D-02-04: The Blueberry Certification Program and domestic phytosanitary requirements to prevent the spread of blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax) within Canada

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Effective Date: June 1, 2015
(6th revision)

Subject

This directive sets out the phytosanitary requirements for the domestic movement of commodities regulated for blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax) in order to prevent the introduction and/or spread of this pest into pest free areas of Canada. This directive also describes the Blueberry Certification Program (BCP), which is aimed at blueberry producers located in regulated areas of Canada and the United States that ship blueberry fruit to non-regulated areas of Canada.

This is the first complete revision of directive D-02-04 since it was originally published in 2002. The following changes have been made:

Table of contents

Review

This directive will be updated as required. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Endorsement

Approved by:

space
Chief Plant Health Officer

Introduction

Blueberry maggot is a serious pest of both highbush and lowbush blueberries; this insect infests blueberry fruit and makes it unmarketable. Infestations may also result in reductions in yield, increases in the costs of production and market losses.

Blueberry maggot is a regulated pest for Canada. It is considered to be present in Canada, but it is not widely distributed and is under official control. The distribution of blueberry maggot within Canada is considered limited because there are areas free from the pest that are at risk of economic loss from its introduction or spread. Blueberry maggot is native to eastern North America, including Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and the eastern United States. It was first discovered in the province of Ontario in 1993 and in Quebec in 1996. Extensive surveys have been conducted in Ontario and Quebec to help define the regulated areas in these two provinces. Blueberry maggot is not present in other provinces of Canada, based on official surveys.

Natural spread of blueberry maggot is relatively slow since the adults are not strong fliers. Human activities pose a much higher risk of introducing blueberry maggot to new areas. Consequently, the CFIA restricts the movement of fresh blueberries, blueberry plants, used containers, farm machinery and soil from infested (regulated) areas to all other areas of Canada (non-regulated areas).

Blueberry fruit moving from regulated areas into the Province of British Columbia must be fumigated with methyl bromide, as per provincial regulations. However, there are two additional options for managing the risk associated with moving fresh blueberry fruit from regulated areas to other non-regulated areas within Canada: the Blueberry Certification Program (BCP) and CFIA-approved processing plants.

The Blueberry Certification Program (BCP) was introduced by the CFIA in 1999 to facilitate the movement of fresh blueberry fruit while managing the risk of further spread of blueberry maggot in Canada. The BCP involves applying a series of risk management measures, including pest monitoring, control measures, fruit grading, sampling and testing in order to manage the risk of spreading blueberry maggot. Participants in the BCP may be located in regulated areas in either Canada or in the United States. Blueberries grown under the BCP may be shipped with a specially-designed Movement Certification Label, in lieu of a CFIA Movement Certificate or U.S. Phytosanitary Certificate.

Purpose

This directive is intended for the use of CFIA inspection staff, the Canada Border Services Agency, USDA-APHIS, state agriculture departments, blueberry producers, blueberry processors, importers, shippers, and brokers. It outlines the phytosanitary requirements for the movement of fresh blueberries, blueberry plants, fruit containers, conveyances, farm equipment, and soil from regulated areas of Canada to areas of Canada where blueberry maggot does not occur. It also describes the requirements for CFIA-approved processing plants in non-regulated areas in Canada and blueberry growers located in regulated areas in Canada and the United States that participate in the BCP.

The general phytosanitary import requirements for fresh blueberries into Canada are described in directive D-95-08: General phytosanitary import requirements for fresh temperate fruits and tree nuts. The general phytosanitary import requirements for regulated host plants into Canada are described in directive D-08-04: Phytosanitary import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting.

References

This directive supersedes all previous versions of directive D-02-04.

D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-95-08: General phytosanitary import requirements for fresh temperate fruits and tree nuts. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-08-04: Phytosanitary import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting. CFIA, Ottawa.

Rhagoletis mendax (blueberry maggot) – Fact Sheet. CFIA, Ottawa.

British Columbia Blueberry Maggot Control Regulation, B.C. Reg. 280/90 and B.C. Reg. 112/2014. June 18, 2014.

Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 Scope

1.1 Legislative authority

Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22.

Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212

Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Regulations, SOR/98-155

Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part 1 (as amended from time to time)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported products, please contact the National Import Service Centre (NISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice website.

1.3 Regulated pest

Blueberry maggot, Rhagoletis mendax Curran

1.4 Regulated articles

  • Fresh fruit: Host species listed in Section 1.4.1 (cultivated and wild blueberries, huckleberries, lingonberries).
  • Plants with roots: Host species listed in Section 1.4.1.
  • Used containers: Any receptacle, package, box, tray or wrapper previously used for containing, transporting, packaging or wrapping the fresh fruit or plants of the listed host species, irrespective of size or material.
  • Conveyances: Any conveyance used to move fruit, used containers or plants of the listed host species.
  • Farm equipment: All tractors, burners, harvesters, blowers, rakes, sprayers, cultivators or other equipment used in the cultivation or management of the crop of the listed host species.
  • Soil: Soil attached to plants of the listed host species or as a contaminant of fruit, used containers, farm machinery and equipment, or transportation vehicles.

1.4.1 Host species

  • lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium, including V. pennsylvanicum)
  • highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum, including V. ashei and V. atrococcum)
  • deerberry (V. stamineum)
  • black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata)
  • dangleberry (G. frondosa)
  • dwarf huckleberry (G. dumosa)
  • hillside blueberry (V. pallidum, including V. vacillans)
  • sourtop blueberry (V. myrtilloides, including V. canadense)
  • lingonberry (V. vitis-idaea)
  • small cranberry (V. oxycoccus)

Notes:

  • In this directive, all references to "blueberries" are intended to include fruit of all listed host species.
  • Vaccinium macrocarpon, the commonly cultivated cranberry, is not regulated for R. mendax.

