D- 95-08: Phytosanitary import requirements for fresh temperate fruits and tree nuts

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Effective date: July 4, 2016
(6th revision)

Subject

This directive provides the phytosanitary import requirements for fresh temperate fruit and tree nuts.

The following changes have been made as part of this revision:

  • Phytosanitary import requirements for tree nuts have been added to the directive. These are not new requirements, as they were previously available in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Automated Import Reference System.
  • Information on the prior approval process for new products has been moved to a separate document (referenced in this directive), as this information also applies to other plant products.
  • Appendices 1 and 2 have been reformatted to improve readability of the requirements. Appendix 1 now presents only a summary of requirements and provides references to more detailed requirements found either in Appendix 2 or in various pest-specific directives.
  • Requirements for certain fruit trial periods in Appendix 1 and 2 have been updated.
  • Requirements related to Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth) have been added to Appendix 1, following the adoption of directive D-13-03: Phytosanitary import requirements to prevent the introduction of Lobesia botrana, the European grapevine moth.
  • A list of trial importation periods has been added (Appendix 5).
  • Various administrative and editorial updates have been made.

This directive supersedes all previous versions this directive as well as the documents listed in Appendix 6.

Table of Contents

Review

This directive will be updated as required. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Introduction

The importation of fresh temperate fruits and tree nuts is regulated by the CFIA to prevent the introduction and spread of plant pests that can cause significant economic and environmental damage to the Canadian plant resource base including agriculture, forestry and the environment. Phytosanitary import requirements for fresh temperate fruits and tree nuts are provided herein.

Purpose

This directive is intended for the use of CFIA staff, Canada Border Services Agency staff, National Plant Protection Organizations (NPPOs) of exporting countries and any individual or business intending to import fresh temperate fruits or tree nuts from any country into Canada.

References

D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action. CFIA, Ottawa.

D-01-07: Canadian phytosanitary import requirements for fresh citrus and tropical fruits. CFIA, Ottawa.

Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 Scope

1.1 Legislative authorities

Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c.22

Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212

Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette, Part 1 (as amended from time to time)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported products, please contact the CFIA's National Import Service Centre (NISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice website.

1.3 Regulated pests

Appendix 3 provides a list of pests that are of particular concern, as they are known to pose a risk to Canada and can be carried with fresh temperate fruits or tree nuts. This list is not exhaustive. Please see also the full list of Pests Regulated by Canada. The CFIA may also take action on other pests if they are deemed to be of quarantine concern to Canada.

1.4 Regulated commodities

All temperate fresh fruits and tree nuts. For examples of regulated species, see Appendix 1.

1.5 Commodities not in the scope of this directive

The following commodities are not regulated under this directive, but may be subject to other requirements. For more information, see the list of Plant Health directives, consult the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System or contact your local CFIA office.

1.6 Regulated areas

All countries.

2.0 Requirements

2.1 Requirements for all material

All material must be free from soil, soil-related matter, plant debris and quarantine pests.

Containers must be new or cleaned in a manner that addresses risks from regulated plant pests and removes all organic matter, soil and/or soil-related matter.

Material from foreign countries entering Canada via a third country must meet the same phytosanitary requirements as shipments that are imported directly into Canada.

If a regulated commodity transits through a province or territory other than that of its destination, the phytosanitary requirements for material imported to the province/territory of transit apply in addition to the phytosanitary import requirements for the province/territory of destination.

  • Example: For apples destined for Manitoba that enter Canada via British Columbia, the phytosanitary import requirements for apples destined to British Columbia must be met.

2.2 Commodities and origins that are currently approved for import

Appendix 1 summarizes the phytosanitary import requirements for fresh temperate fruits and tree nuts and provides references to more detailed import requirements. These detailed requirements are either in Appendix 2 of this directive or in various other Plant Health directives. In some cases, these detailed requirements may reference the fumigation and/or cold treatment schedules provided in Appendix 4 of this directive.

All shipments must be free from quarantine pests, soil, soil-related matter, roots, leaves (unless previously approved by the CFIA), branches, and other plant debris. Material is subject to inspection upon arrival in Canada.

2.3 New products from new origins

The CFIA regulates the importation of plants for planting, fresh fruit and other plant products to prevent the introduction and spread of plant pests of quarantine concern to Canada. Quarantine pests are plant pests which could cause significant damage to Canada's agriculture, forestry and/or environment and which do not currently occur in Canada or, if they do, are not widely distributed and are under official control. Until the pest risk has been evaluated and phytosanitary requirements have been identified and put into place to manage the risk, the CFIA will not authorize the importation of plants, fruits and vegetables which may be a pathway for quarantine plant pests.

Pest risk analysis (PRA) is an internationally recognized process that the CFIA uses to evaluate the pest risk posed by a specific organism or by a specific commodity originating from a specified PRA area. This PRA process may be triggered by many different situations, including a proposal to import a commodity that has not previously been imported or a commodity from a new place of origin. The CFIA considers these commodities "Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis" (NAPPRA) and a PRA must be completed prior to importation. Most plant products (many fruits and all plants for planting) and new origins are considered NAPPRA until importation is first authorized (e.g. by issuing a Permit to Import). If new information becomes available indicating there are unassessed risks associated with the product or origin, the product may be returned to the NAPPRA category.

For more information please see Pest Risk Analysis: New plants and plant products from new origins.

For some products, a systems approach may be the most appropriate phytosanitary risk management option; see Systems approach for production of plant products.

2.4 Trial importation period

Newly approved importations may be subject to a trial importation period to evaluate the effectiveness of the phytosanitary measures and to ensure that Canada's phytosanitary import requirements are consistently met.

All material that has been authorized entry into Canada under a trial period requires a Permit to Import issued by the CFIA. The Canadian importer must obtain the Permit to Import before the consignment leaves the country of origin. The Permit to Import authorizes the importation of commercial consignments of a particular fresh fruit from a particular country of origin under the conditions of a trial period and describes the general import requirements:

  • The fruit must be commercially produced.
  • The fruit must be produced and packed in the country of origin.
  • The fruit must be visually inspected in the country of origin and found free from soil, soil-related matter, pests, leaves and plant debris.

The National Import Service Center will issue a Notice to Importer for each consignment imported under a trial period to ensure that the CFIA is notified of the arrival of the shipment. When an importer receives a Notice to Importer, they are required to contact their local CFIA office to arrange for inspection and may not sell or distribute the material until they have received direction from the CFIA. During the trial period, 100% of the imported shipments are subject to inspection by CFIA. The trial period may be suspended at any time if potential quarantine pests are discovered or if other import requirements are not met.

The length of an individual trial period is dependent on the number, timing and volume of shipments entering Canada. The trial period will be extended until the CFIA has sufficient data to evaluate the phytosanitary measures that have been put in place.

If the trial shipments consistently meet Canada's import requirements throughout the trial period, the trial period can be concluded and trade normalized. The requirement for a Permit to Import may be removed and the rate of inspection at the port of entry will be reduced.

A list of trial importation periods currently in effect is available in Appendix 5.

3.0 Non-compliance

Imported consignments may be inspected by the CFIA and must meet all requirements when they reach first point of arrival in Canada. Products that are found to be infested with potential quarantine pests or are otherwise non-compliant will be refused entry to Canada, and must be removed from the country or destroyed. Infested shipments may be ordered treated prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests. The importer is responsible for all costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal of the products, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken. The CFIA will advise the NPPO of the country of origin and/or re-export of any non-compliance with the conditions outlined in this directive as per directive D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action. The discovery of quarantine pests during inspection in Canada or any other non-compliance may result in suspension of importation of the commodity from that country and may require consultation with the CFIA and remedial action at origin before shipping can resume.

