Plant Health Glossary of Terms

This Glossary is solely to harmonize and ensure a common understanding of the terms used by the CFIA in administering the plant health programs which are developed under the authority of the Plant Protection Act and the Seeds Act. Caution: Terms listed in this Glossary may be defined for other purposes in other acts or regulations.

Please note that certain French terms in the CFIA Plant Health Glossary are not consistent with the French terms as they appear in ISPM No. 5 -  Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms. The French terminology used in CFIA's Plant Health Glossary is consistent with the Canadian use of terms in directives, inspection procedures, reference documents and manuals.  ISPM No. 5 is referenced where appropriate, in spite of the inconsistencies.

Term Definition
additional declaration
(déclaration supplémentaire)
A statement that is required by an importing country to be entered on a Phytosanitary Certificate and which provides specific additional information on a consignment in relation to regulated pests (ISPM No. 5)
approved facility
(installation approuvé)
An entity that has received official approval from the CFIA to perform specific activities described in a program.
approved growing medium
(milieu de culture approuvé)
A synthetic or naturally occurring substance, or a mixture of such substances, readily distinguishable from soil, in which plants are growing or intended for that purpose, and that has been approved for importation into Canada.
area
(zone)
An officially defined country, part of a country or all or parts of several countries (ISPM No. 5)
area (county)
(zone (comté))
An officially defined county, part of a county or all or parts of several counties
area of low pest prevalence
(zone à faible prévalence d'organismes nuisibles)
An area, whether all of a country, part of a country, or all or parts of several countries, as identified by the competent authorities, in which a specific pest occurs at low levels and which is subject to effective surveillance, control or eradication measures (ISPM No. 5)
aseptic environment
(milieu aseptique)
An environment that excludes microorganisms capable of causing contamination or infection
aseptic facility
(installation aseptique)
An entity that produces plants in an aseptic environment
audit
(audit)
A systematic examination to determine whether activities and related results comply with the planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives (ISO 8402:1994)
authorized certification official
(certificateur officiel autorisé)
A public officer who is authorized by the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) and accredited for the signing of Phytosanitary Certificates, who:
(1) possesses the required education, experience, and training; and
(2) has written confirmation of having successfully passed an approved examination; and
(3) is a person designated as an inspector pursuant to Section 21 of the Plant Protection Act
bacterial ring rot
(flétrissement bactérien)
The disease caused by the bacterial ring rot pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus. (Seeds Regulations Part II)
baled hay
(foin en balles)
Dried hay, compressed and tied into rectangular or round bales
bare rooted plants
(plants à racines nues)
Rooted plants with less growing media adhering to the root system than the amount that can harbour any life stage of a pest or that is sufficient to obscure the transport of that pest
bark
(écorce)
The layer of a woody trunk, branch or root outside the cambium
bark chips
(copeaux d'écorce)
An untreated bark fragment broken, shredded, or otherwise removed from a log or a branch.
bark-free wood
(bois exempt d'écorce)
Wood from which all bark except ingrown bark around knots, and bark pockets between rings of annual growth has been removed (ISPM No. 5)
biotechnology
(biotechnologie)
The application of science and engineering to the direct or indirect use of living organisms or parts or products of living organisms in their natural or modified forms (Seeds Regulations Part II)
breeder's selection seed potatoes
(pommes de terre de semences choix du sélectionneur)
Seed potatoes that are direct progeny of true seed, or of selected tubers, and that are grown for the purpose of evaluation as a potential variety for commercial use (Seeds Regulations Part II)
bulb
(bulbe)
A modified stem, usually underground, consisting of one or more buds surrounded by thick, fleshy, food storage scale leaves
Canadian Lumber Standards Accreditation Board
(Conseil d'accréditation de la Commission canadienne de normalisation du bois d'œuvre)
The official body that monitors the quality of Canada's lumber grading and identification system and is responsible for the accreditation and supervision of lumber grading agencies
certificate
(certificat)
An official document which attests to the phytosanitary status of any consignment affected by phytosanitary regulations (ISPM No. 5)
certificate number (seed potatoes)
(numéro de certificat (pommes de terre de semences))
The number that appears on a crop certificate to identify a crop and that appears on a seed potato tag, a record of bulk movement, a permit issued under section 57 [of the Seeds Regulations], or a special certificate of authorization issued under section 61, to identify the tubers produced by that crop (Seeds Regulations Part II)
certificate of inspection for Canadian destinations
(certificat d'inspection pour les destinations canadiennes)
Certificate issued under Agricultural Marketing Services (AMS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The certificate is issued by a Federal/State or Federal authority
certified wood packaging material
(matériau d'emballage en bois certifié)
Wood packaging material produced in accordance with specified requirements. In Canada, the specified requirements are described under the Canadian Wood Packaging Certification Program
chemical pressure impregnation
(imprégnation chimique sous pression)
Treatment of wood with a chemical preservative through a process of pressure in accordance with an official technical specification (ISPM No. 5)
Christmas tree
(arbre de Noël)
A cut tree without roots and soil, intended for decorative use and not for planting, including but not limited to: Abies, Pinus, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga and Picea.
class (of seed potatoes)
(classe (de pommes de terre de semences))
A class of seed potatoes established in section 47 [of the Seeds Regulations] (Seeds Regulations Part II)
commercially clean (grain)
(commercialement propre (grain))
Grain whose dockage falls within allowed limits and is of a type normally present after standard commercial cleaning (Canadian Grain Commission)
commodity
(marchandise)
A type of plant, plant product, or other article being moved for trade or other purpose (ISPM No. 5)
composite sample
(échantillon composite)
The number of samples or sample units that may be combined into one unit for laboratory assessment