1.5 Commodities outside the scope of this directive

  • Processed blueberry fruit (frozen, canned, dried, cooked, pureed, fermented, etc.)
  • Plants without roots
  • In-vitro plants
  • Seeds
  • New containers

1.6 Regulated areas

For the purposes of this directive, the regulated areas are the areas from which plants, plant products and other regulated articles are subjected to phytosanitary measures. The Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island are regulated areas as are portions of the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec. See Appendix 1 for a description of the areas regulated for blueberry maggot in Canada.

The CFIA carries out annual surveys for blueberry maggot in non-regulated areas across Canada. The purpose of these surveys is to verify the "pest-free status" of those areas and to detect new pest incursions. When blueberry maggot is detected in a non-regulated area, the CFIA will put appropriate regulatory measures in place to prevent further spread of the pest and will initiate a delimitation survey to determine its distribution. The information obtained during the delimitation survey will be used to determine whether the boundaries of the regulated area should be changed or whether new areas should be regulated.

The CFIA will consult with government partners in determining the appropriate boundaries for any new regulated area (e.g. grower site, township, municipality, county, regional county municipalities ["municipalités regionales de comté" or MRC, in Québec])

A grower site located outside the current regulated area will be considered infested and regulated for blueberry maggot when either:

  1. Two or more adult blueberry maggots are found on traps at the grower site in the same year.

    or

  2. One adult blueberry maggot is found on a trap and one or more blueberry maggot larvae are detected during the fruit survey that is triggered by finding a single adult blueberry maggot on a trap at the grower site.

If there are no host plants located within 500 metres of the infested grower site then the regulated area may be restricted to the grower site. Individually regulated infested grower sites may be considered free of blueberry maggot after three consecutive years of negative trapping and fruit sampling results, provided they are not located in a regulated area and that they carry out trapping and fruit sampling as described in Appendix 3. All other regulated areas will continue to be regulated indefinitely.

2.0 Specific requirements

No regulated commodities may be moved from blueberry maggot regulated areas to non-regulated areas in Canada except under the provisions specified in this directive.

There are no restrictions related to blueberry maggot on the movement of fresh blueberry fruit, blueberry plants, used fruit containers, farm machinery or transportation vehicles, from regulated areas to other regulated areas or from non-regulated areas to any other area of Canada.

2.1 Fresh blueberry fruit

2.1.1 Requirements for fresh blueberries from regulated areas of Canada to British Columbia

The Province of British Columbia has specific blueberry maggot regulations which must be met. Blueberry fruit originating from infested areas and destined to British Columbia must be fumigated using methyl bromide, as per the schedules specified in the applicable provincial regulation and in Appendix 2.

The blueberries must be accompanied by a Movement Certificate issued by the CFIA that indicates the treatment details.

These provincial regulations apply to all fresh blueberry fruit from the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Quebec, regardless of whether they were produced under the Blueberry Certification Program (BCP). Please refer to the provincial regulation for additional information:

2.1.2 Requirements for fresh blueberry fruit from regulated areas of Canada to non-regulated areas of Canada other than British Columbia

The blueberries must meet the requirements under one of the three options below.

I. Blueberry Certification Program (BCP)

Fresh blueberries may be shipped outside the regulated area provided they comply with the requirements of the Blueberry Certification Program (BCP). The BCP is based on approval of growers, pest monitoring and control procedures, grading, fruit sampling and testing. Blueberries that originate from a grower approved under the BCP and which meet all the requirements of the BCP may move outside the regulated area accompanied by a Movement Certification Label. Please refer to Appendix 3 for a detailed description of the BCP.

  • Customers who buy 12 kg or less of fresh blueberries from a "Pick-Your-Own" establishment, roadside stand or other direct farm sales in Canada must still meet the requirements of this directive, but are exempted from the requirement for a Movement Certification Label.
  • All blueberry establishments (including "Pick-Your-Own", roadside stands and other farm direct sales businesses located in regulated areas in Canada) which choose not to participate in the BCP must inform their clients that their fresh blueberries may not be moved outside the regulated area.
II. CFIA-approved processing plant

Fresh blueberries from regulated areas which were not produced under the Blueberry Certification Program may be shipped to processing plants in non-regulated areas, provided the processing plant is designated by the CFIA to receive such fruit.

Shippers located in a regulated area who wish to ship fresh blueberries to a processing plant located in a non-regulated area must verify that the processing plant is authorised by the CFIA to receive blueberries from regulated areas. The blueberries must be accompanied by a Movement Certificate issued by the CFIA.

In order to obtain approval to receive fresh blueberries from regulated areas, the processing plant must have entered into a compliance agreement with the CFIA (Appendix 4). The compliance agreement is valid for one year. The processing plant will be subject to periodic inspections by the CFIA during the shipping season. Processing plants which are not in compliance with the required conditions will have their approval revoked until the conditions and procedures are rectified to the satisfaction of the CFIA. While approval is revoked, the plant is not permitted to receive blueberry shipments from regulated areas.

Processing plants must have procedures in place for receiving and handling blueberries, pressure washing and treating containers and conveyances, and disposing of waste and culls. The compliance agreement for a CFIA-approved processing plant must include the following minimum requirements:

  1. The inside receiving area is capable of accommodating the trucks used to transport blueberries from regulated areas to the plant.
  2. Choose a) or b)
    1. The plant must designate a washing area for trucks and an area for treating used containers (Appendix 2). Appropriate washing and treatment equipment must be present and maintained in good working order.
    2. Trucks and used containers are safeguarded and then promptly removed from the unregulated area. A CFIA seal must be applied to each truck that has either not been cleaned or that will be used to move containers that are not cleaned and treated, prior to leaving the plant.
  3. The wash water filtration system must be capable of separating all debris and waste from the wash water. Other methods may also be acceptable, subject to prior agreement by the CFIA.
  4. All culled fruit, waste and debris must be promptly disposed of, or treated in a manner that manages the pest risk from blueberry maggot, as specified in the compliance agreement.
  5. Blueberry fruit and used containers must be handled and stored in a manner that mitigates the pest risk from blueberry maggot.
  6. All Movement Certificates must be retained for a minimum of one calendar year and must be presented to the CFIA upon request.
III. CFIA-approved treatments for blueberry maggot

Fresh blueberries may be treated for blueberry maggot using CFIA-approved products and methods. Currently, the only CFIA-approved treatment is fumigation with methyl bromide (Appendix 2). Alternative treatment proposals will be evaluated by the CFIA upon request.