4.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Summary of phytosanitary import requirements for temperate fresh fruit and tree nuts approved for entry into Canada

Appendix 2: Detailed phytosanitary import requirements for certain fresh fruit and tree nuts

Appendix 3: Quarantine pests of particular concern for imported temperate fresh fruit and tree nuts

Appendix 4: Treatment schedules for fresh fruit and tree nuts

Appendix 5: Trial importation periods for fresh fruits

Appendix 6: Directives superseded by D-95-08

Appendix 1: Summary of phytosanitary import requirements for temperate fresh fruit and tree nuts approved for entry into Canada

See Appendix 1: Summary of phytosanitary import requirements for temperate fresh fruit and tree nuts approved for entry into Canada

Appendix 2: Detailed phytosanitary import requirements for certain fresh fruit and tree nuts

2.1 Fresh stone fruit (Prunus spp.) from Spain
2.2 Fresh apples (Malus spp.) from the People's Republic of China
2.3 Fresh apples (Malus spp.) from Japan
2.4 Fresh apples (Malus spp.) from the Republic of Korea
2.5 Fresh pears (Pyrus spp.) from the People's Republic of China
2.6 Fresh pears (Pyrus spp.) from Japan
2.7 Fresh Asian pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from the Republic of Korea
2.8 Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) from India
2.9 Fresh apples and crabapples (Malus spp.) from Uruguay
2.10 Fresh stone fruit (Prunus spp.) from Australia
2.11 Fresh stone fruit (Prunus spp.) from South Africa
2.12 Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) from Greece
2.13 Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) from the Republic of Korea (South Korea)
2.14 Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) from Uruguay
2.15 Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) from Japan
2.16 Fresh apples (Malus spp.) from Poland
2.17 Fresh pears (Pyrus spp.) from Belgium
2.18 Fresh blueberries, lingonberries and huckleberries (Vaccinium spp. and Gaylussacia spp.) from the continental United States
2.19 Fresh blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) from Peru

2.1 Fresh stone fruit (Prunus spp.) from Spain

One of the following options must be met:

  1. Production under a systems approach

    Fruit must be produced, stored, and packed according to the requirements of Sanidad Vegetal's official program for export of stone fruit (Prunus spp.) to Canada. Under this program, fruit must originate from growers that have been approved by Sanidad Vegetal to export stone fruit to Canada and who have complied with all the requirements for monitoring and control of following pests:

    • Adoxophyes orana (summer fruit tortrix)
    • Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis) (hawthorn spider mite)
    • Cydia funebrana (plum fruit moth)
    • Grapholita molesta (Oriental fruit moth) – for fruit destined to British Columbia only
    • Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)
    • Monilinia fructigena (brown rot)
    • Rhagoletis cerasi (European cherry fruit fly)

    Fruit must be stored and packed by facilities approved by Sanidad Vegetal for handling stone fruit for export to Canada. Fruit must also be sampled and inspected according to specified procedures.

    The Phytosanitary Certificate must show the following additional declaration:

    • Fruit destined to British Columbia:
      "The material was produced under an official pest management program and is free of Adoxophyes orana, Cydia funebrana, Grapholita molesta, Monilinia fructigena, Rhagoletis cerasi, and Amphitetranychus viennensis, and Lobesia botrana."
    • Fruit destined to provinces other than British Columbia:
      "The material was produced under an official pest management program and is free of Adoxophyes orana, Cydia funebrana, Monilinia fructigena, Rhagoletis cerasi, and Amphitetranychus viennensis, and Lobesia botrana."

    or

  2. Post-harvest treatment

    1. For Adoxophyes orana, Cydia funebrana, Grapholita molesta (for fruit destined to British Columbia only), Lobesia botrana, Rhagoletis cerasi, and Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis): Fumigation with methyl bromide as per Schedule 2 in Appendix 4 of this directive.

      and

    2. For Monilinia fructigena: Treatment with sodium hypochlorite using a "hydrocooling" rain system with dosages of 20 to 100 ppm available chlorine for a minimum of 8 minutes.

    The Phytosanitary Certificate must show the treatment details.

2.2 Fresh apples (Malus spp.) from the People's Republic of China

The apples must originate from orchards in the People's Republic of China (PRC) approved for export to Canada by the Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ). Each approved Chinese province must develop a systems approach, provide training and regularly conduct audits of all approved facilities under its jurisdiction. All activities undertaken at the orchards and packing houses under the systems approach must be described in a manual signed by the responsible facilities' management officials. This document should be made available upon request to the CFIA for audit purposes.

Approved orchards and packing houses must be given a code number by the AQSIQ. A list of these approved facilities' code numbers must be maintained by the AQSIQ and made available to the CFIA upon request.

The apples must be:

  • inspected post-harvest at a 5% level and graded; and
  • subject to any post-harvest measures deemed appropriate to eliminate pests; and
  • free of quarantine pests and free of soil, sand, leaves, and plant debris; and
  • packed and stored in packing houses approved for export to Canada.

The packing houses must be clean and maintained free of pests, soil, plant debris and discarded or infested fruit.

The packing houses must be cleaned prior to packing if fruit for the domestic or other export markets has been packed prior to the packing of fruit for export to Canada. No other fruit should be in the packing house at the time of packing.

The fruit must be safeguarded from contamination from orchards or other crops in the vicinity during packing, loading and transportation.

The pest control program must be effective against all of the following regulated pests:

  • Adoxophyes orana, summer fruit tortrix
  • Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis), hawthorn spider mite
  • Carposina sasakii, peach fruit moth
  • Conogethes punctiferalis, yellow peach moth
  • Cydia inopinata, Manchurian codling moth
  • Diaporthe tanakae, twig blight
  • Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth
  • Leucoptera malifoliella, pear leaf blister moth
  • Monilinia fructigena, brown rot
  • Monilinia mali, apple blossom blight

In addition, one of the following options must be met:

  • The apples must be "bagged" while developing on the tree. The bags must be sealed around apples without holes and must not be removed more than four weeks prior to harvest. Bagging should occur as soon as possible after flowering, provided fungicide application has occurred during flowering. Field inspection (or monitoring) and/or chemical control for fruit-boring moths must be carried out after the bags have been removed. The identity of "bagged" versus "unbagged" apples must be clearly maintained.

    or

  • The apples must undergo fumigation and cold treatment as per Schedule 2 in Appendix 4 of this directive or other treatments deemed acceptable by the CFIA.

Phytosanitary Certificate

The name and code number of the approved orchard and the shipping container number must appear on the Phytosanitary Certificate.

  • For apples "bagged" while developing on the tree:

    Apples destined to British Columbia:
    The Phytosanitary Certificate must contain the following additional declaration: "The material was produced under a pest management program and is free of Adoxophyes orana, Carposina sasakii, Conogethes punctiferalis, Cydia inopinata, Grapholita molesta, Leucoptera malifoliella, Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis), Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia mali and Diaporthe tanakae."

    Apples destined to provinces other than British Columbia:
    The Phytosanitary Certificate must contain the following additional declaration: "The material was produced under a pest management program and is free of Adoxophyes orana, Carposina sasakii, Conogethes punctiferalis, Cydia inopinata, Leucoptera malifoliella, Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis), Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia mali and Diaporthe tanakae."

  • For apples not "bagged" while developing on the tree:

    The Phytosanitary Certificate must show the treatment details.

    Apples destined to British Columbia:
    The Phytosanitary Certificate must contain the following additional declaration: "The material was produced under a pest management program for Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia mali and Diaporthe tanakae and has been treated to kill Adoxophyes orana, Carposina sasakii, Conogethes punctiferalis, Cydia inopinata, Grapholita molesta, Leucoptera malifoliella and Amphitetranychus viennensis."

    Apples destined to provinces other than British Columbia:
    The Phytosanitary Certificate must contain the following additional declaration: "The material was produced under a pest management program for Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia mali and Diaporthe tanakae and has been treated to kill Adoxophyes orana, Carposina sasakii, Conogethes punctiferalis, Cydia inopinata, Leucoptera malifoliella and Amphitetranychus viennensis."

2.3 Fresh apples (Malus spp.) from Japan

Regulated pests

Fungi:

  • Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey
  • Monilinia mali (Takahashi) Whetzel
  • Monilinia polystroma G. Leeuwen

Insects:

  • Adoxophyes orana (Fischer von Röslerstamm)
  • Carposina sasakii Matsumura
  • Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée)
  • Grapholita dimorpha Komai
  • Grapholita inopinata (=Cydia inopinata) Heinrich
  • Grapholita molesta (Busck)
  • Spilonota albicana (Motschulsky)
  • Stathmopoda auriferella (Walker)

Mites:

  • Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher)

Fresh apples grown in Japan must originate from orchards where cultural practices and chemical controls are carried out to ensure freedom from quarantine pests. The apples must be inspected and graded post-harvest.

The apples must be:

  • "Bagged" while developing on the tree.

    or

  • Undergo post-harvest treatment as per Schedule 1 or Schedule 2 in Appendix 4 of this directive.

Note: Apples that were "bagged" but that are suspected of being contaminated with pests, either due to loose bagging or for other reasons, must be treated.

Phytosanitary Certificate

  • For apples bagged while developing on the tree:

    The Phytosanitary Certificate must contain the following additional declaration: "The fruit in this shipment was bagged while developing on the tree and has been inspected and found free of all living stages of Adoxophyes orana, Amphitetranychus viennensis, Carposina sasakii, Conogethes punctiferalis, Grapholita dimorpha, Grapholita inopinata, Grapholita molesta, Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia mali, Monilinia polystroma, Spilonota albicana and Stathmopoda auriferella."

  • For apples not bagged while developing on the tree, or bagged but suspected of being contaminated with pests because of loose bagging or for other reasons:

    The Phytosanitary Certificate must show the treatment details.

2.4 Fresh apples (Malus spp.) from the Republic of Korea

Note: Please refer to section 2.7 of the present appendix for the monitoring program for tetranychid mites in Korean orchards exporting fruits to Canada.

Fresh apples must originate from orchards in the Republic of Korea approved for export to Canada by the National Plant Quarantine Service of the Republic of Korea:

  • Where cultural practices and chemical controls are carried out to ensure freedom from quarantine pests; and
  • Where field inspection (or monitoring) programs are carried out to verify freedom from quarantine pests, including freedom from Amphitetranychus viennensis; and
  • Which are remote from Prunus spp. orchards and have no unmanaged plants of Prunus and/or Juniperus spp. or other unmanaged hosts of the quarantine species either in the orchard or nearby (within 200 metres).

The apples must be appropriately inspected, packed, stored and transported, including all of the following:

  • Inspected post-harvest at a 5% level and graded to eliminate any visible quarantine pests.
  • Subject to any post-harvest measures deemed appropriate to eliminate pests (e.g. use of air pressure hoses for residual mite removal).
  • Grower lots found infested with quarantine pests must be rejected for shipment to Canada, and that grower rejected from the program for the remainder of the season. Costly delays may occur while pests which have been intercepted are identified in the laboratory.
  • Packed and stored in a packing house approved for export to Canada. The packing house must be clean and maintained free of pests, soil, plant debris and discarded or infested fruit. The packing house must be cleaned prior to packing if fruit for the domestic or other export markets has been packed prior to the packing of fruit for export to Canada. No other fruit should be in the packing house at the time of packing.
  • Packed in boxes for export to Canada, with the grower name marked on the box. Individual grower lots should be identifiable in order to facilitate inspection, identify growers with problems and minimize losses to the importer/exporter should pests be found.
  • The apples must be safeguarded from contamination from orchards or other crops in the vicinity during packing, loading, and transportation.

In addition, the apples must either:

  • Be "bagged" while developing on the tree.

    Note: The bags must not be removed more than four weeks prior to harvest. Field inspection (or monitoring) and/or chemical control for fruit boring moths must be carried out after the bags have been removed. The identity of "bagged" versus "unbagged" apples must be clearly maintained.

    or

  • Undergo fumigation and cold treatment as per Schedule 1 in Appendix 4 of this directive.

Phytosanitary Certificate

  • For apples "bagged" while developing on the tree:

    For apples destined to British Columbia:
    The Phytosanitary Certificate must contain the following additional declaration: "The material was produced under a pest management program and is free of Carposina sasakii, Conogethes punctiferalis, Grapholita molesta, Gymnosporangium yamadae, Monilinia fructigena and Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis)."

    For apples destined to provinces other than British Columbia:
    The Phytosanitary Certificate must contain the following additional declaration: "The material was produced under a pest management program and is free of Carposina sasakii, Conogethes punctiferalis, Gymnosporangium yamadae, Monilinia fructigena and Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis)."

  • For apples not "bagged" while developing on the tree:

    For apples that have not been bagged, i.e. for treated apples, the Phytosanitary Certificate must show the treatment details.

2.5 Fresh pears (Pyrus spp.) from the People's Republic of China (Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi and Xinjiang Provinces)

The pears must originate from orchards in the People's Republic of China (PRC) approved for export to Canada by the Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ). Each approved Chinese province must develop a systems approach, provide training and regularly conduct audits of all approved facilities under its jurisdiction. All activities undertaken at the orchards and packing houses under the systems approach must be described in a manual signed by the responsible facilities' management officials. This document should be made available upon request to the CFIA for audit purposes.

Approved orchards and packing houses must be given a code number by the AQSIQ. A list of these approved facilities' code numbers must be maintained by the AQSIQ and made available to the CFIA upon request.

The pears must be:

  • inspected post-harvest at a 5% level and graded; and
  • subject to any post-harvest measures deemed appropriate to eliminate pests; and
  • free of quarantine pests and free of soil, sand, leaves, and plant debris; and
  • packed and stored in packing houses approved for export to Canada.

The packing houses must be clean and maintained free of pests, soil, plant debris and discarded or infested fruit.

The packing houses must be cleaned prior to packing if fruit for the domestic or other export markets has been packed prior to the packing of fruit for export to Canada. No other fruit should be in the facility at the time of packing.

The pears must be safeguarded from contamination from orchards or other crops in the vicinity during packing, loading and transportation.

The shipping container number(s) must be stated on the Phytosanitary Certificate in addition to the code number (and name if available) of the approved orchard from which the pears originated.

For Hebei, Shandong and Xinjiang Provinces:

The pest control program must be effective against all of the following regulated pests:

  • Acrobasis (=Numonia) pirivorella (Matsumura), pear fruit moth
  • Adoxophyes orana (Fischer von Roslerstamm), summer fruit tortrix
  • Alternaria yali-infeciens, causal agent of chocolate spot of Ya pear
  • Alternaria gaisen, causal agent of pear black spot
  • Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher), hawthorn spider mite
  • Carposina sasakii Matsumura, peach fruit moth
  • Conogethes punctiferalis Guenée, yellow peach moth
  • Leucoptera malifoliella (Costa), pear leaf blister moth
  • Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.), brown rot
  • Tetranychus truncatus Ehara, red spider mite

For Shanxi Province:

The pest control program must be effective against all of the following regulated pests:

  • Acrobasis (=Numonia) pirivorella (Matsumura), pear fruit moth
  • Adoxophyes orana (Fischer von Roslerstamm), summer fruit tortrix
  • Alternaria gaisen, black spot
  • Amphitetranychus viennensis (Zacher), hawthorn spider mite
  • Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), powdery pear aphid
  • Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang & Li), Chinese pear psylla
  • Cacopsylla liaoli (Yang & Li), Liaoning pear psylla
  • Carposina sasakii Matsumura, peach fruit moth
  • Conogethes punctiferalis Guenée, yellow peach moth
  • Euzophera pyriellaYang
  • Grapholita inopinata, Manchurian codling moth
  • Grapholita molesta (Busck), Oriental fruit moth
  • Leucoptera malifoliella (Costa), pear leaf blister moth
  • Monilia yunnanensis M.J. Hu & C.X. Luo, brown rot
  • Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.), brown rot
  • Spilonota albicana (Motschulsky), large apple fruit moth
  • Tetranychus truncatus Ehara, red spider mite
  • Venturia nashicolaTanka & Yamamoto, Asian pear scab

Packaging requirements

Each carton (box) of pears shall be:

  • Clearly labelled in Chinese and English or French, and must specify the type of pears and the place of origin.
  • Marked with a number representing the code of each approved orchard. This will identify the specific orchard of origin for identification and trace back purposes, in the event that cartons with pests are found.
  • Each carton shall be sealed with a sticker, which has been affixed by the appropriate AQSIQ office in the PRC, and which signifies that the pears were inspected for shipment to Canada.

Only pears from approved orchards and packing houses can be imported into Canada.

2.6 Fresh pears (Pyrus spp.) from Japan

Regulated pests

  • Fungi:
    • Alternaria gaisen Nagano
    • Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.) Honey
    • Monilinia polystroma G. Leeuwen
    • Venturia (Fusicladium) nashicola Tanka & Yamamoto
  • Insects:
    • Acrobasis pirivorella (Matsumura)
    • Adoxophyes orana fasciata Walsingham
    • Aphanostigma iaksuiense Kishida
    • Carposina sasakii Matsumura
    • Conogethes punctiferalis Guenée
    • Grapholita inopinata Heinrich
    • Grapholita molesta Busck
  • Mites:
    • Amphitetranychus (Tetranychus) viennensis Zacher
    • Tetranychus truncatus Ehara
A. Registration requirements
  1. Pear orchards, packing facilities and storage facilities must be approved and registered by Japan's Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) in order to participate in the Export Program for Japanese Pears to Canada.
  2. A list of registered orchards, packing facilities and storage facilities must be provided to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) on request.
B. Surveillance and pest control requirements
  1. MAFF agrees to carry out area-wide pest surveillance for each of the regulated pests listed above and use this information to forecast pest pressure and make area-wide pest management recommendations. Registered orchards must control insect and disease pests in accordance with these MAFF recommendations.
  2. Surveillance for each of the pests of quarantine concern to Canada must also be carried out in each registered orchard on a weekly basis. Surveillance must be carried out by competent individuals using technically justified methods that have been approved by MAFF. Surveillance records must be kept and must be available to MAFF and CFIA upon request.
  3. Additional cultural and/or chemical controls may be required, depending on the results of the orchard-level surveillance.
  4. MAFF agrees to inspect each registered orchard to verify that all the requirements of the Export Program for Japanese Pears to Canada are met and to verify pest freedom or low pest prevalence for regulated pests.
  5. Orchards which do not maintain pest freedom or low pest prevalence for the regulated pests to Canada must be deregistered and may not export for the remainder of the current production season.
C. Packing, grading and sorting
  1. Each packing facility must have at least one technical expert that has been trained by MAFF, who can identify pests of concern to Canada. This person must be responsible for the grading and sorting processes at the packing facility.
  2. Packing facilities must maintain the identity of the fruit and be able to trace it back to the production orchard.
  3. The structure of the packing facility must prevent the entry of pests.
  4. Packaging material must be new, clean and free of pests.
  5. The packing facility and storage areas must be cleaned and disinfected regularly.
  6. The facility and grading/sorting/packing equipment must be cleaned and disinfected prior to packing fruit for export to Canada.
  7. Appropriate lighting and equipment must be used when sorting and inspecting fruit for freedom from regulated pests.
  8. Grading and sorting processes must be effective at identifying and removing infested fruit and other defective fruit.
  9. Appropriate post-harvest measures may be used to remove any residual mites from the fruit (e.g. the use of air guns).
  10. Infested fruits and culls must be disposed of promptly and in a manner that mitigates potential pest risk.
  11. Fruit that is eligible for export to Canada must be segregated from all other fruit during grading, packing, storage and transport.
  12. Fruit must be safeguarded from contamination by pests during packing, loading, and transportation.
  13. Cartons must clearly indicate the product name, country and region of origin, packing facility number, registered orchard and lot number. Product must be traceable to the orchard and packing facility.
  14. Consignments must be wrapped or sealed in a manner to ensure the product is safeguarded and protected from contamination.
  15. Each package or pallet in the consignment must be clearly labelled as fresh pears produced in Japan and destined "For Canada".
D. Export certification
  1. Pears must be visually inspected by MAFF and verified to be free of regulated pests to Canada, practically free of other pests, and free of soil, leaves, twigs and plant debris.
  2. If MAFF finds any regulated pest on the fruit during final product inspection, the fruit may not be exported to Canada and the orchard must be disqualified from shipping for the remainder of the season.
  3. A Phytosanitary Certificate is required and must include the following additional declaration:

    "The fruit in this consignment meets the requirements of the Export Program for Japanese Pears to Canada and was inspected and found free from Alternaria gaisen, Monilinia fructigena, Monilinia polystroma, Venturia nashicola, Acrobasis pirivorella, Adoxophyes orana fasciata, Aphanostigma iaksuiense, Carposina sasakii, Conogethes punctiferalis, Grapholita inopinata, Grapholita molesta, Amphitetranychus viennensis and Tetranychus truncatus."

2.7 Fresh Asian pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from the Republic of Korea

The pears must originate from orchards in the Republic of Korea approved to export to Canada by the National Plant Quarantine Service of the Republic of Korea, where:

  • Cultural practices and chemical controls are carried out to ensure freedom from quarantine pests; and
  • Monitoring programs must be carried out to verify freedom from quarantine pests, including freedom from Tetranychus truncatus and Amphitetranychus viennensis, as described in the monitoring program below; and
  • Pear orchards are remote from Prunus spp. orchards and have no unmanaged plants of Prunus spp. or other unmanaged hosts of the quarantine species either in the orchard or nearby (within 200 metres).

The production system must ensure that the pears produced are free from the following quarantine pests:

  • Alternaria gaisen, causal agent of pear black spot
  • Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis), hawthorn spider mite
  • Carposina sasakii, peach fruit moth
  • Conogethes punctiferalis, yellow peach moth
  • Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth (for fruit destined to British Columbia)
  • Monilinia fructigena, brown rot
  • Numonia (=Myelois) pirivorella, pear fruit moth
  • Tetranychus truncatus, red spider mite

The pears must be:

  • "Bagged" while developing on the tree for the entire growing period. Removal of bags for any reason prior to harvest shall disqualify the fruit for export.

    and

  • Appropriately inspected, packed, stored and transported, including all of the following:
    • Post-harvest inspected at the 5% level and graded to eliminate any visible quarantine pests.
    • Subject to any post-harvest measures deemed appropriate to eliminate pests (e.g. use of air pressure hoses for residual mite removal).
    • Grower lots found infested with quarantine pests must be rejected for shipment to Canada, and that grower rejected from the program for the remainder of the season. Delays may occur while pests which have been intercepted are identified in the laboratory.
    • Packed and stored in a facility approved for handling pears for export to Canada. The facility must be clean and maintained free of pests, soil, plant debris and discarded or infested fruit. The facility must be cleaned prior to packing if fruit for the domestic or other export markets has been packed prior to the packing of fruit for export to Canada. No other fruit should be in the facility at the time of packing.
    • Packed in boxes for export to Canada, with the grower name marked on the box. Individual grower lots should be identifiable in order to facilitate inspection, identify growers with problems and minimize losses to the importer/exporter should pests be found.
    • The pears must be safeguarded from contamination from orchards or other crops in the vicinity during packing, loading, and transportation.

Phytosanitary Certificate

The Phytosanitary Certificate must include the following additional declaration:

  • For pears destined to British Columbia:
    "The material was produced under a pest management program and is free of Alternaria gaisen, Carposina sasakii, Conogethes (Dichocrocis) punctiferalis, Grapholita molesta, Numonia pirivorella, Monilinia fructigena, Tetranychus truncatus and Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis)."

  • For pears destined to provinces other than British Columbia:
    "The material was produced under a pest management program and is free of Alternaria gaisen, Carposina sasakii, Conogethes (Dichocrocis) punctiferalis, Numonia pirivorella, Monilinia fructigena, Tetranychus truncatus and Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis)."

Monitoring program for tetranychid mites in Korean orchards exporting fruits to Canada

1. Monitoring authority

The National Plant Quarantine Service of the Republic of Korea

2. Number of orchards to be monitored

All exporting orchards must be individually surveyed, as different species may be prevalent in different orchards at different times.

3. Monitoring period and frequency

The mite monitoring shall be conducted twice a year in total during the field inspection period – once around June and July after the bagging and another before harvest. The final sampling must be carried out as close as possible to harvest time but while male mites are still present, to permit species identification, i.e., approximately one week prior to harvest. The date for the final monitoring will vary according to the harvest time for the variety, e.g., approximately mid-September for golden pears and late October for Shingo pears. Monitoring should be conducted when mites are most likely to be present. For example, sampling should be conducted before spraying and irrigating, rather than immediately following. Sampling should be conducted close to the time when the mite population peaks in April and September as well as before and after the monsoon rains, rather than during the monsoon rains.

4. Number of trees and leaves to be sampled for each exporting orchard

Number of trees:

A minimum of ten (10) trees should be sampled per exporting orchard of 1.5 hectares or less with ten (10) additional trees being sampled for each additional 1.5 hectares. For example, sample ten (10) trees in an orchard that is 1.5 hectares or smaller, 20 trees in an orchard that is 1.5 to 3.0 hectares, etc. Because phytophagus mite distribution is not uniform, two trees should be sampled near every corner of each plot, and two trees near or at the centre of the plot.

Leaf collection:

For each tree sampled, ten (10) leaves should be collected randomly at shoulder height while walking around the circumference of the tree. The leaves should be collected from the flower cluster at the beginning of the season and the fruit cluster later in the season. If suckers have not been physically removed, 20% of the leaf samples may be obtained from the suckers. Leaf samples should not be taken from the tip of branches as it is unlikely that mites will be found there. The leaves from each tree should be placed in an individual paper bag, labelled, stapled shut and placed immediately in a cooler or refrigerator that is cooled to approximately 4°C.

Mite collection and identification:

The collected leaves should be examined for mites within 24 hours of collection. It is suggested that just prior to examination the leaves should be placed in a freezer for five minutes in order to slow down mite activity. All leaves should be examined under a dissection microscope and all tetranychid adults removed with a brush and placed in individual vials containing 70-75% alcohol for later species identification. Several males and several females (preferably ten [10] of each sex) from each vial should be mounted on slides, examined under a compound microscope and identified by a mite specialist (taxonomist). Identification in the field with a hand lens or by a dissection scope is not acceptable.

5. Measures after monitoring

Orchards found with a quarantine mite at any time during the season must be excluded from the list of orchards designated for export to Canada.

6. Reporting

In the event of discovery of any mites of concern to Canada, a report on the monitoring must be submitted to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency at the address below:

Horticulture
59 Camelot Drive
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0Y9

The report should clearly identify each affected orchard and clearly indicate the species of mite found each time monitoring took place, the dates of monitoring, the dates of spraying, and the name of the compounds used for the spray. The report should also indicate the dates when the mite population peaked and the dates the monsoon rains occurred in the province. The number of specimens of each species found is not required. If there are any concerns regarding the report, the CFIA may require Korea to suspend shipments until any concerns have been rectified.

For auditing purposes, the CFIA reserves the right to request a report of all sampling results and sampling activities conducted under this program.

2.8 Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) from India

The grapes must be commercially produced.

The vineyards and packing houses must be registered by the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of India.

Traceability must be maintained throughout production, grading, packing and shipping. The NPPO of India must be able to trace any non-compliant shipment back to the registered packing house and registered production vineyard.

Adequate scouting and trapping to ensure pest freedom or low pest prevalence must be implemented by the NPPO of India or approved authority, and must be effective against the following pests regulated by Canada:

  • Coniella diplodiella (Speg.) Petr. & Syd., white rot of grapes
  • Conogethes punctiferalis Guenée, yellow peach moth
  • Monilinia fructigena (Aderh. & Ruhl.), brown rot

Indian stakeholders involved in producing, grading, packing and shipping grapes to Canada must be familiar with Canada's import requirements and have processes in place to ensure that grapes from non-registered vineyards are not shipped to Canada and that exported grapes are free of the pests regulated by Canada. Adequate pest exclusion measures should be implemented to prevent contamination of the grapes by quarantine pests, during the whole process, from harvest to shipping.

A minimum of 2% of the packed fruit cartons must be inspected by the NPPO of India in order to certify fruit for export to Canada.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required and must include the following additional declaration:
"This shipment has been inspected and found free of all life stages of any pests regulated by Canada."

2.9 Fresh apples and crabapples (Malus spp.) from Uruguay

Destined to B.C.:

One of the following options must be met:

  1. The fruit must be fumigated according to Schedule 2 in Appendix 4 of this directive. A Phytosanitary Certificate is required, showing the treatment details and including the following additional declaration:
    "The fruit in this shipment has been treated to kill Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta)."

    or

  2. If the fruit has been grown under a certification program, a Phytosanitary Certificate showing the following additional declaration is required: "The fruit was produced under a pest management program and is free of Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta)."

Destinations other than B.C.:

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required.

2.10 Fresh stone fruit (Prunus spp.) from Australia

Destined to British Columbia:

The fruit must be fumigated according to Schedule 2 in Appendix 4 of this directive.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The Phytosanitary Certificate must show the treatment details and list the following additional declaration:
"This consignment was inspected and found free of any living stage of the light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), the Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta) and the codling moth (Cydia pomonella)."

Destinations other than British Columbia:

The fruit must be fumigated according to Schedule 6 in Appendix 4 of this directive.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The Phytosanitary Certificate must show the treatment details.

2.11 Fresh stone fruit (Prunus spp.) from South Africa

Destined to British Columbia:

The fruits must originate from orchards in South Africa where cultural practices and chemical controls are carried out to ensure freedom from codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and Oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta).

The fruit must be fumigated according to Schedule 2 or Schedule 4 in Appendix 4 of this directive.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The Phytosanitary Certificate must show the treatment details.

Destinations other than British Columbia:

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required.

2.12 Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) from Greece

Grapes must originate from vineyards where cultural practices, chemical controls and post-harvest inspection and grading are carried out to ensure freedom from the regulated pests listed below.

The fruit must be fumigated according to Schedule 2 in Appendix 4 of this directive. A Phytosanitary Certificate showing the treatment details is required.

The Phytosanitary Certificate must also include the following additional declaration:
"The fruit in this shipment has been inspected and found free of all living stages of white rot (Coniella diplodiella), anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina) and phomopsis cane and leaf spot (Phomopsis viticola) and has been fumigated with methyl bromide for control of European grape berry moth (Eupoecilia ambiguella) and vine moth (Lobesia botrana)."

2.13 Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) from the Republic of Korea (South Korea)

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required.

One of the following options must be met:

  1. The fruit must be fumigated according to Schedule 2 in Appendix 4 of this directive. The Phytosanitary Certificate must show the treatment details.

    or

  2. The grapes must originate from vineyards in South Korea approved to export to Canada by the National Plant Protection Organization of South Korea, where cultural practices and chemical controls are carried out to ensure freedom from the following regulated pests:

    • Aleurolobus vitis (grape whitefly)
    • Conogethes punctiferalis (yellow peach moth)
    • Eulecanium kunoense (Kuno scale)
    • Eupoecilia ambiguella (European grape berry moth)
    • Guignardia baccae (black rot of grape)
    • Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)
    • Monilinia fructigena (brown fruit rot)
    • Nippoptilia vitis (grape plume moth)
    • Scirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips)

2.14 Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) from Uruguay

The grapes must originate from vineyards approved for export to Canada by the Dirección General de Servicios Agrícolas of Uruguay where cultural practices and chemical controls are carried out to ensure freedom from the quarantine fungal pests listed below.

The fruit must be fumigated according to Schedule 2 in Appendix 4 of this directive.

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required. The Phytosanitary Certificate must contain the following additional declaration:
"The material was inspected and found free of anthracnose (Elsinoe ampelina), phomopsis cane and leaf spot (Phomopsis viticola), white rot (Coniella diplodiella) and treated to kill fruit tree weevil (Naupactus xanthographus)."

2.15 Fresh grapes (Vitis spp.) from Japan

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required.

The shipment must be inspected at origin by the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of Japan. No additional declaration is required but certification is based on freedom from:

  • Coniella diplodiella (white rot)
  • Eupoecilia ambiguella (European grape berry moth)
  • Guignardia baccae (black rot of grape)
  • Phomopsis viticola (phomopsis cane and leaf spot)
  • Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle)

One of the following options must be met:

  1. The grapes must originate from vineyards in Japan approved to export to Canada by the NPPO of Japan and where cultural practices and chemical controls are carried out to ensure freedom from the regulated pests listed above.

    or

  2. The grapes must be fumigated according to Schedule 2 in Appendix 4 of this directive. The Phytosanitary Certificate must show the treatment details.

2.16 Fresh apples (Malus spp.) from Poland

The apples must be produced under a systems approach, also known as an "integrated production system" in Poland. The measures used in the systems approach must be sufficient to ensure that the apples are free from pests regulated by Canada, and in particular:

  • Adoxophyes orana, summer fruit tortrix
  • Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis), hawthorn spider mite
  • Cydia pomonella, codling moth
  • Leucoptera malifoliella, pear leaf blister moth
  • Monilinia fructigena, brown rot
  • Monilinia polystroma, Asiatic brown rot
  • Syndemis musculana

Traceability must be maintained throughout production, grading, packing and shipping. The National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of Poland must be able to trace any non-compliant shipment back to the packing house and production orchard.

Polish stakeholders involved in producing, grading, packing and shipping apples to Canada must know Canada's import requirements and have processes in place to ensure the apples are free of pests regulated by Canada.

Apples must be inspected by the NPPO of Poland in order to certify fruit for export to Canada. Apples must be inspected in accordance with the inspection schedule of the NPPO of Poland:
Number of cartons in shipment Minimum number of cartons inspected
up to 50 4
up to 100 5
over 100 5 cartons for the first 100 cartons, plus 2 cartons per additional 100 cartons

The Phytosanitary Certificate must include the following additional declaration:
"This shipment has been inspected and found free of all life stages of any pests regulated by Canada."

2.17 Fresh pears (Pyrus spp.) from Belgium

The pears must be produced under a systems approach. The measures used in the systems approach must be sufficient to ensure that the pears are free from pests regulated by Canada, and in particular:

  • Adoxophyes orana, summer fruit tortrix
  • Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis), hawthorn spider mite
  • Argyrotaenia ljungiana, Eurasian fruit roller moth
  • Cydia funebrana, plum fruit moth
  • Cydia pomonella, codling moth
  • Diaspidiotus pyri, pear scale
  • Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth
  • Leucoptera malifoliella, pear leaf blister moth
  • Monilinia fructigena, brown rot

Traceability must be maintained throughout production, grading, packing and shipping. The National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of Belgium must be able to trace any non-compliant shipment back to the packing house and production orchard.

Belgian stakeholders involved in producing, grading, packing and shipping pears to Canada must know Canada's import requirements and have processes in place to ensure the pears are free of pests regulated by Canada.

A minimum of 2% of the packed fruit cartons must be inspected by the Belgian NPPO in order to certify fruit for export to Canada.

The Phytosanitary Certificate must include the following additional declaration: "This shipment has been inspected and found free of all life stages of any pests regulated by Canada."

2.18 Fresh blueberries, lingonberries and huckleberries (Vaccinium spp. and Gaylussacia spp.) from the continental United States

Regulated pest

Rhagoletis mendax, blueberry maggot

Regulated commodities

Fresh fruit of Vaccinium spp. and Gaylussacia spp. (blueberries, huckleberries, lingonberries), other than V. macrocarpon.

  • Note: Fruit of Vaccinium macrocarpon, the commonly cultivated cranberry, is not regulated for R. mendax.

U.S. States regulated for R. mendax

  • Alabama
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Kentucky
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • Missouri
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • North Carolina
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Vermont
  • Virginia
  • West Virginia

Requirements for fresh fruit originating from regulated U.S. States

  1. Destined to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia or Prince Edward Island

    No requirements related to R. mendax, as these provinces are already considered infested by this pest.

  2. Destined to British Columbia

    The province of British Columbia has specific regulations related to R. mendax which must be met. Fruit must be fumigated using methyl bromide (MeBr), as per the schedules specified in the applicable provincial regulations and Schedule 7 in Appendix 4 of this directive.

    Please refer to the provincial regulations for additional information:

    • Provincial Blueberry Maggot Control Regulations in British Columbia (B.C. Reg. 280/90 and B.C. Reg. 112/2014, June 18, 2014)

    A Phytosanitary Certificate indicating the treatment details is required.

  3. Destined to Alberta, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Ontario, Quebec or Saskatchewan

    One of the following options must be met:

    1. Blueberry Certification Program (BCP)

      The fruit must originate from a grower that has been approved by the United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) as meeting the requirements of the BCP. The BCP is based on: approval of growers; pest monitoring and control procedures targeting R. mendax; fruit grading; fruit sampling; and fruit testing. Blueberries must be commercially packed, graded and shipped in new containers. The consignment must be free from soil, pests, leaves and/or plant debris. Refer to Appendix 3 of D-02-04 and USDA-APHIS for more information on the BCP.

      A Permit to Import is not required. The blueberries may be accompanied by a Movement Certification Label, in lieu of a Phytosanitary Certificate. The Movement Certification Label must be affixed to the commercial invoice or to the Customs entry invoice and must include the following declaration: "This shipment of fresh blueberry fruit meets the requirements of the Canada/United States Blueberry Certification Program".

      Example of a USDA-APHIS Blueberry Movement Certification Label

      Note: In this sample label, the initials "NJ" at the bottom refer to the state of New Jersey.

      Sample label. Description follows.
      Description for photo - Example of a USDA-APHIS Blueberry Movement Certification Label

      "United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service" appears at the top of the label. At the left is the USDA logo. At the right appears "Serial No. 000001", followed by the text "This shipment of fresh blueberries meets the requirements of the Canada/United States Blueberry Certification Program." At the bottom are the letters "NJ-". "Specimen" is written diagonally across the label.

      or

    2. CFIA-Approved Treatment

      The fruit must be treated according to Schedule 7 in Appendix 4 of directive D-95-08.

      A Phytosanitary Certificate indicating the treatment details is required. A Permit to Import is not required.

      or

    3. CFIA-approved processing plant

      The fruit must be destined to a CFIA-approved processing plant in Canada that is authorized to receive fruit from regulated areas. The processing plant must meet the conditions and procedures for handling fruit as specified in directive D-02-04.

      A Permit to Import is required. A Phytosanitary Certificate is not required.

2.19 Fresh blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) from Peru

A Phytosanitary Certificate is required.

The blueberries must be commercially produced.

One of the following options must be met:

  1. The blueberries must originate from production sites and packing houses that are registered with the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of Peru:

    • Traceability must be maintained throughout production, grading, packing and shipping. The NPPO of Peru must be able to trace any non-compliant shipment back to the registered packing house and registered production site.
    • An adequate scouting and trapping program by the NPPO of Peru or an approved authority must be implemented to ensure pest freedom in the shipped product.
    • Peruvian stakeholders involved in producing, grading, packing and shipping blueberries to Canada must be familiar with Canada's import requirements and have procedures in place to ensure that blueberries from non-registered production sites are not shipped to Canada and that blueberries exported to Canada are free of the pests regulated by Canada. Adequate pest exclusion measures should be implemented to prevent contamination of the blueberries by quarantine pests during the entire process, from harvest to shipping.
    • A minimum of 2% of the packed blueberry cartons must be inspected by the Peruvian NPPO.
    • A phytosanitary certificate issued by the NPPO of Peru must include the following additional declaration: "This shipment has been inspected and found free of all life stages of any pests regulated by Canada."

    or

  2. The blueberries must be fumigated prior to entering Canada. Treatment details must appear on the phytosanitary certificate issued by the country of origin or the re-export phytosanitary certificate if the treatment is performed in a third country.

Appendix 3: Quarantine pests of particular concern for imported temperate fresh fruit and tree nuts

Insects

  • Acrobasis (=Numonia) pirivorella (pear fruit moth)
  • Acropolitis rudisana (leafroller caterpillar)
  • Adoxophyes orana (summer fruit tortrix)
  • Aleurolobus vitis (grape whitefly)
  • Aphanostigma iaksuiense (powdery pear aphid)
  • Argyrotaenia ljungiana (Eurasian fruit roller moth)
  • Cacopsylla chinensis (Chinese pear psylla)
  • Cacopsylla liaoli (Liaoning pear psylla)
  • Carposina sasakii (peach fruit moth)
  • Conogethes (=Dichocrocis) punctiferalis (yellow peach moth)
  • Cydia latiferreana (=Melissopus latiferreanus)
  • Cydia pomonella (codling moth)
  • Diaspidiotus pyri (pear scale)
  • Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth)
  • Eulecanium kunoense (Kuno scale)
  • Eupoecilia ambiguella (European grape berry moth)
  • Euzophera pyriella
  • Grapholita dimorpha (Komai plum fruit moth)
  • Grapholita funebrana (=Cydia funebrana) (plum fruit moth)
  • Grapholita inopinata (=Cydia inopinata) (Manchurian codling moth)
  • Grapholita molesta (Oriental fruit moth)
  • Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale)
  • Leucoptera malifoliella (=L. scitella) (pear leaf blister moth)
  • Lobesia botrana (European grapevine moth)
  • Naupactus xanthographus (fruit tree weevil)
  • Nippoptilia vitis (grape plume moth)
  • Nysius vinitor (Rutherglen bug)
  • Phalaenoides glycinae (grapevine moth)
  • Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle)
  • Otiorhyncus spp. (root weevils)
  • Rhagoletis cerasi (European cherry fruit fly)
  • Rhagoletis mendax (blueberry maggot)
  • Rhagoletis pomonella (apple maggot)
  • Scirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips)
  • Spilonota albicana (large apple fruit moth)
  • Stathmopoda auriferella (apple heliodinid moth)
  • Syndemis musculana
  • Teia anartoides (=Orgyia anartoides) (painted apple moth)

Mites

  • Amphitetranychus viennensis (=Tetranychus viennenis) (hawthorn spider mite)
  • Tetranychus truncatus (red spider mite)

Fungi

  • Alternaria yali-infeciens (causal agent of chocolate pot of Ya pear)
  • Alternaria gaisen (=A. kikuchiana) (causal agent of pear black spot)
  • Coniella diplodiella (white rot of grape)
  • Diaporthe tanakae (twig blight)
  • Elsinoe ampelina (anthracnose)
  • Guignardia baccae (black rot of grape)
  • Gymnosporangium yamadae (Japanese apple rust)
  • Monilia yunnanensis (brown rot)
  • Monilinia fructigena (brown rot)
  • Monilinia mali (apple blossom blight)
  • Monilinia polystroma (Asiatic brown rot)
  • Phomopsis viticola (phomopsis cane and leaf spot)
  • Venturia nashicola (Asian pear scab)

Appendix 4: Treatment schedules for fresh fruit and tree nuts

Important notice: Canada is a signatory of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1992) agreeing to the reduction and eventual phase-out of methyl bromide use. The CFIA encourages the use of methyl bromide recovery systems and will consider alternative treatment proposals.

Treatment schedule 1

Cold treatment at or below 1.1°C (33.98°F) for 40 days, followed by fumigation with methyl bromide according to schedule A or B below.

Schedule 1A

Exposure for two hours is required at normal atmospheric pressure in a fumigation chamber or under tarpaulin (plastic field bins; maximum load factor 50%).

MCR: minimum concentration readings

Treatment schedule 1A
Temperature Dosage rate (g/m3) MCR at 0.5 hrs (g) MCR at 0.5 hrs (oz) MCR at 2 hrs (g) MCR at 2 hrs (oz)
10°C or above
50°F or above
48 44 44 36 36

Schedule 1B

Exposure for two hours is required at normal atmospheric pressure in a fumigation chamber or under tarpaulin (cardboard cartons only; maximum load factor 40%).

MCR: minimum concentration readings

Treatment schedule 1B
Temperature Dosage rate (g/m3) MCR at 0.5 hrs (g) MCR at 0.5 hrs (oz) MCR at 2 hrs (g) MCR at 2 hrs (oz)
15°C or above
59°F or above
38 35 35 29 29

Treatment schedule 2

Shipments must be fumigated as described below at normal atmospheric pressure.

MCR: minimum concentration readings

Treatment schedule 2
Temperature Dosage rate (g/m3) MCR at 0.5 hrs (g) MCR at 0.5 hrs (oz) MCR at 2 hrs (g) MCR at 2 hrs (oz)
27°C or above
80°F or above
24 19 19 14 14
21 - 26 °C
70 - 79 °F
32 26 26 19 19
16 - 20 °C
60 - 69 °F
40 32 32 24 24
10 - 15 °C
50 - 59 °F
48 38 38 29 29
5 - 9 °C
41 - 49 °F
64 48 48 38 38

Treatment schedule 3

Schedule 3A

Methyl bromide at normal atmospheric pressure – chamber, van container or tarpaulin.

MCR: minimum concentration readings

Treatment schedule 3A
Temperature Dosage rate (g/m3) Exposure time (hrs) MCR at 0.5 hr (kg [oz]) MCR at 2 hrs (kg [oz]) MCR at 3 hrs (kg [oz]) MCR at 4 hrs (kg [oz]) MCR at 5 hrs (kg [oz]) MCR at 6 hrs (kg [oz])
32°C or above
90°F or above
64 3 1.6 [58] 1.0 [34] 1.0 [34]
27 - 31 °C
80 - 89 °F
64 4 1.6 [58] 0.9 [32] 0.9 [32]
21 - 26 °C
70 - 79 °F
80 4 2.0 [72] 1.2 [42] 1.2 [42]
16 - 20 °C
60 - 69 °F
80 5 2.0 [72] 1.1 [40] 1.1 [40]
10 - 15 °C
50 - 59 °F
96 5 2.4 [85] 1.4 [50] 1.4 [50]
4 - 9 °C
40 - 49 °F
96 6 2.4 [85] 1.4 [48] 1.4 [48]

Schedule 3B

Methyl bromide in 26" vacuum.

Treatment schedule 3B
Temperature Dosage rate (g/m3) Exposure time (hours)
27°C or above
80°F or above
48 2
21 - 26 °C
70 - 79 °F
64 2
16 - 20 °C
60 - 69 °F
64 3
10 - 15 °C
50 - 59 °F
64 4
4 - 9 °C
40 - 49 °F
64 5

Treatment schedule 4

Treatment schedule 4
Temperature Dosage rate (g/m3) Exposure time (hours)
39 - 40 °C
51.8 - 59 °F
48 2
16 - 20 °C
60.8 - 68 °F
40 2
21 - 26 °C
69.8 - 78.8 °F
32 2
27 - 31 °C
80.6 - 84.2 °F
24 2

Treatment schedule 5

Shipments must be fumigated as described below at normal atmospheric pressure. After fumigation, the shipment must be maintained at a continuous temperature of 0°C for 21 days.

Treatment schedule 5
Temperature Dosage rate (g/m3) Exposure time (hours)
21°C
69.8°F
16 2
16°C
60.8°F
24 2

Treatment schedule 6

Shipments must be fumigated as described below at normal atmospheric pressure.

Treatment schedule 6
Temperature Dosage rate (g/m3) Dosage rate (oz/1000 ft3) Exposure time (hours)
26°C
80°F
12 0.42 2.5
21 - 25 °C
69.8 - 77 °F
16 0.56 2.5
16 - 20 °C
60.8 - 68 °F
20 0.71 2.5
11 - 15 °C
52 - 59 °F
24 0.85 2.5

Treatment schedule 7

Shipments must be fumigated as described below at normal atmospheric pressure.

Treatment schedule 7
Temperature Dosage rate (g/m3) Exposure time (hours)
27.7°C or above
82°F or above
32 2
22.2 - 27.2 °C
72 - 81 °F
32 2.5
16.6 - 21.6 °C
62 - 71 °F
32 3
10 - 16.1 °C
52 - 61 °F
32 3.5

Appendix 5: Trial importation periods for fresh fruit

See Appendix 5

Appendix 6: Directives superseded by directive D-95-08

Directive number Directive title
Permit Letter 24A Notice To Importers – Plant Protection Requirements: Importation of Fresh Fruit.
D-07-04 Canadian Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Blueberry Fruit (Vaccinium) from Uruguay
D-04-02 Plant Protection (phytosanitary) import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit from South Africa
D-03-13 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Apples (Malus spp.) from Brazil
D-03-11 Plant Protection import requirements for fresh pears Pyrus spp. from Japan
D-03-06 Plant protection (phytosanitary) import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit from Ecuador
D-02-11 Plant protection (phytosanitary) import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit from Chile
D-02-07 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Apples (Malus spp.) from the People's Republic of China
D-01-10 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Apples (Malus spp.) from the United Kingdom
D-01-09 Canadian Plant Protection import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit (Fragaria) from Argentina
D-01-08 Canadian Plant Protection import requirements for fresh blueberry fruit (Vaccinium) from Argentina
D-00-06 Plant protection (phytosanitary) import requirements for fresh grapes from Peru
D-00-01 Plant Protection (Phytosanitary) Import Requirements for Fresh Cherries from Spain
D-98-05 Plant protection import requirements for untreated fresh grapes from Australia
D-98-03 Plant Protection (phytosanitary) import requirements for fresh Asian pears from the Republic of Korea
D-96-22 Plant Protection Import Requirements for fresh strawberries from Gaza
D-96-17 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Grapes from Lebanon
D-96-16 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Grapes from Uruguay
D-96-06 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Blueberries from Chile
D-95-27 Plant protection import requirements for Rubus fruits from Mexico (blackberries and raspberries)
D-95-25 Plant Protection Import Requirements for fresh Fuji Apples from Japan
D-95-23 Plant Protection import requirements for Fresh apples from the Republic of Korea
D-95-20 Phytosanitary Requirements for the importation of fresh grapes from Greece
D-95-19 Plant Protection import requirements for phytosanitary requirements for the blueberry fruit from Australia
D-94-37 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Prunus Fruit from South Africa
D-94-36 Plant Protection Import Requirements for pears from the Netherlands
D-94-32 Interim Policy for Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Pears from the People's Republic of China
D-94-21 Plant Protection Import Requirements for grapes from Japan
D-94-19 Trial Importation of Apple fruit from Uruguay
D-94-15 Importation of fresh fruit of strawberry from Colombia and Blackberry from Costa Rica and Guatemala
D-94-05 Trial Importation of apple fruit from the Netherlands
D-83-31 Importation of Chestnuts for Purposes Other than Propagation
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