cone
(cône)
A compact collection of reproductive structures on a short axis
consignment
(envoi)
A quantity of plants, plant products and/or other articles being moved from one country to another and covered, when required, by a single Phytosanitary Certificate (a consignment may be composed of one or more commodities or lots) (ISPM No. 5)
consignment in transit
(envoi en transit)
A consignment which passes through a country without being imported, and that may be subject to phytosanitary measures (ISPM No. 5)
contact farm unit (seed potatoes and bacterial ring rot)
(unité de production exposée (pommes de terre de semence et flétrissement bactérien))
A farm unit that shared equipment, facility, and/or staff, etc. with a C. m. sepedonicus infected farm unit without proper cleanup and disinfection prior to use
contaminating pest
(organisme nuisible contaminant)
A pest that is carried by a commodity and, in the case of plants and plant products, does not infest those plants or plant products. (ISPM No. 5)
continental USA
(zone continentale des Etats-Unis)
All the contiguous US states and areas, including Alaska but excluding Hawaii and Puerto Rico
conveyance
(véhicule)
Any aircraft, carriage, motor vehicle, trailer, railway car, vessel, cargo container or other contrivance used to move persons or things. (Plant Protection Act)
corm
(corme)
An enlarged, fleshy, solid, food-storing base of a main stem with a few dry scaly leaves surrounding the stem. Corms usually occur underground and produce a terminal bud and lateral buds at the apex
corrective action
(mesure corrective)
Action taken by an approved facility in order to correct an instance of non-compliance of a quality management system to ensure that specified standards are being met.
country of origin (of a consignment of plant products)
(pays d'origine (d'un envoi de produits végétaux))
Country where the plants from which the plant products are derived were grown (ISPM No. 5)
country of origin (of a consignment of plants)
(pays d'origine (d'un envoi de végétaux)
Country where the plants were grown (ISPM No. 5)
county
(comté)
A legally defined territorial subdivision of a state of the US or a province of Canada.
crop (seed potatoes)
(culture (pomme de terre de semence))
Breeder's Selection seed potatoes, or a variety and class of seed potatoes growing in an aseptic environment, a protected environment or in one or more fields of a farm unit (Seeds Regulations Part II)
cut flowers
(fleurs coupées)
See "Decorative plant parts"
cut flowers and branches
(fleurs coupées et rameaux)
A commodity class for fresh parts of plants intended for decorative use and not for planting (ISPM No. 5)
cut foliage
(feuillage coupé)
See "Decorative plant parts"
debarked wood
(bois écorcé)
Wood that has been subjected to any process that result in the removal of bark. (Debarked wood is not necessarily bark-free wood) (ISPM No. 5)
decorative branches
(rameau décoratif)
See "Decorative plant parts"
decorative plant parts
(parties de végétaux décoratives)
The cut portion of plants, whether or not fresh intended for decorative use and not for planting.
delimiting survey
(enquête de délimitation)
Survey conducted to establish the boundaries of an area considered to be infested by or free from a pest (ISPM No. 5)
detection survey
(enquête de dépistage)
Survey conducted in an area to determine if pests are present (ISPM No. 5).
devitalization
(dévitalisation)
A procedure rendering plants or plant products incapable of germination, growth or further reproduction (ISPM No. 5).
disease free (seed potatoes)
(exempt de maladie (pommes de terre de semence))
Seed potatoes tested for specified pests following official protocols and found negative on all the tests
dunnage
(bois de calage)
Wood packaging materials used to secure or support a commodity but which does not remain associated with the commodity (ISPM No. 5)
elite grapevine nursery stock
(matériel de pépinière de vigne de catégorie élite)
Material propagated from Nuclear grapevine (Vitis) stock, grown in accordance with specified requirements
emergency action
(action d'urgence)
A prompt phytosanitary action undertaken in a new or unexpected phytosanitary situation (ISPM No. 5)
external audit
(audit externe)
An objective appraisal of a specified program at an approved facility that is carried out by a CFIA audit team.
farm unit (seed potatoes)
(unité de production (pommes de terre de semence))
(a) a single tract of land operated for the production and marketing of seed potatoes under the control of a grower; or
(b) a number of separate tracts of land operated as a single unit, with use of common equipment, facilities or storage, for the production and marketing of seed potatoes under the control of the same grower (Seeds Regulations Part II)
field
(champ)
A plot of land with defined boundaries within a place of production on which a commodity is grown (ISPM No. 5)
field (seed potatoes)
(champ (pommes de terre de semence))
The identifiable area of land on which Breeder's Selection seed potatoes, or seed potatoes of a particular variety and class, are planted or have been produced (Seeds Regulations Part II)
find free
(trouver exempt)
To inspect a consignment, field or place of production and consider it to be free from a specific pest (ISPM No. 5)
firewood
(bois de chauffage)
Untreated, raw solid wood material usually with bark attached, cut in billets, in logs, in twigs, in faggots or in similar forms or lengths and includes mill-ends, stumps, slabs, dockings, off-cuts, edging and dunnage that may be handled manually, is suitable for burning and is used for heat production
forage
(fourrage)
Grass and legume plants grown primarily for their stems and leaves to be used, prepared, or processed as feed for ruminant animals
free from (of a consignment, field or place of production)
(exempt d'un envoi, d'un champ ou d'un lieu de production))
Without pests (or a specific pest) in numbers or quantities that can be detected by the application of phytosanitary procedures (ISPM No. 5)
fresh
(frais)
Living, not dried, deep-frozen or otherwise conserved (ISPM No. 5)
fruits and vegetables
(fruits et légumes)
A commodity class for fresh parts of plants intended for consumption or processing and not for planting (ISPM No. 5)
fuel wood pellets
(granules de bois)
A product used for heat production, constructed by compressing pulverised dry biomass materials from plants and trees, usually sawdust, ground wood chips or wood flour
fumigation
(fumigation)
Treatment with a chemical agent that reaches the commodity wholly or primarily in a gaseous state (ISPM No. 5)
garden variety (potatoes)
(variété potagère (pommes de terre)
A potato variety which has been specifically exempted from registration or for which registration has been cancelled because of minimal production and exclusively intended for personal consumption by home gardeners
grain
(grain)
A commodity class for seeds intended for processing or consumption and not for planting (see seeds) (ISPM No. 5)
