D-00-07 Phytosanitary requirements to prevent the introduction and spread of apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella [Walsh])

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Effective date: June 1, 2016
(8th revision)

Subject

This directive provides the phytosanitary import requirements for the entry of hosts of apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) into British Columbia (B.C.) from the continental United States and Mexico. This directive also describes the domestic movement requirements related to apple maggot. These requirements are in addition to other restrictions such as those for Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta), light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), designated virus diseases of fruit trees, and regulated soil-borne pests.

This 8th revision of directive D-00-07 includes the following changes:

  • A new title.
  • Establishment of a Pest Free Area (PFA) for apple maggot in B.C.
  • Clarification of the requirements for regulated articles moving within B.C.
  • New option for apple maggot host plants produced in a Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS) to enter B.C. from other provinces and the United States.
  • Clarification of the cold treatment requirements for regulated fruits.
  • Clarification of the apple maggot requirements for empty, used containers moving into B.C. and authorization of the use of a United States Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) Federal Certificate (Form PPQ-540), in lieu of a Phytosanitary Certificate for empty, used fruit containers entering B.C. from the United States.
  • Provisions for apples that are produced in the PFA in B.C. and packed in Washington State to enter B.C. without cold treatment.
  • Clarification of the requirements for regulated articles entering B.C. from Mexico.

This directive supersedes all previous versions of directive D-00-07.

Table of contents

Review

This directive will be updated as required. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Endorsement

Approved by:

Chief Plant Health Officer

Introduction

Apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) is indigenous to eastern North America and has been a serious pest of apples in Canada for more than 100 years. The first record of this insect attacking apple in Canada was in Ontario, in 1896. Apple maggot is widespread throughout eastern Canada, with the exception of Newfoundland. This insect was detected in Edmonton, Alberta and the Lower Mainland, Fraser Valley, and Vancouver Island in British Columbia (B.C.) in 2006. In 2013, apple maggot was also confirmed in Prince George, B.C.

The Okanagan, Similkameen and Creston Valleys in the southern interior of B.C. are the last major apple-growing areas in North America that are free from this pest. These interior fruit-producing regions in B.C. are surrounded by steep mountain ranges and are geographically isolated from known apple maggot populations in Canada. The most likely pathways for the movement of apple maggot into the fruit-producing valleys of southern interior B.C. are human-assisted spread from established populations in North America or natural spread from adjacent infested areas.

The domestic movement of regulated articles, such as apple fruit, nursery stock, used containers and soil from infested areas into B.C. is regulated under the Plant Protection Regulations. This directive describes the phytosanitary requirements that are in place to mitigate the risk associated with both the domestic movement and importation of regulated articles, such as fresh apples, nursery stock, fruit containers and soil, from areas in North America that are infested with apple maggot into B.C. and from regulated areas within B.C. to areas of B.C. where apple maggot does not occur.

Purpose

This directive is intended for the use of CFIA inspection staff, Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) staff, National Plant Protection Organization (NPPOs) of exporting countries, and any individual or business intending to import or move regulated articles from areas regulated for apple maggot to B.C. or within B.C. It is also intended as a guide for producers located in areas regulated for apple maggot.

References

D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-08-04: Phytosanitary import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-94-35: List of sources approved to export fruit tree and grape propagative material to Canada. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-95-08: Phytosanitary import requirements for fresh temperate fruits and nuts. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-95-26: Phytosanitary requirements for soil and related matter, alone or in association with plants. CFIA, Ottawa.

Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 Scope

1.1 Legislative authority

Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c.22
Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part I (as amended from time to time)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported products, please contact the CFIA's National Import Service Centre (NISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice website.

1.3 Regulated pests

Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), apple maggot

For biological information, please refer to the CFIA's Fact Sheet on R. pomonella.

1.4 Regulated articles

  • Plants with roots: rooted host plants of all species, hybrids and horticultural varieties of Malus spp., Crataegus spp., Prunus avium and P. cerasus.
  • Fresh fruits of Malus spp., Crataegus spp.
  • Fresh fruits of Prunus avium and P. cerasus originating from Utah or Wisconsin in the United States.
  • Empty used containers: Any bin, box, case, crate, package, tote or other receptacle previously used for containing, transporting, packaging or wrapping the regulated fresh fruits or rooted plants, irrespective of size or material.
  • Soil: Soil and other growing media attached to plants of the listed host species.

1.5 Regulated areas

Regulated areas are areas where R. pomonella is considered to occur. The areas regulated for R. pomonella include all provinces in Canada, except the Pest Free Area in B.C., all continental states in the United States and all states of Mexico.

1.6 Pest Free Areas (PFA)

This directive establishes a Pest Free Area (PFA) for R. pomonella in the commercial tree fruit production areas in the southern interior of the province of B.C. Please refer to Appendix 1 for a map and list of the regional districts and electoral areas that make up the PFA.

The CFIA carries out annual surveys for R. pomonella in B.C. to verify the "pest free status" of these areas, detect new pest incursions and support access to export markets.

2.0 General requirements

No regulated articles may be moved from regulated areas into the province of B.C. or from regulated areas within B.C. into the PFA except under the provisions specified in this directive.

Note: Imported fresh fruits and nursery stock are additionally regulated or prohibited for other pests. Please refer to the list of other Plant Health directives, particularly directives D-95-08 and D-08-04, consult the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) or contact the CFIA for further details.

2.1 Requirements for regulated articles transiting B.C.

In addition to meeting CBSA's reporting requirements, regulated articles entering Canada and transiting B.C. to other destinations within Canada or the United States must either be shipped by a bonded carrier or meet the entry requirements of B.C.

3.0 Requirements for regulated articles from Mexico entering the province of B.C.

3.1 Plants

The regulated host plants of apple maggot are currently not authorized for importation into Canada from Mexico; see directive D-08-04, in particular Section 3.3 and Appendix 1, for details.

3.2 Fresh fruits of Malus spp. and Crataegus spp.

A Permit to Import is not required. A phytosanitary certificate is required.

Cold treatment is required; see Appendix 3 for options. The Phytosanitary Certificate must specify the treatment details.

3.3 Empty used containers (including fruit bins)

A Permit to Import is not required. A phytosanitary certificate is required.

Empty used containers that have been used to transport apple maggot host materials may enter B.C. provided they have been treated using a steam or high pressure water wash or another treatment approved by the CFIA and are inspected and found free from regulated pests, soil and plant debris. The containers must be accompanied by a Phytosanitary Certificate specifying the treatment.

4.0 Requirements for regulated articles from the United States entering the province of B.C.

Appendix 2 lists the counties in the United States which are considered free from apple maggot on the basis of annual official surveys. Only the counties listed in Appendix 2 are eligible for certification options related to county freedom.

4.1 Plants with roots

Note: Due to requirements for pests other than apple maggot, Malus spp. and Prunus spp. plants are only admissible into Canada from approved sources in certain states of the United States and are subject to additional specific import requirements. Please refer to directive D-94-35 for more details.

A Permit to Import and a Phytosanitary Certificate are required. The Phytosanitary Certificate must indicate the state and county of origin.

One of the following options must be met:

(1) The plants must be free from fruit and must be entirely free from soil and soil-related matter. The Phytosanitary Certificate must include the following additional declaration:

"The plants in this consignment were inspected and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

(2) The plants were produced in a county that is free from apple maggot based on annual official surveys (Appendix 2). The Phytosanitary Certificate must include the following additional declaration:

"The plants in this consignment were produced in a county in the continental United States in which, on the basis of annual official surveys, the apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) does not occur."

(3) Prunus avium plants that are not completely free from soil may enter B.C. provided they are one year old, or younger, and non-fruit bearing. The plants must be shaken to remove most soil and to facilitate the inspection of the roots and crowns of the plants. The following additional declaration must appear on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"The plants in this consignment are one year old or younger and non-fruit bearing and were inspected and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

(4) Plants that are produced at a USDA-APHIS approved Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS) may enter B.C. with some soil adhering to the roots. The plants must be free from fruit and shaken to remove most soil and to facilitate the inspection of the roots and crowns of the plants. The following additional declaration must appear on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"The plants in this consignment were produced in a USDA-APHIS approved space [Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS)] and were inspected and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

Note: The process for seeking approval of a PFPP or PFPS for apple maggot must be initiated by USDA-APHIS. The CFIA will review the information submitted by USDA-APHIS and assess whether the proposed phytosanitary measures are sufficient to preclude the introduction and spread of apple maggot.

4.2 Fresh fruits

4.2.1 Prunus avium and P. cerasus

Fresh fruits of Prunus avium and P. cerasus from Utah and Wisconsin are prohibited entry to B.C.

There are no requirements related to apple maggot for fresh cherry fruit from other states.

4.2.2 Malus spp. and Crataegus spp.

A Permit to Import is not required. A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The Phytosanitary Certificate must indicate the state and county of origin.

The shipment must conform to one of the following options:

Option 1: Cold treatment

Appendix 3 describes the cold treatment options. The Phytosanitary Certificate must specify the treatment details.

Option 2: Pest free county

Certification for freedom from apple maggot is based on the results of annual official surveys, isolation from sources of infestation and systematic sampling and inspections of the fruit prior to export. Please refer to Appendix 2 for the list of apple maggot free counties.

The following additional declaration must appear on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"The fruit in this consignment was grown in a county which has been surveyed annually in a manner which clearly establishes that the apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) does not occur and in addition this fruit was harvested a minimum of one mile from any neighbouring county infestations."

Option 3: Pest Free Production Site (PFPS)

A commercial orchard which is free from apple maggot, but located within an apple maggot infested county in the continental United States, may be designated as a Pest Free Production Site (PFPS) by USDA-APHIS. The following additional declaration must appear on the Phytosanitary Certificate:

"The fruit in this consignment was harvested from a commercial orchard in the designated apple maggot free zone space (identification name or number) in the county of space."

Note: Producers wishing to qualify as a PFPS must file a request with their state certification authority. The state must then make representation to the USDA-APHIS. Details concerning the name of grower(s), location of the orchard(s), isolation factors including proximity to nearest known apple maggot infestation, survey methods and survey results are required and should be included in such a representation.

4.2.3 Malus spp. produced in British Columbia and packed in Washington State

Apples produced in an area of British Columbia that is free from apple maggot and that are packed in Washington State and then returned to the province of British Columbia may be exempted from cold treatment provided they are accompanied by a re-export Phytosanitary Certificate issued by United States officials in addition to the CFIA Phytosanitary Certificate with the following additional declaration:

"The fruit in this consignment was produced in a pest free area for apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) in British Columbia."

Packers wishing to qualify for the exemption from cold treatment must file a request with the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA). WSDA must make representation to USDA-APHIS in Washington D.C. Details such as the name of the packer, inventory controls, safeguarding measures, the location of adjacent orchard(s) and unmanaged host trees, and proximity to nearest known apple maggot infestation are required and should be included in such a representation.

4.3 Empty used containers (including fruit bins)

Empty used containers that have been used to transport apple maggot host materials may enter B.C. provided they have been treated using a steam or high pressure water wash or another treatment approved by the CFIA and are inspected and found free from regulated pests, soil and plant debris. The containers must be accompanied by a Phytosanitary Certificate specifying the treatment. A USDA-APHIS Federal Certificate (Form PPQ-540, see Appendix 4) may be used to certify the consignment, in lieu of a Phytosanitary Certificate.

5.0 Requirements for regulated articles entering B.C. from other regions of Canada

5.1 Plants with roots

A CFIA Movement Certificate is required. One of the following options must be met:

(1) The plants must be free from fruit and must be entirely free from soil. The Movement Certificate must include the following additional declaration:

"The plants in this consignment were inspected by CFIA and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

(2) Prunus avium plants that are not completely free from soil may enter B.C. provided they are 1 year old, or younger, and non-fruit bearing. The plants must be shaken to remove most soil and to facilitate the inspection of the roots and crowns of the plants. The following additional declaration must appear on the Movement Certificate:

"The plants in this consignment are one year old or younger and non-fruit bearing and were inspected by CFIA and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

(3) Plants that are produced at an approved Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS) may enter B.C. with some soil adhering to the roots. The plants must be free from fruit and shaken to remove most soil and to facilitate the inspection of the roots and crowns of the plants. The following additional declaration must appear on the Movement Certificate:

"The plants in this consignment were produced in a CFIA-approved space [Pest Free Place of Production (PFPP) or Pest Free Production Site (PFPS)] and were inspected and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

Note: The process for seeking CFIA approval of a PFPP or PFPS for apple maggot must be initiated by provincial agricultural authorities. The CFIA will review the information submitted by the province and assess whether the proposed phytosanitary measures are sufficient to preclude the introduction and spread of apple maggot. The CFIA will then enter into compliance agreements with individual nurseries.

5.2 Fresh fruits of Malus spp. and Crataegus spp.

A CFIA Movement Certificate is required.

The fruit must undergo a cold treatment as described in Appendix 3. The Movement Certificate must specify the treatment details.

5.3 Empty used containers (including fruit bins)

Empty used containers that have been used to transport apple maggot host materials may enter B.C. provided they have been treated using a steam or high pressure water wash or another treatment approved by the CFIA and are inspected and found free from regulated pests, soil and plant debris. The containers must be accompanied by a Movement Certificate issued by the CFIA, specifying the treatment.

6.0 Requirements for regulated articles moving into the Pest Free Area (PFA) in B.C. from regulated areas of B.C.

6.1 Plants with roots

A Movement Certificate issued by the CFIA in British Columbia is required.

One of the following options must be met:

(1) The plants must be free from fruit and must be entirely free from soil. The Movement Certificate must include the following additional declaration:

"The plants in this consignment were inspected by the CFIA and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

(2) Prunus avium plants that are not completely free from soil may enter the PFA in B.C. provided they are 1 year old, or younger, and non-fruit bearing. The plants must be shaken to remove most soil and to facilitate the inspection of the roots and crowns of the plants. The following additional declaration must appear on the Movement Certificate:
"The plants in this consignment are one year old or younger and non-fruit bearing and were inspected by CFIA and found free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella)."

(3) The nursery has entered into a compliance agreement with the CFIA specifying the measures used to mitigate the risk of apple maggot. The following additional declaration must appear on the Movement Certificate:
"The plants in this consignment meet the requirements of the British Columbia Apple Maggot Program."

6.2 Fresh fruits of Malus spp. and Crataegus spp. produced in regulated areas of B.C.

A CFIA Movement Certificate is required.

The fruit must undergo a cold treatment as described in Appendix 3. The Movement Certificate must specify the treatment details.

6.3 Empty used containers (including fruit bins)

Empty used containers that have been used to transport regulated articles may enter the PFA from other regions of B.C. provided they have been treated using a steam or high pressure water wash or another treatment approved by the CFIA and are inspected and found free from regulated pests, soil and plant debris. The containers must be accompanied by a Movement Certificate issued by the CFIA, specifying the treatment.

7.0 Non-compliance

7.1 Imported shipments

Imported consignments are subject to inspection by the CFIA. Shipments that are found to be infested with pests of quarantine concern or are otherwise non-compliant may be refused entry to Canada, or ordered removed from the country or destroyed. Infested consignments may be ordered treated prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests. If determined feasible by the inspector, non-compliant shipments may be rerouted to other destinations, provided such a course of action does not cause unwarranted pest risk.

The importer is responsible for all costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal of the products, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken. As per directive D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action, the CFIA will notify the NPPO of the exporting country when consignments from that country fail to comply with Canada's phytosanitary import requirements, including if apple maggot is detected.

7.2 Domestic shipments

Regulated articles originating from a regulated area in Canada and destined to B.C. or originating in a regulated area in B.C. and destined to the Pest Free Area must meet the phytosanitary requirements for apple maggot and are subject to inspection by the CFIA. Consignments that are found to be infested with apple maggot or are otherwise non-compliant will be returned to the regulated area or destroyed. Infested shipments may be ordered treated prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests. The person in possession, care or control of the shipment is responsible for any and all costs relating to disposal, removal or rerouting, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken.

8.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Map of the Pest Free Area for apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) in British Columbia

Appendix 2: Counties in the continental United States which are considered free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) on the basis of official annual surveys

Appendix 3: Cold treatment

Appendix 4: USDA-APHIS Form PPQ-540

Appendix 1: Map of the Pest Free Area for apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) in British Columbia

The apple maggot Pest Free Area includes the following electoral areas within the following regional districts in B.C.:

  • Central Kootenay Regional District: entire district, except electoral areas D and K
  • Central Okanagan Regional District: entire district
  • Columbia-Shuswap Regional District: electoral areas C, D and E and municipalities of Salmon Arm and Sicamous only
  • Kootenay-Boundary Regional District: entire district
  • North Okanagan Regional District: entire district, except electoral area E
  • Okanagan-Similkameen Regional District: entire district, except electoral area H and the municipality of Princeton
The apple maggot Pest Free Area in British Columbia. Description follows
Description of image – The apple maggot Pest Free Area in British Columbia

This map of British Columbia shows the electoral areas and regional districts which make up the apple maggot Pest Free Area in British Columbia. The Pest Free Area includes electoral areas within the Central Kootenay Regional District, the Central Okanagan Regional District, the Columbia-Shuswap Regional District, the Kootenay-Boundary Regional District, the North Okanagan Regional District and the Okanagan-Similkameen Regional District.

Appendix 2: Counties in the continental United States which are considered free from apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) on the basis of official annual surveys

Date modified: March 21, 2014

California

  • Contra Costa
  • El Dorado
  • Fresno
  • Imperial
  • Kern
  • Kings
  • Lake
  • Los Angeles
  • Madera
  • Marin
  • Merced
  • Monterey
  • Orange
  • Riverside
  • Sacramento
  • San Benito
  • San Bernadino
  • San Diego
  • San Francisco
  • San Joaquin
  • San Luis Obispo
  • Santa Barbara
  • Santa Clara
  • Stanislaus
  • Tulare
  • Ventura

Idaho

  • Boundary
  • Canyon
  • Owyhee
  • Payette

Oregon

  • Baker
  • Crook
  • Deschutes
  • Grant
  • Harney
  • Jefferson
  • Klamath
  • Lake
  • Malheur
  • Morrow
  • Union
  • Wallowa
  • Wheeler

Washington

  • Adams
  • Asotin
  • Benton
  • Chelan
  • Columbia
  • Douglas
  • Ferry
  • Franklin
  • Garfield
  • Grant
  • Lincoln
  • Okanogan
  • Pend Oreille
  • Stevens
  • Walla Walla
  • Whitman

Appendix 3: Cold treatment

The average recorded temperature for the cold storage room must be maintained at a maximum temperature of:

(1) 0.6°C (33°F) for a minimum of 42 continuous days; or

(2) 3.3°C (38°F) for a minimum of 90 continuous days

To certify that cold treatment requirements have been met:

  • Temperature recording equipment must be verified and temperature sensors must be calibrated to +/- 1°C prior to initiating the cold treatment. Temperature sensors should be placed into the fruit pulp and spaced around the cold storage room.
  • The timing of the cold treatment may begin when the average temperature reading calculated from all the sensors in the cold storage room has dropped to the targeted level.
  • Short-term temperature peaks caused by defrost cycles will not affect the certification process provided the average temperature calculated from all the sensors in the cold storage room over the period of the defrost cycle remains at or below the temperature options listed above.
  • The cold storage room must remain sealed for the duration of the treatment period.
  • The records for the entire treatment period must be reviewed to verify that the minimum specifications have been met, prior to issuing a Movement Certificate or Phytosanitary Certificate.

Appendix 4: USDA-APHIS Form PPQ-540

United States Department of Agriculture - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-PPQ Certificate – Form PPQ-540. Description follows.
Description of image – USDA-APHIS-PPQ Certificate – Form PPQ-540

This is an image of a sample USDA-APHIS Federal Certificate that may be used to certify used fruit containers, in lieu of a Phytosanitary Certificate. The form includes the following elements: a serial number, date issued, date void, name of consignor, shipping point, name and address of consignee, vehicle identification information, description of the articles being certified, and the signature of the issuing inspector. It also includes the following statement: "The articles described below are certified under all applicable Federal or State cooperative domestic plant quarantines."

Date modified: