Horsechestnut), Albizia (White Silk), Betula (Birch), Celtis (Hackberry), Cercidiphyllum (Katsura), Koelreuteria (Goldenrain Tree), Platanus (Plane or Sycamore), Populus (Poplar), Salix (Willow), Sorbus (Mountain Ash), and Ulmus (Elm). For the purpose of this document, these genera will be referred to as the host genera.

Firewood of all genera, which for the purpose of this policy means untreated, raw solid wood material usually with bark attached that may be handled manually, is suitable for burning, or is intended to be used for heat production.

Note: Plants for planting and fresh branches are regulated under the D-11-01.

Note: Facilities registered with the CFIA under the Canadian Heat Treated Wood Products Certification Program (CHTWPCP) or the Canadian Wood Packaging Certification Program (CWPCP) may produce compliant commodities, i.e. produced in accordance with their respective programs and display the prescribed marks, tags, or certificates. Facilities registered in CHTWPCP and CWPCP are listed at the associated links.

Regulated commodities made of host genera intended for domestic movement only, that are heat treated according to the standards outlined in PI-007 and approved by CFIA, may also be compliant commodities. Contact the local CFIA office for further details.

1.5 Commodities Exempt

Tissue culture of the host genera. Please consult D-08-04 for additional information about the regulations for the import of tissue culture.

Seeds and leaves of the host genera.

Wood packaging materials

All processed wood materials that are completely free of bark and free of pests and/or signs of live pests and that have been subject to processing conditions that have altered the material in a manner to significantly reduce the potential of the wood items to provide a habitat for ALHB.

Some examples of processed wood materials that are exempt include: sawdust, tool handles, sporting goods, plywood, veneer, wood pellets, fibreboard, particle board, oriented strand board (OSB), wafer board, moulding, baseball bats, finished furniture and finished flooring.

Note: Exempted commodities are subject to inspection and verification.

1.6 Regulated Areas

Consult Appendix 1 for the regulated areas within Canada and the continental U.S.

2.0 Domestic Movement Requirements

Conditions for the domestic movement of regulated commodities to mitigate risk are outlined in Appendix 2. Subsequent movement of all regulated commodities or any part thereof is only permitted with prior written authorization for movement by CFIA.

Written authorization (e.g. Movement Certificate) from CFIA is required to move regulated commodities from regulated areas or to transit regulated commodities through non-regulated areas. Written authorization based on inspection may be obtained by contacting CFIA.

3.0 Import Requirements

Specific details of import requirements are outlined in Appendix 3.

3.1 Regulated Commodities

Regulated commodities from states of the Continental U.S. where populations of Anoplophora spp. have been detected and are currently under official control.

The CFIA recognizes the regulated areas within the U.S. that are currently defined by the USDA (7 CFR 301.51). This recognition from the CFIA is based on the surveys and official control measures implemented by the USDA. The CFIA considers Anoplophora glabripennis to be a serious quarantine pest and will continue to review the validity of this approach as new information becomes available.

In order to be approved entry into Canada, regulated commodities from these regulated areas must originate from facilities that have entered into a compliance agreement with the USDA and must meet the requirements of the U.S. Federal regulations related to A. glabripennis (7 CFR 301.51).

3.2 Document Verification

Appendix 3 outlines the import documentation requirements for commodities regulated in this directive. When import documentation is required, it must be referred to the NISC for review.

3.3 Product Examination

Consignments containing regulated commodities are subject to inspection and sampling upon arrival. Import inspections will be conducted at either the port of entry or another place designated by CFIA.

Consignments will be examined for the presence of ALHB, other living regulated and potential quarantine pests, soil, and other signs of pest activity such as bore holes, frass and uncommon product damage and soil.

During product inspections, CFIA inspectors may require the dismantling of wood products, destuffing of containers, unloading shipments of products from their conveyance, and may collect samples of wood damage and/or pests.

If required, inspectors may collect samples of any detected pests, detain shipments, and submit specimens for identification.

If required, an inspector may order the discharge of any shipment to facilitate the safe and efficient inspection of any product or conveyance. All costs related to this activity are to be borne by the importer.

If required, inspectors may detain, order movement, or disposal of a shipment. Disposal must be done in a manner approved by CFIA. Disposal methods are outlined in Appendix 4. Fees related to detention, movement or disposal will be charged to the importer.

4.0 Non-Compliance

Imported shipments which do not meet requirements may be refused entry, returned to origin, or disposed of at the importer's expense. The CFIA will provide notification to the USDA-APHIS when a shipment of regulated commodities has not complied with Canadian import requirements as per D-01-06.

5.0 Requirements for Transportation of Regulated Commodities

Regulated commodities, moving out of a regulated area to a non-regulated area, or transiting a non-regulated area, must move directly to the destination, as specified on the movement certificate or on the Import Permit.

6.0 Treatment options for Regulated Commodities

The phytosanitary risk of ALHB introduction and spread is mitigated by treating regulated commodities. Treatment options for regulated commodities are summarized in Appendix 5.

7.0 Appendices

Appendix 1 - Areas with Movement Restrictions for Asian Longhorned beetle
Appendix 2 - Domestic Requirements for Movement of Regulated Commodities from Regulated to Non-Regulated Areas
Appendix 3 - Requirements for the Import of Regulated Commodities
Appendix 4 - CFIA Approved Disposal Methods for Non-Compliant Regulated Commodities
Appendix 5 - CFIA Approved Treatment Methods for ALHB Regulated Material

Appendix 1: Areas with Movement Restrictions for Asian Longhorned Beetle

The current list of areas with movement restrictions can be obtained from the local CFIA Office or through the link to Areas Regulated for the ALHB.

List of Areas Regulated for the ALHB

Canada

In the following cities within the province of Ontario, populations of Anoplophora glabripennis have been detected and are under official control:

  • Parts of the City of Mississauga
  • Parts of the City of Toronto

For a map and complete description of the Asian longhorned beetle regulated area please refer to The Asian LongHorned Beetle Infested Places Order. Contact your local CFIA office for more information.

Continental United States

In the following U.S. states, populations of Anoplophora glabripennis. have been detected and are currently under eradication and official control:

  • Massachusetts
  • New York
  • Ohio

Note: The CFIA recognizes the regulated areas within these states as currently defined by the USDA (7 CFR 301.51).

For maps of the U.S. regulated areas, please consult the following website: United States Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service: Asian Longhorned Beetle Maps

For any other information on ALHB in the U.S., please consult the following website: United States Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service: Asian Longhorned Beetle

Appendix 2: Domestic Requirements for Movement of Regulated Commodities from Regulated to Non-Regulated Areas

Regulated ArticleWritten Authorization for MovementAuthorization of Movement Granted ToConditions for Authorization of Movement
Table Note 1Host genera wood/bark chips Required Processing Facility Chipping and/or tub grinding to 1.5 cm or less in size in 2 dimensions.
Table Note 1Host genera dried branches, ≤ 1.5 cm in diameter Required Shipper of compliant commodities Branches must be ≤ 1.5 cm in diameter.
Table Note 1Host genera dried branches, > 1.5 cm in diameter Required Shipper of compliant commodities Commodities are treated to attain a minimum core temperature of 56°C throughout the profile of the wood (including the core) for a minimum of 30 minutes.
Table Note 1Host genera logs Movement prohibited Movement prohibited Movement prohibited
Table Note 1Host genera lumber, with or without bark Required Shipper of compliant commodities Commodities are treated to attain a minimum core temperature of 56°C throughout the profile of the wood (including the core) for a minimum of 30 minutes.
Firewood of all genera Movement prohibited Movement prohibited Movement prohibited

Table Notes

Table note 1

Host Genera = Acer (Maple), Aesculus (Horsechestnut), Albizia (White Silk), Betula (Birch), Celtis (Hackberry), Cercidiphyllum (Katsura), Koelreuteria (Goldenrain Tree), Platanus (Plane or Sycamore), Populus (Poplar), Salix (Willow), Sorbus (Mountain Ash), and Ulmus (Elm)

Return to table note 1  referrer

Appendix 3: Requirements for the Import of Regulated Commodities

Table 1. From Non-Regulated States of the U.S. to Canada
Regulated ArticleImport PermitPhytosanitary CertificateAdditional Declaration Required on Phytosanitary CertificateComments
Table Note 2Host genera wood/bark chips No No
Table Note 2Host genera dried branches No No
Table Note 2Host genera lumber, with or without bark No No
Table Note 2Host genera logs No No
Firewood of all genera Yes Yes A Certificate of origin may be accepted in lieu of the Phytosanitary Certificate in some situations. Please see D-01-12 for additional information.
Other Table Note 2 host genera commodities Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details. Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details. Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details. Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details.

Table Notes

Table note 2

Host Genera = Acer (Maple), Aesculus (Horsechestnut), Albizia (White Silk), Betula (Birch), Celtis (Hackberry), Cercidiphyllum (Katsura), Koelreuteria (Goldenrain Tree), Platanus (Plane or Sycamore), Populus (Poplar), Salix (Willow), Sorbus (Mountain Ash), and Ulmus (Elm)

Return to table note 2  referrer

Table 2. From Regulated Areas within the Regulated States in U.S. to Canada
Regulated ArticleImport PermitPhytosanitary CertificateAdditional Declaration Required on Phytosanitary CertificateComments
Table Note 3Host genera wood/bark chips No Yes The wood/bark chips in this shipment are 1.5 cm or less in size in 2 dimensions.
Table Note 3Host genera dried branches, ≤ 1.5 cm in diameter No Yes The dried branches in this shipment are 1.5 cm or less in diameter.
Table Note 3Host genera logs and dried branches > 1.5 cm in diameter Import Prohibited Import Prohibited Import Prohibited Import Prohibited
Table Note 3Host genera lumber, with or without bark No Yes Commodities are treated to attain a minimum core temperature of 56°C throughout the profile of the wood (including the core) for a minimum of 30 minutes.
or
This shipment conforms to 7 CFR 301.51, which regulates the movement of plant material from areas regulated for A. glabripennis.
Firewood of all genera Import Prohibited Import Prohibited Import Prohibited Import Prohibited
Other Table Note 3 host genera commodities Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details. Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details. Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details. Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details.

Table Notes

Table note 3

Host Genera = Acer (Maple), Aesculus (Horsechestnut), Albizia (White Silk), Betula (Birch), Celtis (Hackberry), Cercidiphyllum (Katsura), Koelreuteria (Goldenrain Tree), Platanus (Plane or Sycamore), Populus (Poplar), Salix (Willow), Sorbus (Mountain Ash), and Ulmus (Elm)

Return to table note 3  referrer

Table 3. From Non-Regulated Areas within the Regulated States in U.S. to Canada
Regulated ArticleImport PermitPhytosanitary CertificateAdditional Declaration Required on Phytosanitary CertificateComments
Table Note 4Host genera wood/bark chips No No
Table Note 4Host genera dried branches, all sizes No No
Table Note 4Host genera logs No No
Table Note 4Host genera lumber, with or without bark No No
Firewood of all genera Yes Yes A Certificate of origin may be accepted in lieu of the Phytosanitary Certificate in some situations. Please see D-01-12 for additional information.
Other Table Note 4 host genera commodities Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details. Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details. Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details. Other commodities will be assessed case by case, based on phytosanitary risk. Contact CFIA for further details.

Table Notes

Table note 4

Host Genera = Acer (Maple), Aesculus (Horsechestnut), Albizia (White Silk), Betula (Birch), Celtis (Hackberry), Cercidiphyllum (Katsura), Koelreuteria (Goldenrain Tree), Platanus (Plane or Sycamore), Populus (Poplar), Salix (Willow), Sorbus (Mountain Ash), and Ulmus (Elm)

Return to table note 4  referrer

Appendix 4: CFIA Approved Disposal Methods for Non-Compliant Regulated Commodities

The following methods are approved by the CFIA for disposing non-compliant regulated commodities.

  • Incineration that complies with municipal by-laws and environmental laws.
  • Deep burial with a minimum soil overburden of 2 metres, with immediate soil coverage. Provincial or municipal regulations may apply for the disposal of organic matter. Contact the local municipality and/or your provincial department of environment for further information.
  • Chipping and/or tub grinding to produce wood by-products such as wood chips, wood dust, wood mulch, sawdust, or wood fuel that attains a size no greater than one and a half (1.5) cm.
  • Secondary processing to produce wood by-products such as paper, fibre board, or oriented strand board to render the commodities free from ALHB.
  • Other methods to render commodities free of ALHB as approved by CFIA. Contact the local CFIA office for further details.

Appendix 5: CFIA Approved Treatment Methods for ALHB Regulated Material

The following methods are approved by CFIA for treating regulated commodities to generate compliant commodities:

  • Chipping and/or tub grinding to create chips to a dimension of one and a half (1.5) cm or less in size.
  • Heat treatment for regulated commodities, where specific treatment schedules have been recognized by CFIA.
  • Other treatment methods, as approved by CFIA. Contact the local CFIA office for further details.
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