greenhouse plants
(plantes de serre)
Plants that are grown within an enclosed structure for most or all of their growing cycle and where conditions for growth within the structure are strictly regulated (includes houseplants, orchids, forced bulbs, vegetable transplants, bedding plants, indoor perennials, aquarium plants)
grower
(producteur)
The owner or operator of a facility having the possession, care or control of the production of a specified plant or plant product or the person responsible for managing it
grower (seed potatoes)
(producteur (pommes de terre de semence))
An individual, a cooperative, a corporation or a partnership that grows seed potatoes (Seeds Regulations Part II)
growing cycle (rooted plants)
(Période de végétation (plantes avec racines))
The period in which plants grow from a pre-sale size (e.g. cuttings, plantlets in-vitro, seed, pre-finished plants, etc.) to a commercially acceptable size rooted plant for either retail or wholesale trade
growing medium
(milieu de culture)
Any material in which plant roots are growing or intended for that purpose. (ISPM No. 5)
heat treatment
(traitement thermique)
The process in which a commodity is heated until it reaches a minimum temperature for a minimum period of time according to an official technical specification (ISPM No. 5)
heat treatment certificate
(certificat de traitement thermique)
A document attesting that the consignment for which it was issued was subjected to a specified heat treatment.
host range
(gamme de plantes hôtes)
Species capable, under natural conditions, of sustaining a specific pest or other organism (ISPM No. 5)
infected farm unit (seed potatoes and bacterial ring rot)
(unité de production infectée (pommes de terre de semence et flétrissement bactérien))
Farm unit that produced potatoes determined to be infected with C. m. sepedonicus
infested
(infesté)
(parasité)
A pest is present in or on a thing or place or that the thing or place is so exposed to a pest that one can reasonably suspect that the pest is in or on the thing or place (Plant Protection Regulations)
infestation (of a commodity)
(infestation (d'une marchandise)
Presence in a commodity of a living pest of the plant or plant product concerned. Infestation includes infection. (ISPM No. 5)
Inspection
(inspection)
Official visual examination of plants, plant products or other regulated articles to determine if pests are present and/or to determine compliance with phytosanitary regulations (ISPM No. 5)
inspection audit
(audit d'inspection)
A systematic examination to determine if prescribed inspection procedures are being applied properly
inspection body
(organisme d'inspection)
An entity that is approved to perform specific inspections on behalf of the National Plant Protection Organization.
inspector
(inspecteur)
A person designated as an inspector pursuant to section 21 (Plant Protection Act)
internal audit
(audit interne)
A independent and objective appraisal of a specified program at an approved facility that is carried out by or under the direction of the pest control manager.
International Plant Protection Convention
(Convention internationale pour la protection des végétaux)
International Plant Protection Convention, as deposited in 1951 with FAO in Rome and as subsequently amended (ISPM No. 5)
International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures
(Norme internationale pour les mesures phytosanitaires)
An international standard adopted by the Conference of FAO, the Interim Commission on phytosanitary measures or the Commission on phytosanitary measures, established under the IPPC (ISPM No. 5)
kiln-drying
(séchage à l'étuve)
A process in which wood is dried in a closed chamber using heat and/or humidity control to achieve a required moisture content (ISPM No. 5)
laboratory
(laboratoire)
A public or private facility that calibrates, tests, identifies or conducts diagnoses
laboratory tests
(essais en laboratoire)
Tests that are conducted in a laboratory that is accredited under the Agency Laboratory Accreditation Program or in a laboratory that can reasonably be considered to be equivalent to a laboratory accredited under that program (Seeds Regulations Part II)
laker
(laquier (ou cargo hors mer))
A long, shallow draftship designed to transport cargoes within the inland water system of the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Seaway.
log
(bille)
Wood not sawn longitudinally, carrying its natural rounded surface, with or without bark (also known as round wood). (ISPM No. 5)
logo
(logo)
A symbol or initials that identify(ies) a Service Provider
lot
(lot)
A number of units of a single commodity, identifiable by its homogeneity of composition, origin, etc. forming a part of a consignment (ISPM No. 5).
lot (seed potatoes)
(lot (pommes de terre de semence))
The quantity of harvested seed potatoes of a variety and class that is identifiable by one certificate number or the quantity of Breeder's Selection seed potatoes that are identifiable by one certificate number (Seeds Regulations Part II)
lumber
(bois d'œuvre)
Wood sawn longitudinally, with or without its natural rounded surface, with or without bark (also known as sawn wood). (ISPM No. 5)
mark
(marque)
An official stamp or brand, internationally recognized, applied to a regulated article to attest to its phytosanitary status (ISPM No. 5)
mother plant (seed potatoes)
(plante-mère (pommes de terre de semence))
Any individual plant, or plant part that will be used to start a multiplication process; the progeny of such entity forms a clone.
movement certificate
(certificat de circulation)
A document, issued pursuant to the Plant Protection Act and signed by an inspector, that authorizes the movement of things within Canada or from Canada to a foreign destination (Plant Protection Regulations)
micro-tuber
(microtubercule)
A small potato tuber produced in an aseptic environment using in vitro propagative techniques
mini-tuber
(minitubercule)
A small potato tuber produced in a soil-free medium within a protected environment
National Plant Protection Organization
(Organisation nationale de la protection des végétaux)
Official service established by a government to discharge the functions specified by the IPPC (ISPM No. 5). In Canada, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency is the National Plant Protection Organization
non-certified potatoes
(pommes de terre non certifiées)
(a) Potatoes that do not meet the standards for any of the classes established in section 47 (of the Seeds Regulations) or the standards established for Breeder's Selection seed potatoes in section 61.1; or
(b) seed potatoes that have been transported without seed potato tags, a record of bulk movement, a permit issued under section 57 or a special certificate of authorization issued under section 61 (Seeds Regulations Part II)
non-conformance
(non-conformité)
A failure to comply with a specified requirement
novel traits
(caractère nouveau)
in respect of seed, means a characteristic of the seed that:

(a) has been intentionally selected, created or introduced into a distinct, stable population of cultivated seed of the same species through a specific genetic change; and
(b) based on valid scientific rationale, is not substantially equivalent, in terms of its specific use and safety both for the environment and for human health, to any characteristic of a distinct, stable population of cultivated seed of the same species in Canada, having regard to weediness potential, gene flow, plant pest potential, impact on non-target organisms and impact on biodiversity

Nuclear stock
(matériel nucléaire)
Original mother plants tested in Canada by the CFIA, or a laboratory approved by CFIA, for specified viruses.
nuclear stock (seed potatoes)
(matériel nucléaire - pommes de terre de semence)
Seed potatoes that are:

(a) produced from potato tissue culture material which has been tested and found free of bacterial ring rot, PSTVd and viruses,
(b) laboratory tested within 12 months prior to the completion of the multiplication process and found free of bacterial ring rot, PSTVd and viruses,
(c) produced in an aseptic or protected environment,
(d) visibly free from varietal mixtures,
(e) free from pathogenic bacteria or viruses, saprophytic contamination or other symptoms of diseases that could affect the quality of the material, and
(f) if produced in a protected environment, (i) inspected by an inspector at least once during the growing period, and (ii) grown in a medium that has not been previously used (Seeds Regulations Part II)

nuclear stock equivalent (seed potatoes)
(équivalent de matériel nucléaire (pommes de terre de semence))
Cuttings or plants that were produced in a protected environment or from tubers or selected clones, and that were determined by laboratory tests to be free from any disease that could affect the quality of the seed (refer to section 47.2 (1) (a) of the Seeds Regulations)
nursery
(pépinière)
Facility that produces nursery stock
nursery stock
(matériel de pépinière)
Any rooted plant for planting or intended for planting, or for decorative use including greenhouse, containerized and field grown plants
nut
(noix)
A large seed borne within a hard woody outer shell
occurrence
(présence)
The presence in an area of a pest officially recognized to be indigenous or introduced and/or not officially reported to have been eradicated (ISPM No. 5)
official
(officiel)
Established, authorized or performed by a National Plant Protection Organization (ISPM No. 5)
official control
(lutte officielle)
The active enforcement of mandatory phytosanitary regulations and the application of mandatory phytosanitary procedures with the objective of eradication or containment of quarantine pests or for the management of regulated non-quarantine pests (ISPM No. 5)
origin
(origine)
The country or place where the thing was grown, raised, cultured or produced
Outbreak
(apparition d'un foyer)
A recently detected pest population, including an incursion, or a sudden significant increase of an established pest population in an area (ISPM No. 5)
packaging
(emballage)
Material used in supporting, protecting or carrying a commodity (ISPM No. 5)
peat
(tourbe)
The non-viable, incompletely decomposed organic residues of plants, often mosses, accumulated under anaerobic, acidic conditions.
Permit to Import
(permis d'importation)
A permit to import a thing issued by the Minister pursuant to subsection 32(1) or 43 (1) (of the Plant Protection Regulations)
personal effects
(effet personnels)
Belongings and goods of individuals which are moving into or within Canada, including furniture, household items, vehicles, clothing, garden tools, bicycles, footwear
pest
(organisme nuisible (parasite aux termes de la Loi sur la protection des végétaux))
Any thing that is injurious or potentially injurious, whether directly or indirectly, to plants or to products or by-products of plants, and includes any plant prescribed as a pest (Plant Protection Regulations)
pest control manager
(responsable de la lutte antiparasitaire)
A qualified person employed by an approved facility and given overall responsibility and authority for implementing the requirements of a specified program
Pest Free Area
(zone exempte)
An area in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained (ISPM No. 5)
pest free place of production
(lieu de production exempt )
Place of production in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained for a defined period (ISPM No. 5)
pest free production site
(site de production exempt)
A defined portion of a place of production in which a specific pest does not occur as demonstrated by scientific evidence and in which, where appropriate, this condition is being officially maintained for a defined period, and that is managed as a separate unit in the same way as a pest free place of production (ISPM No. 5)
pest management plan
(plan de gestion phytosanitaire)
A written description of procedures or processes designed to control, suppress, or eradicate pest populations to meet prescribed phytosanitary standards.
pest risk analysis
(analyse du risque phytosanitaire)
The process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether an organism is a pest, whether it should be regulated, and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it (ISPM No. 5)
pest risk assessment
(évaluation du risque phytosanitaire)
A pest risk assessment conducted by the Minister in accordance with the principles of the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures, Part I- Import Regulations, Guidelines for Pest Risk Analysis, published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as amended from time to time, with the definition "pest" in those guidelines being replaced by the definition "pest" in section 3 of the Plant Protection Act, for the purpose of:

(a) determining if a thing is a pest, is or could be infested or constitutes or could constitute a biological obstacle to the control of a pest,
(b) recommending actions, as applicable, (i) to prevent the introduction into Canada or the spread within or from Canada of any pest or biological obstacle to the control of a pest or, (ii) to control a pest or to eradicate a pest or biological obstacle to the control of a pest,
(c) determining if a thing that is a pest or biological obstacle to the control of a pest has a significant adverse effect on the environment; and
(d) minimizing the degradation of environmental quality with respect to Canadian flora (Plant Protection Regulations).

pest risk management (for quarantine pests)
(gestion du risque phytosanitaire (pour les organismes de quarantaine))
Evaluation and selection of options to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of a pest (ISPM No. 5)
phytosanitary action
(action phytosanitaire)
An official operation, such as inspection, testing, surveillance or treatment, undertaken to implement phytosanitary measures. (ISPM No. 5)
Phytosanitary Certificate (Canadian)
(certificat phytosanitaire (canadien))
A document, issued by an inspector, that attests to the phytosanitary status of any thing exported from Canada and that:

(a) contains the information required by the Model Phytosanitary Certificate set out in the Annex to the International Plant Protection Convention approved by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Conference at its Twentieth Session in November 1979, as amended from time to time, and
(b) is signed by an inspector and sealed with an official Canadian Phytosanitary Certificate seal (Plant Protection Regulations).

Phytosanitary Certificate (foreign)
(certificat phytosanitaire (étranger))
A document, issued by the government of the country of origin of a thing, that attests to the phytosanitary status of the thing and that:

(a) contains the information required by the Model Phytosanitary Certificate set out in the Annex to the International Plant Protection Convention approved by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Conference at its Twentieth Session in November 1979, as amended from time to time,
(b) is issued within 14 days before the thing is shipped to Canada, and
(c) is signed by an official of the country of origin who has been authorized by the government of that country to sign such certificates (Plant Protection Regulations)

phytosanitary certification
(certification phytosanitaire)
Use of phytosanitary procedures leading to the issue of a Phytosanitary Certificate (ISPM No. 5)
phytosanitary legislation
(législation phytosanitaire)
Basic laws granting legal authority to a National Plant Protection Organization from which phytosanitary regulations may be drafted ( (ISPM No. 5)
phytosanitary management systems
(systèmes de gestion phytosanitaire)
A systems approach that is used to direct and control an approved facility with regard to consistently meeting all the requirements of a specified plant protection program
phytosanitary measure
(mesure phytosanitaire)
Any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests (ISPM No. 5)
phytosanitary procedure
(méthode phytosanitaire)
Any official method for implementing phytosanitary measures including the performance of inspections, tests, surveillance or treatments in connection with regulated pests. (ISPM No. 5)
phytosanitary regulation
(réglementation phytosanitaire)
Official rule to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests, including establishment of procedures for phytosanitary certification ISPM No. 5)
place of production
(lieu de production)
Any premises or collection of fields operated as a single production or farming unit. This may include production sites which are separately managed for phytosanitary purposes (ISPM No. 5)
plant
(végétal)
Includes a part of a plant (Plant Protection Act).
plant products
(produits végétaux)
Unmanufactured material of plant origin (including grain) and those manufactured products that, by their nature or that of their processing, may create a risk for the introduction and spread of pests (ISPM No. 5)
plant with novel traits
(végétal à caractère nouveau)
A plant variety/genotype possessing characteristics that demonstrate neither familiarity nor substantial equivalence to those present in a distinct, stable population of cultivated plant species in Canada and that has been intentionally selected, created or introduced into a population of that species through a specific genetic change.
planting (including replanting)
(plantation (y compris replantation))
Any operation for the placing of plants in a growing medium, or by grafting or similar operations, to ensure their subsequent growth, reproduction, or propagation (ISPM No. 5)
plantlet (seed potatoes)
(plantule (pommes de terre de semence))
A small potato cutting or rooted potato cutting produced in an aseptic environment using in vitro propagative techniques
plants for planting
(végétaux destiné à la plantation)
Plants intended to remain planted, to be planted or replanted (ISPM No. 5)
plants in vitro
(végétaux in vitro)
A commodity class for plants growing in an aseptic medium in a closed container (ISPM No. 5)
plant quarantine
(quarantaine végétale)
All activities designed to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests or to ensure their official control (ISPM No. 5)
pollen
(pollen)
Small, male reproduction units (gametophytes) formed in the anthers of the higher flowering plants
practically free
(pratiquement exempt)
Of a consignment, field, or place of production, without pests (or a specific pest) in numbers or quantities in excess of those that can be expected to result from, and be consistent with good cultural and handling practices employed in the production and marketing of the commodity (ISPM No. 5)
Pre-shipment application
(Traitement préalable à l'expédition)
Treatment, within 21 days prior to export, of a commodity or product that is to be entirely exported to another country, or of a means of conveyance, where such treatment is required by the importing country or in support of Canada's sanitary or phytosanitary export programs (Ozone Depleting Substances Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act
primary elevator
(silo primaire)
An elevator the principal use of which is the receiving of grain directly from producers for storage or forwarding or both
primary infection
(infection primaire)
The first infection of a growing season following a break due to winter dormancy, aestivation, dry period or period of absence of the host
processed wood material
(matériau en bois transformé)
Products that are a composite of wood constructed using glue, heat and pressure, or any combination thereof (ISPM No. 5)
processed fuel logs
(bois de feu en rondins transformés)
A product used for heat production constructed from processed wood fibre that has been compressed into logs or bricks.
prohibition
(interdiction)
A phytosanitary regulation forbidding the importation or movement of specified pests or commodities (ISPM No. 5)
protected environment
(milieu protégé)
A facility for which there are appropriate procedures and physical barriers to prevent the entry of plant pathogens and insects (Seed Regulations Part II)
quality management system
(système des gestion de la qualité)
A method of operation that incorporates an organizational structure, procedures, processes (e.g. quality management system procedure, quality management system manual(s), quality control protocols, audit procedures, etc.) and resources, needed to implement quality management
quality management system manual
(manuel de système de gestion de la qualité)
The complete documentation that describes the quality management system
quality management system procedure
(procédure du système de gestion de la qualité)
A documented way to perform an activity relating to a quality management system usually containing the purpose and scope of that activity; indicating what shall be done and by whom; when, where and how it shall be done; what materials, equipment and documents shall be used and how it shall be controlled and recorded
quarantine application
(traitement de quarantaine)
Treatment, with methyl bromide, of a commodity, product, facility, or means of conveyance where the treatment is intended to prevent the spread of, or to control or eradicate, pests or quarantine significance and is required by the laws of an importing country as a condition of entry or by or under Canadian law  (Ozone Depleting Substances Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act)
quarantine area
(zone de quarantaine)
An area within which a quarantine pest is present and is being officially controlled (ISPM No. 5)
quarantine pest
(organisme de quarantaine)
A pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled (ISPM No. 5)
random sampling
(échantillonnage au hasard (ou échantillonnage aléatoire))
The process of selecting units from a lot, consignment or population, using a method in which all the units have an equal and independent probability of being selected for the sample
raw wood
(bois brut)
Wood which has not undergone processing or treatment (ISPM No. 5)
regional municipality
(municipalité régionale)
A legally defined territorial subdivision of a province in Canada.
regrouped certificate
(certificat regroupé)
A certificate issued when an aggregated consignment is based on numerous certificates, and lists individual certificate numbers (i.e., approved facility numbers, certificate numbers and dates) on the single certificate describing the aggregated consignment
regulated area
(zone réglementée)
An area into which, within which and/or from which plants, plant products and other regulated articles are subjected to phytosanitary regulations or procedures in order to prevent the introduction and/or spread of quarantine pests or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests (ISPM No. 5)
regulated article
(article réglementé)
Any plant, plant product, storage place, packaging, conveyance, container, soil and any other organism, object or material capable of harbouring or spreading pests, deemed to require phytosanitary measures, particularly where international transportation is involved (ISPM No. 5)
regulated non-quarantine pest
(organisme réglementé non de quarantaine)
A non-quarantine pest whose presence in plants for planting affects the intended use of those plants with an economically unacceptable impact and which is therefore regulated within the territory of importing contracted party (ISPM No. 5)
regulated pest
(organisme nuisible réglementé)
A quarantine pest or a regulated non-quarantine pest (ISPM No. 5)
rhizome
(rhizome)
An underground, horizontally elongated stem, usually fleshy, generally rich in stored food, bearing a terminal and lateral buds
root crops
(légumes-racine)
The edible underground parts of some plants
rooted plants
(végétaux avec racines)
Plants or plant parts which exhibit the presence of living roots or root initials that allow anchorage, absorption and conduction of water and minerals within the plant material
sample size
(taille de l'échantillon)
The number of units selected from the lot or consignment that will be inspected or tested
sawdust
(sciure de bois)
Finely divided wood particles produced as a result of sawing wood
screenings
(criblures)
Separable foreign materials such as weed seeds, other grains, straw, chaff, hulls, etc., removed from grain or seed during the cleaning process.
secondary infection
(surinfection)
Any infection caused by inoculum produced as a result of a primary infection or a subsequent infection.
seed potato
(pomme de terre de semence)
A tuber, or any part of a tuber, or nuclear stock, that is certified under these regulations for seed reproduction purposes (Seeds Regulations Part II)
Seeds
(semences)
A commodity class for seeds for planting or intended for planting and not for consumption or processing (see grain) (ISPM No. 5)
service provider
(fournisseur de services)
An organization, company or person who has entered into an agreement with the CFIA to recommend participation of a facility in a program or activity and to review a facility's compliance with standards prescribed by the CFIA
shipment (of seed potatoes)
(expédition (de pommes de terre de semence))
The movement of one lot, or any part thereof, of seed potatoes to a single consignee (Seeds Regulations Part II)
sister crop (seed potatoes)
(culture issue de semence de même origine (pommes de terre de semence))
Crops or fields of potatoes planted from the same seed source (i.e., the parent lot) whether grown on the same or a different farm unit
sister lot (seed potatoes)
(lot-frère (pommes de terre de semence))
Lot or crop of potatoes planted from the same seed source identified by a unique certification number
soil
(terre)
The loose surface of the earth in which plants grow, in most cases consisting of disintegrated rock with an admixture of organic material (NAPPO RSPM No. 5)
soilrelated matter
(matières reliées á la terre)
Humus, compost, earthworm castings, muck, plant litter and debris, either individually or in combination
spread
(dissémination)
Expansion of the geographical distribution of a pest within an area (ISPM No. 5)
sterile medium
(milieu stérile)
A substrate in which all organisms have been destroyed
straw
(paille)
The hollow stalks or stems of a cereal crop after harvesting and/or threshing
substantial equivalence (of plants with and without novel traits)
(équivalence substantielle (des végétaux avec et sans caractères nouveaux))
A novel trait within a particular plant species, having the same effect in terms of its specific use and plant pest potential, as the trait in that same plant species that is in use and generally considered safe in Canada, based on valid scientific rationale
surveillance inspection
(inspection de surveillance (surveillance de la qualité))
Continual monitoring and verification of the status of an entity and analysis of records to ensure that specified requirements are being fulfilled (ISO 8402:1994)
systems approach(es)
(approche(s) systémique(s))
The integration of different risk management measures, at least two of which act independently, and which cumulatively achieve the appropriate level of protection against regulated pests (ISPM No. 5)
systems inspection
(inspection des systèmes)
A review of the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources used in implementing a specific program in an approved facility
temperate fruit
(fruit de climat tempéré)
Fruit originating from trees and shrubs that require a period of cold each year in order to induce fruiting (e.g. pome fruit, stone fruit, small fruit, etc.) and that can be grown outdoors in Canada's climatic conditions.
terminal elevator
(silo terminal)
An elevator, the principal uses of which are the receiving of grain on or after the official inspection, and official weighing of the grain, and the cleaning, storing and treating of the grain, before forwarding
test
(analyse)
Official examination, other than visual, to determine if pests are present or to identify pests (ISPM No. 5)
thing
(choses)
"thing" includes a plant and a pest. (Plant Protection Act)
tissue culture
(culture de tissu)
See definition for "plants in vitro"
tolerance level
(niveau de tolérance)
Level of pest infestation that is the threshold for action to control that pest or to prevent its spread or introduction
transfer elevator
(silo de transbordement)
(a) an elevator, the principal use of which is the transfer of grain that has been officially inspected and officially weighed at another elevator, and
(b) an elevator located east of the meridian passing through the eastern boundary of the city of Thunder Bay, and excluding the province of Manitoba, the principal uses of which are the transfer of grain that has been officially inspected and officially weighed at another elevator and the receiving, cleaning and storing of eastern grain or foreign grain
transgenic plant
(végétal transgénique)
A plant in which one or more genes or genetic constructs or traits have been introduced using recombinant DNA techniques (also known as genetic engineering), which could be considered to include the insertion of genetic material from the same or different species (NAPPO RSPM No. 5)
transplants
(plants à repiquer)
Plants raised from seed or seedlings, intended for movement and for replanting, further production or growing
transhipped
(transbordement)
A consignment which is transferred from one conveyance to another for further transportation
treatment
(traitement
Official procedure for the killing, inactivation or removal of pests or for rendering pests infertile or for devitalization (ISPM No. 5)
treatment chamber (for heat treatment)
(chambre de traitement (pour le traitement thermique))
A closed structure used for heating a commodity until it reaches a minimum temperature for a minimum period of time
treatment schedule
(programme de traitement)
The critical parameters of a treatment which need to be met to achieve the intended outcome (i.e. the killing, inactivation or removal of pests, or rendering pests infertile, or devitalization) at a stated efficacy (ISPM No. 5)
tropical
(tropical)
Native to, or grown in, only those areas geographically located between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and having a tropical climate characterized by year round high temperatures and typically heavy rainfall
tropical fruit
(fruit tropical)
Fruits originating from plants characterized by an intolerance to frost, and which cannot survive all seasons in Canada outdoors.
tuber grade size (for seed potatoes)
(classification des tubercules selon le calibre (pommes de terre de semence))
Size range for graded seed potatoes as defined in section 48 of the Seeds Regulations
tuber grade standard (for seed potatoes)
(normes relatives aux tubercules (pommes de terre de semence))
Disease or defect percentages for seed potatoes as defined in section 48.1 of the Seeds Regulations
tuber unit (seed potatoes)
(tubercules individualisés (pomme de terre de semence))
The separate pieces of one tuber that are planted consecutively in two or more hills in a row (Seeds Regulations Part II)
turf
(gazon)
Surface layer of earth containing a mat of grass and grass roots
variety (of seed potatoes)
(variété (pomme de terre de semence))
A variety of seed potatoes that:

(a) is distinguished by common morphological, physiological, cytological, chemical or other common characteristics, and
(b) retains its distinguishing characteristics when reproduced (Seeds Regulations Part II)

vegetable seed
(semence potagère)
Kinds and varieties of seed that are or maybe generally known and sold under the name vegetable seed
virus-tested
(analysé à l'égard des virus)
Tested for the presence of viruses and virus like pathogens, such as phytoplasmas, viroids or graft transmissible agents according to specified protocols and found negative on all tests
Wood
(bois)
A commodity class for round wood, sawn wood, wood chips or dunnage with or without bark (ISPM No. 5)
wood chips
(copeaux de bois)
Untreated, raw wood fragments broken or shredded from logs or branch surfaces
wood mulch
(paillis de bois)
A protected or decorative ground cover made of untreated raw bark chips, wood chips, wood shavings or sawdust.
wood packaging material
(matériau d'emballage en bois)
Wood or wood products (excluding paper products) used in supporting, protecting or carrying a commodity (includes dunnage) (ISPM No. 5)
wood products
(produits de bois)
Includes lumber, logs, log homes, prefabricated home components and wood packaging and pallet kits
wood turning blank
(ébauche de tournage)
Wood which has been prepared in shape or form and is used for the purposes of wood turning, spindle turning and similar lathe work. Usually this form will be a round disc or a square and is free of bark

References:

International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures, Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms, 2007, ISPM No. 5, FAO, Rome
Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22
Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Seeds Regulations, CRC., c. 1400, Part II, seed potatoes

Acronyms:

Acronym Definition
ACO Authorized Certification Official
AIRS Automated Import Reference System
APHIS Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (of the United States Department of Agriculture)
AQSIQ General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People Republic of China
AQIS Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service
BCMAFF British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries
BCP Barberry Certification Program
BCP Blueberry Certification Program
BRR Bacterial Ring Rot
CARS Corrective Action Requests
CBSA Canada Border Services Agency
CEPD Centre of Expertise for Potato Diseases
CFIA Canadian Food Inspection Agency
CGC Canadian Grain Commission
CGCP Canadian Greenhouse Certification Program
CGMP Canadian Growing Media Program
CHA Canadian Hay Association
CHCP Canadian Hay Certification Program
CHTWPCP Canadian Heat Treated Wood Products Certification Program
CITES Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
CLSAB The Canadian Lumber Standards Accreditation Board
CNCP Canadian Nursery Certification Program
COO Certificate of Origin
CPCPS Canadian Phytosanitary Certification Program for Seed
CPQP Centre for Plant Quarantine Pests
CWPCP Canadian Wood Packaging Certification Program
ECS Export Certification System
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
FPQIR Foreign Plant Quarantine Import Requirements.
FSA US Federal Seed Act and Regulations
HT Heat Treatment
IPM Integrated Pest Management
IPPC International Plant Protection Convention
ISC Import Service Centre (CFIA)
ISO International Organization for Standardization
ISPM International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures
KD-HT Kiln dried and heat treated
MC Movement Certificate
MDA Montana Department of Agriculture
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
NAPPO North American Plant Protection Organization
NDDA North Dakota Department of Agriculture
NPPO National Plant Protection Organization
OPO Operations Program Officer, Plant Health, CFIA
PC Phytosanitary Certificate
PCM Pest Control Manager
PD Plantenziektenkundige dienst - the National Plant Protection Organization of the Netherlands
PEQ Post Entry Quarantine
PFA Pest Free Area
PFPP Pest Free Place of Production
PFPS Pest Free Production Site
PI Permit to Import
PNT Plant with novel traits
PMP Pest Management Plan
PMRA Pest Management Regulatory Agency
PPQ Plant Protection and Quarantine (of the United States Department of Agriculture)
PQIR Plant Quarantine Import Requirements
PRA Pest Risk Analysis
PSMS Phytosanitary Management Systems
QMS Quality Management System
RNQP Regulated Non-Quarantine Pests
SENASA Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria, Ministerio de Agricultura (Peru)
SMCP Swede Midge Certification Program
SPS WTO-SPS Agreement: The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
UK United Kingdom
USNCP United States Nursery Certification Program
USDA United States Department of Agriculture
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