Domestic shipments of fresh blueberries that have been treated for blueberry maggot must be accompanied by a CFIA-issued Movement Certificate providing details of the treatment.

2.2 Plants with roots

Blueberry plants with roots, from regulated areas of Canada destined to non-regulated areas of Canada, must be inspected by the CFIA and accompanied by a Movement Certificate. Plants must meet one of the following sets of conditions:

The blueberry plants were propagated from unrooted cuttings and grown in a greenhouse or screenhouse in growing media which was sterilised before use, or which was not previously used for blueberry production. The plants were rendered free of flowers each year and kept isolated from possible infestation (e.g. not hardened off outdoors).

or

The plants were rendered free from flowers during the growing season prior to shipping, an insecticide was applied to the growing media, and the plants were shaken vigorously to remove most of the soil. The insecticide must be registered for this use and applied according to the label instructions. The roots and crowns of the plants were inspected by the CFIA for the presence of blueberry maggot.

or

The blueberry plants were washed completely free of soil and plant debris when harvested, and inspected by the CFIA to ensure freedom from blueberry maggot.

Alternative options or combinations of options will be evaluated by the CFIA on a case-by-case basis.

2.3 Used containers

Used blueberry containers may be moved into non-regulated areas provided they have been treated using one of the methods described in Appendix 2.

Containers must be safeguarded to manage the risk of transmitting blueberry maggot to non-regulated areas. Treated containers must be kept separately from untreated containers and must be safeguarded from possible infestation by blueberry maggot.

Used containers must be accompanied by a Movement Certificate issued by the CFIA which describes the consignment and the treatment. The conveyance must meet the requirements described in Section 2.4.

2.4 Conveyances

The interior of conveyances used to transport blueberry fruit, blueberry plants or used blueberry containers into a non-regulated area must be free from soil, fruit and plant debris.

2.5 Farm equipment

Farm equipment that is used to cultivate blueberries and which is moved from regulated to non-regulated areas of Canada must be washed completely free of soil, fruit and plant debris that may harbour blueberry maggot. A Movement Certificate must be issued by the CFIA prior to leaving the regulated area.

2.6 Soil

A Movement Certificate issued by the CFIA is required to transport soil and soil-related matter, including soil attached to host plants and soil that is a contaminant of blueberry fruit, used blueberry containers, farm machinery and equipment, or conveyances from regulated areas of Canada to non-regulated areas. The appropriate condition(s) must be stated on the Movement Certificate.

3.0 Non-compliance

Products that are found to be infested with pests of quarantine concern or are otherwise non-compliant will be returned or destroyed. Infested shipments may be ordered treated prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests. The person in possession, care or control of the shipment is responsible for any and all costs relating to disposal, removal, rerouting or diversion to processing facilities, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken.

Under the Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Act and Regulations, the CFIA may issue an AMP (Administrative Monetary Penalties) as an enforcement measure to encourage compliance with the Plant Protection Act and Regulations.

4.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Areas in Canada regulated for blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax)

Appendix 2: CFIA-approved treatments for the control of blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax)

Appendix 3: Blueberry Certification Program

Appendix 4: Application for approval as a processing plant approved by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency to receive blueberries from areas regulated for blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax)

Appendix 5: Application for approval in the Blueberry Certification Program for Canadian growers

Appendix 6: Order form for blueberry Movement Certification Labels for Canada (Blueberry Certification Program)

Appendix 1: Areas in Canada regulated for blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax)

As of January 15, 2015

1. Regulated provinces

  • Nova Scotia
  • New Brunswick
  • Prince Edward Island

2. Provinces containing regulated areas

  • Ontario
  • Quebec

2.1 Areas in Ontario regulated for blueberry maggot

Click on image for a larger view

Areas in Ontario regulated for blueberry maggot. Description follows.
Description for Areas regulated for blueberry maggot in Ontario

This map shows the counties and municipalities in Ontario that are regulated for blueberry maggot. All counties and municipalities in the southern portion of Ontario are regulated. The northern boundary of the regulated area runs from the northern municipal boundary of Horton and Renfrew, along Roads 132, 41, 28, 121, 118 and 11; and across the northern boundary of Simcoe County.

The southern portion of Ontario to the northern boundary, including all counties and partial counties listed below, are regulated for blueberry maggot.

Northern boundary: The northern municipal boundary of Horton and Renfrew; Roads 132, 41, 28, 121, 118 and 11; and the northern boundary of Simcoe County.

Regulated counties and municipalities in Ontario
  • Brant County
  • Bruce County
  • Chatham-Kent Division
  • Dufferin County
  • Durham Regional Municipality
  • Elgin County
  • Essex County
  • Frontenac County
  • Grey County
  • Haldimand County
  • Haliburton County (portion south of Road 118)
  • Halton Regional Municipality
  • Hamilton Division
  • Hastings County (portion south of Road 28)
  • Huron County
  • Kawartha Lakes Division
  • Lambton County
  • Lanark County
  • Leeds and Grenville United Counties
  • Lennox and Addington County (portion south of Road 28)
  • Middlesex County
  • Muskoka District Municipality (portion east of Road 11 and south of Road 118)
  • Niagara Regional Municipality
  • Norfolk County
  • Northumberland County
  • Ottawa Division
  • Oxford County
  • Peel Regional Municipality
  • Perth County
  • Peterborough County
  • Prescott and Russell United Counties
  • Prince Edward Division
  • Renfrew County (portion south of Roads 28, 41 and 132 and within the boundaries of Horton and Renfrew)
  • Simcoe County
  • Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry United Counties
  • Toronto Division
  • Waterloo Regional Municipality
  • Wellington County
  • York Regional Municipality

2.2 Areas in Quebec regulated for blueberry maggot

Click on image for a larger view

Areas in Quebec regulated for blueberry maggot. Description follows.
Description for Areas regulated for blueberry maggot in Quebec

This map shows the municipalités régionales de comté (MRCs) in Quebec that are regulated for blueberry maggot. All MRCs along the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River are regulated as well as a cluster of MRCs along the north shore from Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais east to La Côte-de-Beaupré.

All regional county municipalities ("municipalités régionales de comté" or MRCs) located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and some on the north shore are regulated for blueberry maggot.

Regulated MRCs on the north shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec
  • Argenteuil
  • Communauté-Urbaine-de-Québec
  • D'Autray
  • Deux-Montagnes
  • Gatineau
  • Ile d'Orléans
  • Joliette
  • La Côte-de-Beaupré
  • La Jacques-Cartier
  • La Rivière-du-Nord
  • L'Assomption
  • Laval
  • Le Centre-de-la-Mauricie
  • Les Chenaux
  • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais
  • Les Moulins
  • Les Pays-d'en-Haut
  • Maskinongé / Ville Shawinigan
  • Mirabel
  • Montcalm
  • Montréal
  • Papineau
  • Portneuf
  • Thérèse-De-Blainville
  • Vaudreuil-Soulanges
Regulated MRCs on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River in Quebec
  • Acton
  • Arthabaska
  • Asbestos
  • Avignon
  • Beauce-Sartigan
  • Beauharnois-Salaberry
  • Bécancour
  • Bellechasse
  • Bonaventure
  • Brome-Missisquoi
  • Champlain
  • Coaticook
  • Desjardins
  • Drummond
  • Kamouraska
  • La Côte-de-Gaspé
  • Le Haute-Gaspésie
  • La Haute-Yamaska
  • La Matapédia
  • La Mitis
  • La Nouvelle-Beauce
  • La Région-Shebrookoise
  • La Vallée-du-Richelieu
  • Lajemmerais
  • L'Amiante
  • Le Bas-Richelieu
  • Le Granit
  • Le Haut-Richelieu
  • Le Haut-Saint-François
  • Le Haut-Saint-Laurent
  • Le Rocher-Percé
  • Le Val-Saint-François
  • L'Érable
  • Les Basques
  • Les Chutes-de-la-Chaudière
  • Les Etchemins
  • Les Jardins-de-Napierville
  • Les Maskoutains
  • L'Islet
  • Lotbinière
  • Matane
  • Memphrémagog
  • Montmagny
  • Nicolet-Yamaska
  • Rimouski-Neigette
  • Rivière-du-Loup
  • Robert-Cliche
  • Roussillon
  • Rouville
  • Témiscouata

Appendix 2: CFIA-approved treatments for the control of blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax)

1.0 Treatments for fresh fruit

1.1 Methyl bromide

Canada is a signatory of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1992) agreeing to the reduction and eventual phase-out of methyl bromide use. The CFIA encourages the use of methyl bromide recovery systems and will consider alternative treatment proposals.

Regulated products may be fumigated with methyl bromide at normal atmospheric pressure in the following manner:

Temperature of the fruitDosage rate (g/m³)Exposure time (hours)
27.7 °C or above 32 2
22.2 - 27.2 °C 32 2.5
16.6 - 21.6 °C 32 3
10 - 16.1 °C 32 3.5
  • The applicator must be licensed to perform methyl bromide fumigation and must follow all label requirements, as well as any provincial requirements.
  • The person/facility requesting certification must notify the CFIA at least 72 hours in advance of treatment.
  • The chain of custody of the regulated commodity must be maintained from the start of treatment until shipping.
  • The minimum temperature must not be less than 10°C and the minimum exposure time must be at least 2 hours.
  • The concentration of methyl bromide must be monitored during fumigation.
  • The applicator must supply a fumigation certificate attesting that the required treatment was carried out.
  • A Movement Certificate, issued by CFIA, must accompany the shipment and must contain the details of the treatment application, including the average commodity temperature, the rate (g/m³) of methyl bromide used and exposure time.

2.0 Treatments for used containers

The CFIA must inspect treatment facilities at the beginning of each shipping season, and periodically during the season, in order to ensure continued compliance with requirements. Treatment records (treatment date, number of containers, temperature records, pressure washing records and other treatment details) must be kept for one year, for purposes of verification by the CFIA.

Alternative treatment proposals will be evaluated by CFIA upon request.

2.1 Hot water treatment

Each container must be immersed in a hot water bath in such a manner that all surfaces of the container have been exposed to a temperature of 85°C for at least 2 minutes. Attach a continuously recording thermometer to the hot water bath, so it can be demonstrated by means of a thermograph that the temperature did not drop below 85°C during the time that the containers were being treated.

2.2 Cold treatment

Each container must be frozen for a period of at least 4 consecutive days at a temperature of -20°C, or colder. A continuously recording thermometer must be used to demonstrate that the temperature did not rise above -20°C during the time that the containers were being treated.

2.3 Pressure washing

Each container must be thoroughly pressure washed to remove all life stages of blueberry maggot. The facility must verify the cleanliness of the containers following pressure washing. The presence of insects, leaves, twigs, fruit, other plant parts, or soil on the containers will indicate that the pressure washing procedures are not satisfactory. The procedures must be modified and repeated, or a different approved treatment must be applied.

Appendix 3: Blueberry Certification Program

The purpose of the Blueberry Certification Program (BCP) is to facilitate the movement of fresh blueberries from areas regulated for blueberry maggot to non-regulated areas while mitigating the risk of moving blueberry maggot outside the regulated area.

1.0 Administrative requirements

This program was designed to be implemented in both Canada and the United States. Some details relating to administrative requirements may differ between the two countries due to different legislative and administrative considerations; however, the same standards apply to all participants, whether they are located in the United States or Canada.

For the purposes of the BCP, the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) is either the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) or the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The NPPO is responsible for the administration and oversight of the BCP in their jurisdiction.

2.0 Approved growers

All blueberries shipped under the BCP must originate from growers approved by the NPPO or approved under its authority and must originate from a managed production area. A managed production area is a contiguous production unit operated by a single grower, consisting of plants under similar pest management and cultural practices. Each approved grower will be assigned an identification number.

3.0 Application for approval

Each grower must apply to their NPPO, or its designee, for approval to participate in the BCP. For growers located in Canada, the official document is the "Application for Approval in the Blueberry Certification Program" (Appendix 5). The grower must complete the application by the date specified by the National Plant Protection Organization and at least two weeks prior to the earliest expected emergence of the blueberry maggot fly. If the NPPO determines that the applicant will be able to meet the requirements of the program, an inspector authorised by the NPPO will approve the grower by signing the application. Approval must be renewed each year.

At the time of application, growers must confirm whether they intend to use a calendar spray program or an integrated pest management program to control blueberry maggot in their production areas (Section 6.0). They must also identify which shipper(s) will be shipping their blueberries. The NPPO must be notified in advance if any other shipper is used. A shipper is the owner/broker/person having the possession, care or control of a shipment of fresh blueberries produced by approved growers.

To facilitate trace-back, record-keeping and identification, each approved grower will be assigned a unique identification number preceded by a two-letter code for the province/state. Lists of the approved growers and their identification numbers will be maintained by the appropriate NPPO.

4.0 Blueberry Movement Certification labels (Blueberry Certification Program)

The blueberry Movement Certification Label is the label to be affixed to invoices to show compliance with the BCP. The NPPO authorises approved growers to receive Movement Certification Labels. The grower identification number and a serial number are printed on each Movement Certification Label. The grower must be able to use a label to identify which production area the blueberries were harvested from and when. Examples of CFIA and USDA Movement Certification Labels are shown below.

United States blueberry Movement Certification Label. Description follows.
Description for United States blueberry Movement Certification Label

This image shows an example of a blueberry Movement Certification Label that would be issued in the United States, with "specimen" written across it. At the top of the label, the name of the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service appears. At the left is the United States Department of Agriculture logo. At the right is the serial number, which in this example is 000001. Below this is the following statement: "This shipment of fresh blueberries meets the requirements of Canada/United States Blueberry Certification Program." Below this is a blank line to indicate the facility's identification number; in this example, the line is preceded by the initials "NJ".

Note: In this example, the identification number is prefaced by the two-letter state abbreviation "NJ", standing for New Jersey.

Canadian blueberry Movement Certification Label. Description follows.
Description for Canadian blueberry Movement Certification Label

This image shows an example of a bilingual blueberry Movement Certification Label that would be issued in Canada. The label is blue with black printing. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency logo is located at the top of the label. Below this is a space for the serial number (with the sample text "00000"). In the centre of the label is the text "Blueberry Fruit Produced in Canada" and "Bleuets produits au Canada". Below this is a space to indicate the facility's identification number (with the sample text "RM-00-0000"). The following statements appear in a block in the lower left: "This shipment of fresh blueberries meets the requirements of the Canada/United States Blueberry Certification Program. Issued by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency." The equivalent French statements are in a block of text to the right of the English. In the bottom left corner is the CFIA form number "CFIA/ACIA 5102 (2015/01)". In the bottom right corner is the Canada wordmark.

In Canada, the approved grower is responsible for all costs associated with obtaining Movement Certification Labels, although they remain the property of the CFIA. The order form for CFIA Movement Certification Labels is in Appendix 6. Approved growers must complete Part I of the label order form, sign it and send it to their local CFIA office. A CFIA inspector will authorise the printing of the labels, specify the serial numbers to be used, and provide the specifications for the labels to the printer.

The grower must exercise strict control over the use of Movement Certification Labels. Records must be kept of all serial numbers, both for labels in stock and labels used for shipments. Under no circumstances should labels which have not yet been affixed to an invoice be given to anyone other than a person authorised by and employed by the approved grower. Failure to comply with this requirement will result in an immediate suspension from the BCP.

The grower must ensure that a Movement Certification Label is affixed to the invoice that is provided to the shipper. The shipper must ensure that all blueberries in the shipment originate from approved growers and that a Movement Certification Label is affixed to the shipping document provided by each grower.

For "Pick-Your-Own" establishments, roadside stands and other direct farm sales, the Movement Certification Label must be affixed to an invoice or bill that indicates the name and address of the establishment, date of sale and the number of containers sold. The operators of these establishments should ensure that customers are aware that they may need to present the invoice to customs officials and/or CFIA inspectors.

Note: Customers who buy 12 kg or less of fresh blueberries from a "Pick-Your-Own" establishment, roadside stand or other direct farm sales located in Canada are exempted from the requirement for a Movement Certification Label. The blueberries must still meet the requirements of this directive.

5.0 Responsibility of BCP growers

It is the participant's responsibility to review this directive, available blueberry maggot pest biology information, and any additional pest identification reference material provided by their NPPO. It is critical that participants in the BCP understand all the requirements of the BCP, including: blueberry maggot biology and identification, blueberry maggot trapping program, cultural and chemical control measures, fruit sampling and testing, product grading, traceability, labelling and record keeping. It is the participant's responsibility to request clarification and additional information from their NPPO, as required.

The grower may designate a qualified person (trained employee or scout/private consulting service) to carry out various BCP functions. The grower must ensure that everyone involved in the BCP, including shippers, understand their role in the BCP and are committed to meeting the requirements of the program. The grower must ensure that shipper records and sales records are kept and made available to the NPPO upon request.

Note: The shipper/customer name, date of harvest, date of sale, quantity of fruit and BCP label number must be recorded for all shipments/sales over 12 kg.

6.0 Blueberry Certification Program requirements

All blueberry growers that are located in regulated areas should follow provincial/state recommendations for controlling blueberry maggot.

Growers that choose to participate in the BCP must apply a series of specific risk mitigation measures, including blueberry maggot control measures, fruit grading, sampling and testing to ensure that the blueberries they ship are free of blueberry maggot. They must also implement appropriate cultural practices for blueberry maggot, such as good weed suppression, proper disposal of culled blueberries, and other measures as recommended by the NPPO or its designee, in conjunction with provincial or state specialists.

Participants in the BCP must choose between two options for managing blueberry maggot: (1) Calendar spray program for blueberry maggot or (2) Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for blueberry maggot. This decision must be made at the time the application for approval in the BCP is submitted.

6.1 Calendar spray program

The first insecticide application must be made within five days of blueberry maggot emergence, as determined by the NPPO or its designee. Subsequent sprays must be made at five- to twelve-day intervals, depending on the insecticide, until the end of harvest. Insecticides must be approved for use on blueberries against blueberry maggot and must be used at the rates, dosages and intervals specified on the pesticide label and according to provincial or state recommendations. Records of all insecticide applications must be kept and presented to the NPPO upon request.

6.2 Integrated pest management (IPM) program for blueberry maggot

Participants that select the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) option must monitor the designated production areas for blueberry maggot flies using yellow sticky traps baited with ammonium acetate. Traps must be placed at least two weeks prior to the earliest expected emergence of blueberry maggot flies.

The following tables provide the minimum required trapping densities for managed blueberry production areas.

Size of production areaMinimum number of traps
2 ha or less 4 traps
3 to 5 ha 6 traps
6 to 16 ha 15 traps
more than 16 ha 1 trap per hectare to a maximum of 20 traps

Traps should be distributed evenly inside the perimeter of the managed production area, within 8 meters of the edge. For lowbush blueberry, the traps should be placed 10 to 15 centimetres above the plants. In highbush fields, the traps should be placed at mid-canopy height. The traps must be placed in a "V" shape (approximately 45 degree angle), with the apex and the yellow sticky surface facing the ground. Twigs and foliage in the vicinity of each trap must be removed to optimise its efficacy. Traps must be replaced a minimum of once every 3 weeks – more frequently if traps are damaged, filled with debris, or removed for identification of suspect flies.

The traps must be inspected for blueberry maggot flies a minimum of once a week starting when the traps are placed in the fields and continuing until the end of harvest. The frequency of trap monitoring must be increased to twice weekly starting just before first fruit coloring and continuing until the first blueberry maggot fly is caught, triggering fruit protection activities. Monitoring records must be kept and presented to the NPPO upon request, as per Section 6.7.

The approved grower is responsible for the blueberry maggot trapping program, but may delegate tasks to a qualified employee or private consultant. The person inspecting the traps must be able to identify fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis, this being the genus which includes blueberry maggot. Identifying Rhagoletis flies to the species level may only be done by an expert, authorised by the NPPO.

Every Rhagoletis fly that is caught on a yellow sticky trap in a blueberry field is considered to be blueberry maggot unless an authorised expert confirms that it is a different species. Traps with suspect flies on them may be submitted to the NPPO, its designee, or a provincial or state entomologist for further identification. An insecticide application will be required unless the insect is confirmed by the expert to not be blueberry maggot within five days.

If even a single blueberry maggot fly is found in a trap within a managed production area, the grower is required to spray that area with an insecticide registered for use against blueberry maggot. The first insecticide must be applied within five days of finding a blueberry maggot fly on a trap. A second spray must be carried out five to twelve days later, depending on the insecticide. If another blueberry maggot fly is trapped within the managed production area after the second application, then the plants must again be sprayed within five days and this time, insecticides must be applied at the rates and intervals specified on the pesticide label and according to provincial or state recommendations until shipping under the BCP ceases.

If no blueberry maggot flies are found on any of the traps in a particular managed production area, the CFIA does not require any chemical controls. However, the CFIA recommends that growers follow provincial/state recommendations for the control of blueberry maggot and consider the consequences of blueberry maggot larvae being detected in the harvested fruit when making their pest management decision. Please refer to Section 6.3.

6.3 Fruit sampling and testing

The purpose of fruit sampling and testing is to verify that harvested blueberries are free from blueberry maggot. Fruit sampling and testing must be done in each managed production area prior to shipping fruit outside the regulated area. Sampling must be done in a manner that ensures all blocks and blueberry varieties are sampled at appropriate times throughout the harvest period.

The NPPO must test the first fruit samples at each managed production area each year. Subsequent sampling and testing may be done by the grower, a qualified staff member or a private consultant, at the discretion of the NPPO. Each managed production area must be sampled and tested a minimum of once per week throughout the harvest period using methods approved by the NPPO.

Each sample consists of a minimum of 1 litre of ungraded blueberry fruit collected randomly from each harvest in a managed production area. If the managed production area is more than 20 hectares in size, one additional 1 litre sample must be taken. All samples must be collected prior to grading and tested within 24 hours of being picked.

Fruit samples must be tested for the presence of blueberry maggot larvae using either a brown sugar or salt flotation test (section 6.3.1), or a boiling test (section 6.3.2). It is essential to have a designated area for fruit testing with good lighting and appropriate equipment and materials.

The grower must notify the NPPO immediately of any suspect blueberry maggot finds. If the grower finds any insect larvae that cannot be immediately identified, all shipments of fresh blueberries to non-regulated areas must be suspended until the insect can be identified. If the insect is determined by the NPPO not to be blueberry maggot, shipping to non-regulated areas may resume.

If the larvae are confirmed to be Rhagoletis spp., blueberries from that production area may not be shipped to the fresh market in a non-regulated area under the Blueberry Certification Program for the remainder of the season.

6.3.1 Brown sugar / salt flotation tests
  1. Prepare a concentrated sugar or salt solution.
    1. Sugar solution: Dissolve 3.5 kg of brown sugar in 20 litres of water. The resulting solution should have a brix reading of at least 15.
    2. Salt solution: Dissolve 1 litre of salt in 16 litres of water.
  2. Place the sampled blueberries in a container. Large samples must be divided into smaller sub-samples and tested separately. Each sub-sample should be small enough that it covers the bottom of the container with a single layer of fruit.
  3. Gently crush the berries in the container with a potato masher.
  4. Add enough of the sugar/salt solution to completely cover the crushed blueberries. The solution should be at least 3 cm above the crushed berries. Do not re-use the sugar/salt solution.
  5. Gently agitate the crushed berries in the solution.
  6. Allow the mixture stand for 10-15 minutes to allow any foam to dissipate and insect larvae to float to the surface.
  7. Examine the surface of the solution for insect larvae.
  8. Gently transfer any insect larvae to a labelled vial and submit the specimens to an authorised expert for immediate identification.
6.3.2 Boiling test
  1. Place the sampled blueberries (approximately 1 litre or 2 pints) in a pot.
  2. Nearly cover the blueberries with water.
  3. Bring berries and water to a frothy boil and boil for at least 1 minute.
  4. Empty berries into a 4 mesh per inch screen.
  5. Gently crush berries in screen with the back of a spoon.
  6. Rinse berries with cold running water and collect water and solids in a pan with a black bottom.
  7. Allow the debris to settle and decant floating solids and most of the water.
  8. Repeat rinsing and decanting until water is clear.
  9. White maggots will be visible against the black bottom of the pan.
  10. Gently transfer any insect larvae to a labelled vial and submit the specimens to an authorised expert for immediate identification.

Extreme care must be taken to follow the instructions precisely, in order to obtain accurate results.

6.4 Grading

All harvested blueberries, except those picked by clients at "Pick-Your-Own" establishments, must be graded prior to leaving the regulated area. Fruits must be graded, either mechanically or by hand, to remove the soft, shrivelled and decayed berries which may be an indication of the presence of larvae, as well as to remove soil and debris which may harbour the maggot. All culled blueberries and associated waste must be disposed of in a manner that mitigates the risk of blueberry maggot.

The grower must also ensure that the blueberries meet U.S. No. 1 or Canada No. 1 grade criteria, as required under Canada's Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Regulations. However, a Grade Certificate is not required.

6.5 Record-keeping

Growers

The grower must keep the following records and make them available to their NPPO upon request:

  • Trapping data: Dates when traps were placed, checked and replaced; who inspected the traps; trap catch data (including date of all inspections, location of traps and number of suspect flies on each trap); and which traps were submitted for further identification.
  • Pest identification records: A copy of the Rhagoletis identification report from the authorised expert or identification results in writing from the NPPO.
  • Pesticide spray records: Date of insecticide application; name of insecticide and application rate; description of area treated.
  • Fruit sampling and testing: Date; source of fruit; name of person performing the sampling and testing; test method used; record of larval detections; identification of suspects; pest identification record; volume of fruit harvested; where the fruit was harvested; volume of sample; etc.
Shippers

The shipper must ensure that all blueberries in the shipment originate from approved growers and that each grower provides appropriate shipping documents. The shipper must keep the following records and make them available to the NPPO, upon request:

  • Invoices with affixed Movement Certification Labels for each BCP shipment. The harvest date must be clearly indicated on the shipping documents.
  • Shipping records, including all relevant documents required to trace each blueberry shipment back to the managed production area where it was harvested.

7.0 NPPO inspection requirements

The NPPO or its designee will inspect the BCP facility prior to shipping and periodically throughout the season to verify compliance with this directive. This will include verifying the blueberry maggot control program, sampling and testing blueberry fruit for blueberry maggot larvae using one of the methods outlined in Appendix 3 Section 6.3, verifying the methods used to dispose of culled fruit, verifying the methods used to track and control Movement Certification Labels and reviewing trap monitoring records.

The NPPO or its designee may audit any facet of the BCP, including on-site visits in both Canada and the United States, to monitor compliance with the program and take appropriate action.

8.0 Non-compliance

When an inspector determines that a facility is no longer meeting the terms of this directive or is no longer meeting the requirements of the BCP, the NPPO may remove the facility from the compliance program. Movement Certification Labels may no longer be used, and all unused labels must be returned to the NPPO.

A facility that has had its registration cancelled may re-apply for re-instatement in the BCP once it has undertaken all necessary corrective actions to the satisfaction of the NPPO to prevent a recurrence of the non-compliance(s). The NPPO will conduct a re-evaluation of the facility to determine if the corrective actions implemented are adequate and shall advise the facility of its decision in writing.

If even a single blueberry maggot larva is found in blueberry fruit produced by a registered BCP grower, all shipments of fresh blueberries from that managed production area to non-regulated areas of Canada must be immediately suspended. Blueberries from the implicated production area may not be shipped under the BCP for the remainder of the season.

Under the Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Act and Regulations, the CFIA may issue an AMP (Administrative Monetary Penalties) as an enforcement measure to encourage compliance with the Plant Protection Act and Regulations.

Imported consignments may be inspected by the CFIA and must meet all requirements when they reach first point of arrival in Canada. Products that are found to be infested with pests of quarantine concern or are otherwise non-compliant will be refused entry to Canada, and must be removed from the country or destroyed. Infested shipments may be ordered treated prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests. The importer is responsible for all costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal of the products, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken.

The CFIA will advise the NPPO of the country of origin of any non-compliance with the conditions outlined in this directive as per directive D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action. The discovery of quarantine pests during inspection in Canada or any other non-compliance may result in suspension of importation of the commodity from the country of origin and may require consultation until remedial action is taken at origin.

Appendix 4: Application for approval as a processing plant approved by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) to receive blueberries from areas regulated for blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax)

Processing plant: space

Applicant's name: space

Address: space

Telephone: space
Fax: space

E-mail: space

The processing plant must be inspected to the satisfaction of a CFIA inspector prior to the blueberry season and before a Permit to Import or a Movement Certificate will be issued. A new application form must be submitted each year.

Conditions for processing plants located in non-regulated (pest free) areas receiving shipments of blueberries from areas regulated for blueberry maggot (Rhagoletis mendax):

  1. All shipments from areas regulated for blueberry maggot must be offloaded and safeguarded in a contained, indoor receiving area for trucks and containers.
  2. Truck interiors must be cleaned in a designated area, using one of the following options:
    • Pressure washed with water
    • Steam cleaned
    • The following method approved in advance by a CFIA inspector:
      space
  3. All empty containers must be treated in a designated area using one of the following options:
    • Treated in a hot water bath for a minimum of 2 minutes at 85°C
    • Frozen for at least 4 consecutive days at a temperature of -20°C or lower
    • Pressure washed and inspected to verify cleanliness.
  4. All debris and waste must be collected using one of the following options:
    • Filtration of recirculated water, flotation and decantation of debris and waste from wash water
    • The following method approved in advance by a CFIA inspector:
      space
  5. All debris and waste (including culled fruit) must be treated using one of the following options:
    • Incineration
    • Underground burial
    • Cold treatment for at least 4 days at -20°C
    • The following method approved in advance by a CFIA inspector:
      space
  6. The processing plant must retain copies of the Movement Certificates, treatment records and other relevant documents for a minimum of one calendar year.

I hereby certify that I have read and fully understood all the conditions and requirements for receiving blueberries for processing, as set out in CFIA directive D-02-04, and will fully comply with all the specified conditions and requirements.

Further, I am and shall be responsible for and shall indemnify and save harmless Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, including the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Her Officers, Servants, Employees, Successors and Assigns, from and against all manners of actions, causes of action, claims, demands, loss, costs, damages, actions or other proceedings by whomsoever made, sustained, brought or prosecuted in any manner based upon, caused by, arising out of, attributable to or with respect to any failure, inadvertent or otherwise, by act or omission, to fully comply with the said conditions and requirements.

Dated space at space, Province of space

space
Applicant signature

space
Applicant name (printed)

Approved to receive blueberries for processing from areas regulated for Rhagoletis mendax (blueberry maggot):

space
CFIA inspector signature

space
Date

space
CFIA inspector name (printed)

Appendix 5: Application for approval in the Blueberry Certification Program for Canadian growers

Note: This form is for use by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) in approving Canadian growers under the Blueberry Certification Program. Separate forms will be used by the appropriate agencies in the United States.

Grower name: space

Address: space

Telephone: space
Fax: space

E-mail: space

Location of each managed production area: space

I hereby certify that I have read and fully understood all the conditions and requirements for production and shipment of blueberries under the Blueberry Certification Program as set out in CFIA directive D-02-04 and will fully comply with all the specified conditions and requirements.

I shall keep all records required under CFIA directive D-02-04 including shippers used, and shall produce them upon request by a CFIA inspector.

Further, I am and shall be responsible for and shall indemnify and save harmless Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, including the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Her Officers, Servants, Employees, Successors and Assigns, from and against all manners of actions, causes of action, claims, demands, loss, costs, damages, actions or other proceedings by whomsoever made, sustained, brought or prosecuted in any manner based upon, caused by, arising out of, attributable to or with respect to any failure, inadvertent or otherwise, by act or omission, to fully comply with the said conditions and requirements.

Additional information to be completed by growers:

I will produce blueberries using the following option (choose one):

  • Integrated pest management (IPM) option
  • Calendar spray option

I plan to use the following shippers:
space
space
space

Dated space at space, Province of space

space
Applicant's signature

Approved for participation in the Blueberry Certification Program:

space
CFIA inspector

space
Date

Grower identification number assigned: space

Appendix 6: Order form for blueberry Movement Certification Labels for Canada (Blueberry Certification Program)

Note: This form is for use in Canada. The original should be kept at the CFIA regional office and a copy should be retained by the CFIA inspector.

Part I / Partie I
Person Ordering / Personne plaçant la commande

Grower identification number /
Numéro d'identification du producteur:

Number of labels required /
Nombre d'étiquettes requis:

Name / Nom:

Signature:

Date:

Billing address / Facturer à:

Part II / Partie II
CFIA Inspector / Inspecteur de l'ACIA

Serial numbers / Numéros de série:

Name / Nom:

Signature:

Date:

Part III / Partie III
Regional Office / Bureau régional

Printer (name and address) /
Imprimeur (nom et adresse):

Please send Movement Certificate Labels to /
Veuillez faire parvenir les étiquettes de certification de circulation à:

Name / Nom:

Signature:

Date:

Date modified: