D-95-08: General Import Requirements for Fresh Temperate Fruits from the World

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Effective Date: October 29, 2009
(5th Revision)

Subject

This directive describes the Plant Health policy on importation of fresh temperate fruit. It outlines import requirements for fruit which is approved for import, and the protocol for applying for approval to import fresh temperate fruit from a new source country.

This revision is to clarify the meaning of "processed" to include apples that are canned or frozen.

Table of Contents

Review

This directive will be reviewed every five years unless otherwise needed. The next review date for this directive is October 29, 2014. For further information or clarification, please contact the CFIA.

Endorsement

Approved by: Chief Plant Health Officer

Amendment Record

Amendments of this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution below.

Distribution

  1. Directive mail list (Regions, PHRA, USDA)
  2. Provincial Government, Industry (via Regions)
  3. National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
  4. Internet

Introduction

The importation of fresh fruits is regulated by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) to prevent the introduction and spread of plant pests that can cause significant economic and environmental damage to the Canadian plant resource base including agriculture, forestry and the environment.

Import requirements for fresh temperate fruits are provided herein. Guidelines for the implementation of Phytosanitary Management Systems (PSMS) for fruit to be exported to Canada are also described.

Scope

This directive is intended for use by those wishing to import fresh temperate fruit from outside of Canada. This directive is also intended to aid the Canada Border Services Agency and foreign National Plant Protection Orangizations (NPPO) in determining the import requirements for fresh fruit entering Canada.

References

  • ISPM No. 4, Requirements for the establishment of Pest Free Areas, 1995, Rome, FAO.
  • ISPM No. 5, Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms, Rome, FAO (updated annually).
  • ISPM No. 10, Requirements for the establishment of pest free places of production and pest free production sites, 1999, Rome, FAO.
  • Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22.
  • Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212.
  • Plant Protection Fees Regulations, SOR.

Refer to Appendix 7 for a comprehensive list of directives superseded by this directive.

Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms

Definitions for terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 General Requirements

1.1 Legislative Authority

The Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22
The Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette: Part I (as amended from time to time)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the Import Service Centre (ISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice Web Site.

1.3 Regulated Pests

Note: This list is not inclusive. Pests brought to the attention of CFIA will be subjected to a Pest Risk Assessment (PRA). Appropriate quarantine action will be taken if they are determined to be of quarantine significance.

Note: For a comprehensive list of pests regulated by Canada, consult the CFIA website.

Examples of pests regulated by Canada:

Insects:

  • Cydia pomonella, Codling moth
  • Epiphyas postvittana, Light brown apple moth
  • Grapholita molesta, Oriental fruit moth
  • Leucoptera malifoliella (= L. scitella), Pear leaf blister moth
  • Lobesia botrana, European grapevine moth
  • Otiorhynchus spp., Root weevils
  • Popillia japonica, Japanese beetle
  • Rhagoletis mendax, Blueberry maggot
  • Rhagoletis pomonella, Apple maggot
  • Teia anartoides (= Orgyia anartoides), Painted apple moth

Fungi:

  • Alternaria kikuchiana (= A. gaisen), Black spot
  • Coniella diplodiella, White rot of grape
  • Guignardia baccae, Black rot of grape
  • Monilia fructigena, Brown rot
  • Phomopsis viticola, Phomopsis cane & leaf spot

Mites:

  • Amphitetranychus viennensis, Hawthorn spider mite
  • Tetranychus truncatus, Spider mite

1.4 Regulated Commodities

All fresh temperate fruits. Typical examples are listed below:

  • Actinidia deliciosa, Kiwis
  • Crataegus spp., Haws
  • Cucumis melo, Cantaloupes, melons
  • Cydonia oblong, Quinces
  • Fragaria spp., Strawberries
  • Gaylussacia spp., Huckleberries
  • Malus spp., Apples
  • Malus spp., Crabapples
  • Prunus armeniaca, Apricots
  • Prunus cerasus, Cherries
  • Prunus persica var nucipersica, Nectarines
  • Prunus persica, Peaches
  • Prunus spp., Plums
  • Pyrus bretschneideri, Pears - Ya
  • Pyrus communis, Pears - Common
  • Pyrus pyrifolia, Pears - Asian or Nashi
  • Ribes spp., Currants
  • Rubus loganobaccus, Loganberries
  • Rubus spp., Blackberries
  • Rubus spp., Raspberries
  • Vaccinium angustifolium, Blueberries, lowbush
  • Vaccinium corymbosum, Blueberries, highbush
  • Vaccinium macrocarpon, Cranberries
  • Vaccinium myrtilloides, Blueberries
  • Vaccinium oxycoccos, Cranberries
  • Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Lingonberries
  • Vitis spp., Grapes

This list is not inclusive. Please refer to Appendix 1 of this directive for a complete list of regulated commodities.

New commodities brought to the attention of CFIA will be subjected to a PRA.

1.5 Commodities Exempt

1.5.1 Dried and processed (canned, frozen) frozen forms of temperate fruits,

and

1.5.2. Fresh citrus and tropical fruits, typical examples:

  • Ananas comosus, Pineapples
  • Citrus paradisi, Grapefruits
  • Citrus sinensis, Oranges
  • Diospyros spp., Persimmons
  • Hylocereus spp., Selenicereus spp., Dragon fruits
  • Litchi spp., Lychees
  • Mangifera spp., Mangoes
  • Musa spp., Bananas, plantains
  • Psidium guajava, Guava fruit

Canada's import requirements for fresh citrus and tropical fruits are described in policy directive D-01-07, Canadian Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Citrus and Tropical Fruits.

Note: Tropical fruits may be regulated for Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth). A list of commodities regulated for light brown apple moth is included in CFIA regulatory directive D-07-03.

1.6 Regulated Areas

All countries.

2.0 Specific Requirements

2.1 Import Requirements

All shipments must be free from pests, soil, leaves, branches, and other plant debris.

2.1.1 Fresh temperate fruit that has been approved by the CFIA for entry into Canada

Appendix 1 summarizes the import requirements for fresh temperate fruits that are currently allowed entry into Canada. Appendix 2 summarizes the commodity-specific plant protection pre-shipment requirements for the importation of fresh temperate fruit into Canada.

All fresh fruit shipments are subject to audit inspections.

The place of production must be clearly identified on the invoice or confirmation of sale.

Note: Requirements are reviewed and revised periodically to address changes in pest status and distribution. It is the importer's responsibility to utilize the most recent version of this directive.

2.1.2 Fresh temperate fruit that is not approved for entry into Canada

Commodities not yet approved for entry by CFIA must undergo an approval process involving a PRA. A detailed description of the approval process can be found in Appendix 3.

Import requirements will be determined according to the results of the PRA. It is important to note that undergoing the pest risk assessment process does not ensure that the importation will be allowed, as the risk associated with the commodity may be found to be unacceptable.

An on-site audit of the exporting country's production system by CFIA phytosanitary experts may be required before the import of the commodity can be approved.

2.1.2.1 Phytosanitary Management Systems (PSMS) and Export Certification Program (ECP)

If the CFIA PRA indicates that a PSMS is an option for mitigating pest risk, then a PSMS can be designed by the NPPO according to the guidelines provided in Appendix 4. The PSMS must be put in place in the country of origin under the supervision of its NPPO. The approved production site or packing facility in the exporting country must then develop a PSMS Manual, which describes all the activities to be conducted under the PSMS, including internal audit activities and templates of Corrective Action Requests and Observation Reports. The PSMS Manual must be presented to the NPPO of the exporting country for approval. See Appendices 4 and 5 for more details.

A PSMS may be implemented on its own or as a component of an ECP. An ECP is designed by the NPPO of the exporting country to meet the requirements of the importing country and must be approved by the NPPO of the importing country. An ECP outlines production methods, cultural practices and phytosanitary treatments that must be implemented to mitigate the risk of the commodity in question acting as a pathway for the pest of concern. The ECP is generally subject to regular audits by the NPPO of the exporting country. The NPPO of the importing country also has the right to perform audits to ensure that the exporting facilities are complying to the conditions of the ECP.

A trial period may be required (refer to section 2.1.2.3 for details).

2.1.2.2 Pest Free Areas, Pest Free Places of Production or Pest Free Production Sites

When the exporting country can demonstrate that the fruit intended for export to Canada is produced in either a pest free area (PFA), a pest free place of production (PFPP), or a pest free production site (PFPS), the fruit may be allowed without additional pest control measures other than those used to maintain non-regulated pests below acceptable levels. The NPPO must demonstrate to the CFIA that the conditions of ISPM Nos. 4 and 10 are met.

A trial period may also be required (refer to section 2.1.2.3 for details).

2.1.2.3 Trial Importation

A Permit to Import and a Phytosanitary Certificate are required during trial periods.

A trial importation period allows the CFIA to monitor whether the exporting country can consistently meet Canada's phytosanitary import requirements. During the trial period, CFIA inspectors will inspect up to 100% of the shipments depending on the risk associated with the commodity.

The length of a trial period will typically be two years in length with a minimum of eight (8) shipments per year. These eight (8) shipments are required to provide adequate data to determine eligibility. If the minimum number of shipments is not met, the trial period may be extended by CFIA.

For fruit imported during a trial period, the Import Service Centers (ISCs) will issue a Notice to Importer to ensure that the CFIA is notified of the arrival of the shipment. The CFIA will determine, in a timely manner, whether or not to inspect and make the necessary arrangements.

When fruits are produced in a PFA, PFPP, or PFPS, or exported to Canada under a PSMS program, the length of the trial period and the inspection rate for incoming shipments may be reduced.

The trial period may be suspended at any time if pests of quarantine concern are discovered, or if other import requirement are not met. If trial shipments meet all import requirements throughout the trial period, the trial period may be concluded and the CFIA will approve the importation of the commodity on a long term basis.

Note: CFIA reserves the right to conduct on-site audit on a regular basis in order to ensure the compliance with the Canadian phytosanitary requirements and to re-evaluate the risks related to the commodity.

2.2 Domestic Movement Requirements

The movement of certain fresh temperate fruits within Canada is also regulated by the the CFIA. The policy directives outlining domestic movement requirements are listed below:

D-00-07: Import and Domestic Requirements for Fresh Fruit and Plants of Hosts of Apple Maggot (Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and some species of Prunus) into British Columbia from Mexico, the Continental United States, and Infested Areas of Canada.

D-02-04: Phytosanitary Requirements for the Importation from the Continental States and for Domestic Movement of Commodities Regulated for Blueberry Maggot.

2.3 Transit Movement Requirements

In addition to meeting CBSA's reporting requirements, regulated commodities entering regulated areas within Canada in transit to other destinations within Canada or the U.S. must either be shipped by a bonded carrier or meet the entry requirements of the province through which they are transiting. For more information about CBSA's reporting requirements, please visit their website.

2.4 Shipments imported via the U.S.

Fresh temperate fruit transiting through the U.S. must be accompanied by the original Phytosanitary Certificate. If fresh temperate fruits are re-exported from the U.S. to Canada, they must be accompanied by a re-export Phytosanitary Certificate accompanied by the original (or a certified copy of the original) Phytosanitary Certificate. It may be required that shipments be accompanied by a U.S. Phytosanitary Certificate, either because the U.S. does not require one for importation of the commodity into the U.S. or because the original Phytosanitary Certificate could no longer be clearly linked to the consignment.

2.5 Non-Compliance

The CFIA will take appropriate actions against non-compliant shipments.

The CFIA will advise the exporting country's NPPO of any interceptions and of non-compliances. The discovery of quarantine pests during inspection in Canada or any other non-compliance may result in suspension of the importation of that commodity from this country and may require consultation until remedial action, including amendment to the PSMS (where applicable), is taken at origin.

The importer is responsible for any and all costs relating to inspection, disposal, removal, rerouting or diversion to processing facilities.

Please refer to the CFIA policy directive D-01-06, Canadian Phytosanitary Policy for the Notification of Non-Compliance and Emergency Action, for more information.

2.6 Other Canadian Import Requirements

Other Canadian import requirements, which are in addition to those stated above, are outlined in separate Acts and Regulations. These Acts and Regulations include but are not limited to:

  1. Food and Drug Regulations
  2. Licensing and Arbitration Regulations under the Canada Agricultural Products Act
  3. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Regulations under the Canada Agricultural Products Act, and
  4. Consumer Packaging and Labelling Act and Regulations.

It is the importer's responsibility to know and meet these requirements.

Questions and requests for information on any requirements should be directed to local offices of the CFIA.

3.0 Appendices

Appendix 1

Summary of Plant Health Requirements for Temperate Fresh Fruit Approved for Entry into Canada

Appendix 2: Plant Protection Pre-Shipment Requirements

A) Fresh Cherries from Spain

Cherries must have been produced in Spain and meet the requirements of one of the following pre-shipment options:

  • Cherries must be produced, stored, and packed according to the requirements of Sanidad Vegetal's official program for export of cherries to Canada. Under this program, cherries must originate from growers that have been approved by Sanidad Vegetal to export cherries to Canada and who have complied with all the requirements for monitoring and control of the "Regulated Pests". The cherries must be stored and packed by facilities approved by Sanidad Vegetal for handling cherries for export to Canada. Fruit must also be sampled and inspected according to specified procedures.

or

  • Post harvest treatment
  1. Fumigation of the regulated insect and mite pests with methyl bromide as specified in Treatment Schedule 2 in Appendix 6 of this directive.
  2. For Monilinia fructigena - treatment with sodium hypochlorite using a "hydro cooling" rain system with dosages of 20 to 100 ppm of chlorine for a minimum of 8 minutes.

B) Fresh Apples From the People's Republic of China

The apples must originate from orchards in the People's Republic of China approved for export to Canada by the AQSIQ, where cultural practices, chemical controls and field inspection (or monitoring) programs are carried out to ensure freedom from quarantine pests.

These orchards must be given a code number by the AQSIQ. A list of these approved grower code numbers must be maintained by the AQSIQ and made available to the CFIA upon request.

The apples must be:

  • "bagged" while developing on the tree;
  • The bags must be sealed around apples without holes and must not be removed more than four weeks prior to harvest. Bagging should occur as soon as possible after flowering, provided fungicide application has occurred during flowering. Field inspection (or monitoring) and/or chemical control for fruit boring moths must be carried out after the bags have been removed. The identity of "bagged" versus "unbagged" apples must be clearly maintained.

or

  • Post-harvest treated as per Treatment Schedule 1 in Appendix 6 of this directive or other treatments deemed acceptable by CFIA;

and

  • Appropriately inspected, packed, stored and transported, i.e.:
    • post-harvest inspected at the 5% level and graded; and
    • subject to any post-harvest measures deemed appropriate to eliminate pests; and
    • free of quarantine pests and free of soil, sand, leaves, and plant debris; and
    • packed and stored in a facility approved for export to Canada.

The facility must be clean and maintained free of pests, soil, plant debris and discarded or infested fruit.

The facility must be cleaned prior to packing if fruit for the domestic or other export markets has been packed prior to the packing of fruit for export to Canada and no other fruit should be in the facility at the time of packing.

The apples must be safeguarded from contamination from orchards or other crops in the vicinity during packing, loading and transportation.

The pest control program must be effective against all regulated pests and described in a written format and signed by the responsible orchard's management official. This document should be made available upon request from the CFIA for audit purpose.

C) Fresh Fuji apples from Japan

Fresh Fuji apples grown in Japan must originate from orchards where cultural practices and chemical controls are carried out to ensure freedom from quarantine pests.

The apples must be:

  • "bagged" while developing on the tree;

or

  • Post-harvest treated according to Treatment Schedule 1 or Treatment Schedule 2 in Appendix 6 of this directive.

Note: Apples that were "bagged" but that are suspected of being contaminated with pests, either due to loose bagging or for other reasons, must be treated. Particular attention should be paid to the presence of mites.

and

The apples must be post-harvest inspected and graded.

D) Fresh apples from the Republic of Korea

Fresh apples must originate from orchards in the Republic of Korea approved for export to Canada by the National Plant Quarantine Service of the Republic of Korea:

  • where cultural practices and chemical controls are carried out to ensure freedom from quarantine pests; and
  • where field inspection (or monitoring) programs are carried out to verify freedom from quarantine pests, including freedom from Amphitetranychus viennensis; and
  • which are remote from Prunus orchards and have no unmanaged plants of Prunus and/or Juniperus spp. or other unmanaged hosts of the quarantine species either in the orchard or nearby (within 200 metres).

The apples must be:

  • "bagged" while developing on the tree;

Note: The bags must not be removed more than four weeks prior to harvest. Field inspection (or monitoring) and/or chemical control for fruit boring moths must be carried out after the bags have been removed. The identity of "bagged" versus "unbagged" apples must be clearly maintained.

or

  • Post-harvest treated as per Treatment Schedule 1 or Treatment Schedule 2 in Appendix 6 of this directive;

and

  • Appropriately inspected, packed, stored and transported, i.e.:
    • post-harvest inspected at the 5% level and graded to eliminate any visible quarantine pests; and
    • subject to any post-harvest measures deemed appropriate to eliminate pests (e.g. use of air pressure hoses for residual mite removal); and
    • grower lots found infested with quarantine pests must be rejected for shipment to Canada, and that grower rejected from the program for the remainder of the season. Costly delays may occur while pests which have been intercepted are identified in the laboratory; and
    • packed and stored in a facility approved for export to Canada. (The facility must be clean and maintained free of pests, soil, plant debris and discarded or infested fruit. The facility must be cleaned prior to packing if fruit for the domestic or other export markets has been packed prior to the packing of fruit for export to Canada and no other fruit should be in the facility at the time of packing. Presently the facility at Kunwi is approved); and
    • packed in boxes for export to Canada, with the grower name marked on the box. (Individual grower lots should be identifiable in order to facilitate inspection, identify growers with problems and minimize losses to the importer/exporter should pests be found); and
    • the apples must be safeguarded from contamination from orchards or other crops in the vicinity during packing, loading, and transportation.

Please refer to section G of the present appendix for the Monitoring program for Tetranychid mites in Korean Orchards Exporting fruits to Canada

E) Fresh Pears from the People's Republic of China

The shipping container number(s) must be stated on the Phytosanitary Certificate in addition to the code number (and name if available) of the approved orchard from which the pears originated.

Phytosanitary Certificates can only be issued for fruit that is grown under a pest control program in approved orchards and packing houses. The program must be monitored by the AQSIQ to ensure freedom from quarantine pests for Canada.

Packaging Requirements

Each carton (box) of pears shall be:

  • Clearly labelled in Chinese and English or French, and must specify the type of pears and the place of origin.
  • Marked with a number representing the code of each approved orchard. This will identify the specific orchard of origin for identification and trace back purposes, in the event that cartons with pests are found.
  • Each carton shall be sealed with a sticker, which has been affixed by the appropriate AQSIQ office in the PRC, and which signifies that the pears were inspected for shipment to Canada.

Only pears from the approved orchards can be imported into Canada.

F) Fresh Pears from Japan

The pears must originate from orchards in the Tottori Prefecture approved for export to Canada by the NPPO of Japan and meet the following pre-shipment requirements:

  • Pears must be produced, packed and stored according to the requirements of the NPPO program for export of pears to Canada.
  • Under this program, pears must originate from growers designated by the NPPO to export pears from Japan to Canada and who have complied with all the requirements for monitoring and control of the "Regulated Pests".
  • The pears must be stored and packed by facilities approved by the NPPO for handling pears for export to Canada.
  • Fruit must be sampled and inspected according to specified procedures.

G) Fresh Asian Pears from the Republic of Korea

The pears must originate from orchards in the Republic of Korea approved to export to Canada by the National Plant Quarantine Service of the Republic of Korea, where:

  • cultural practices and chemical controls are carried out to ensure freedom from quarantine pests; and
  • monitoring programs must be carried out to verify freedom from quarantine pests, including freedom from T. truncatus and A. viennensis, as described in the monitoring program below; and
  • pear orchards are remote from Prunus orchards and have no unmanaged plants of Prunus spp. or other unmanaged hosts of the quarantine species either in the orchard or nearby (within 200 metres).

The pears must be:

  • "bagged" while developing on the tree for the entire growing period and removal of bags for any reason prior to harvest shall disqualify the fruit for export;

and

  • Appropriately inspected, packed, stored and transported, i.e.:
    • post-harvest inspected at the 5% level and graded to eliminate any visible quarantine pests; and
    • subject to any post-harvest measures deemed appropriate to eliminate pests (e.g. use of air pressure hoses for residual mite removal); and
    • grower lots found infested with quarantine pests must be rejected for shipment to Canada, and that grower rejected from the program for the remainder of the season. Delays may occur while pests which have been intercepted are identified in the laboratory; and
    • packed and stored in a facility approved for handling pears for export to Canada. (The facility must be clean and maintained free of pests, soil, plant debris and discarded or infested fruit. The facility must be cleaned prior to packing if fruit for the domestic or other export markets has been packed prior to the packing of fruit for export to Canada and no other fruit should be in the facility at the time of packing); and
    • packed in boxes for export to Canada, with the grower name marked on the box. (Individual grower lots should be identifiable in order to facilitate inspection, identify growers with problems and minimize losses to the importer/exporter should pests be found); and
    • the pears must be safeguarded from contamination from orchards or other crops in the vicinity during packing, loading, and transportation.
Monitoring Program for Tetranychid mites in Korean Orchards Exporting fruits to Canada
1. Monitoring Authority

The National Plant Quarantine Service of the Republic of Korea

2. Number of Orchards to be Monitored

All exporting orchards must be individually surveyed, as different species may be prevalent in different orchards at different times.

3. & 4. Monitoring Period and Frequency

The mite monitoring shall be conducted twice a year in total during the field inspection period- once around June and July after the bagging and another, before harvest. The final sampling must be carried out as close as possible to harvest time but while male mites are still present, to permit species identification, i.e., approximately one week prior to harvest. The date for the final monitoring will vary according to the harvest time for the variety e.g., approximately mid-September for Golden Pears and late October for Shingo pears. Monitoring should be conducted when mites are most likely to be present. Sampling should be conducted before spraying and irrigating. Sampling should be conducted close to the time when the mite population peaks in April and September as well as before and after the monsoon rains, rather than during the monsoon rains.

5. Number of Trees and Leaves to be sampled for Each Exporting Orchard

Number of trees:

A minimum of ten (10) trees should be sampled per exporting orchard of 1.5 hectares or less with ten (10) additional trees being sampled for each additional 1.5 hectares. Because phytophagus mite distribution is not uniform, two trees should be sampled near every corner of each plot, and two trees near or at the centre of the plot.

Leaf Collection:

For each tree sampled, ten (10) leaves should be collected randomly at shoulder height while walking around the circumference of the tree. The leaves should be collected from the flower cluster at the beginning of the season and the fruit cluster later in the season. If suckers have not been physically removed, 20% of the leaf samples may be obtained from the suckers. Leaf samples should not be taken from the tip of branches as it is unlikely that mites will be found there. The leaves should be placed in a separate paper bag, labelled, stapled shut and placed immediately in a cooler or refrigerator that is cooled to approximately 4°C.

Mite Collection and Identification:

The collected leaves should be examined for mites within 24 hours of collection. It is suggested that just prior to examination the leaves should be placed in a freezer for five minutes in order to slow down mite activity. All leaves should be examined under a dissection microscope and all tetranychid adults removed with a brush and placed in a separate vial containing 70 - 75% alcohol for later species identification. Several males and several females (preferably ten (10) of each sex) from each vial should be mounted on slides, examined under a compound microscope and identified by a mite specialist (taxonomist). Identification in the field with a hand lens or by a dissection scope is not acceptable.

6. Measures after Monitoring

Orchards found with a quarantine mite at any time during the season must be excluded from the list of orchards designated for export to Canada.

7. Reporting

In the event of discovery of any mites of concern to Canada, a report on the monitoring must be submitted to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency at the address below:

Horticulture
59 Camelot Drive
Ottawa, Ontario
K1A 0Y9

The report should clearly identify each affected orchard and clearly indicate the species of mite found each time monitoring took place, the dates of monitoring, the dates of spraying, and the name of the compounds used for the spray. The report should also indicate the dates when the mite population peaked and the dates the monsoon rains occurred in the province. The number of specimens of each species found is not required. If there are any concerns regarding the report, the CFIA may require Korea to suspend shipments until any concerns have been rectified.

For auditing purposes, the CFIA reserves the right to request a report of all sampling results and sampling activities conducted under this program.

H) Fresh Pears from Belgium

The pears must be produced under a systems approach.

Traceability must be maintained throughout production, grading, packing and shipping. The NPPO of Belgium must be able to trace any non-compliant shipment back to the packing house and production orchard.

Belgian stakeholders involved in producing, grading, packing and shipping pears to Canada must know Canada's import requirements and have processes in place to ensure the pears are free of pests regulated by Canada.

A minimum of 2% of the packed fruit cartons must be inspected by the Belgian NPPO in order to certify fruit for export to Canada.

I) Fresh Apples from Poland

The apples must be produced under a systems approach, also known as "integrated production system" in Poland.

Traceability must be maintained throughout production, grading, packing and shipping. The NPPO of Poland must be able to trace any non-compliant shipment back to the packing house and production orchard.

Polish stakeholders involved in producing, grading, packing and shipping apples to Canada must know Canada's import requirements and have processes in place to ensure the apples are free of pests regulated by Canada.

Apples must be inspected by the NPPO of Poland in order to certify fruit for export to Canada. Apples must be inspected in accordance with the inspection schedule of the NPPO of Poland: a minimum of 4 cartons for shipments of up to 50 cartons, a minimum of 5 cartons for shipments of up to 100 cartons. For shipments of more than 100 cartons, a minimum of 5 cartons must be inspected for the first 100 cartons, plus 2 cartons per additional 100 cartons.

J) Fresh Grapes from India

The grapes must be commercially produced.

The vineyards and packing houses must be registered by the NPPO of India.

Traceability must be maintained throughout production, grading, packing and shipping. The NPPO of India must be able to trace any non-compliant shipment back to the registered packing house and registered production vineyard.

Adequate scouting and trapping to ensure pest freedom or low pest prevalence must be implemented by the NPPO of India or approved authority.

Indian stakeholders involved in producing, grading, packing and shipping grapes to Canada must be familiar with Canada’s import requirements and have processes in place to ensure that grapes from non-registered vineyards are not shipped to Canada and that exported grapes are free of the pests regulated by Canada. Adequate pest exclusion measures should be implemented to prevent contamination of the grapes by quarantine pests, during the whole process, from harvest to shipping.

A minimum of 2% of the packed fruit cartons must be inspected by the Indian NPPO in order to certify fruit for export to Canada.

The phytosanitary certificate, issued by the NPPO of India, must include the following additional declaration: "This shipment has been inspected and found free of all life stages of any pests regulated by Canada".

K) Phytosanitary import requirements for fresh blueberry, lingonberry and huckleberry (Vaccinium spp. and Gaylussacia spp.) fruit from the continental United States

Regulated pest

Rhagoletis mendax, blueberry maggot

Regulated articles
  • Fresh fruit of Vaccinium spp. and Gaylussacia spp. (blueberries, huckleberries, lingonberries), other than V. macrocarpon (cranberries).
U.S. States regulated for R. mendax
Alabama
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Illinois
Indiana
Kentucky
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Missouri
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New York
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
Tennessee
Vermont
Virginia
West Virginia
Requirements for fresh fruit originating from regulated U.S. States
  1. Destined to New Brunswick, Nova Scotia or Prince Edward Island

    • No requirements related to R. mendax, as these provinces are already considered infested by this pest.
  2. Destined to British Columbia

    • The province of British Columbia has specific regulations related to R. mendax which must be met. Fruit must be fumigated using methyl bromide (MeBr), as per the schedules specified in the applicable provincial regulations and Schedule 7 in Appendix 6.
    • Please refer to the provincial regulations for additional information:
      • Provincial Blueberry Maggot Control Regulations in British Columbia (B.C. Reg. 280/90 and B.C. Reg. 112/2014, June 18, 2014)
    • A Phytosanitary Certificate indicating the treatment details is required.
  3. Destined to Alberta, Manitoba, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon

    • One of the following options must be met:

      • A. Blueberry Certification Program (BCP)

        The fruit must originate from a grower that has been approved by the United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS) as meeting the requirements of the BCP. The BCP is based on: approval of growers; pest monitoring and control procedures targeting R. mendax; fruit grading; fruit sampling; and fruit testing. Blueberries must be commercially packed, graded and shipped in new containers. The consignment must be free from soil, pests, leaves and/or plant debris. Refer to Appendix 3 of D-02-04 and USDA-APHIS for more information on the BCP.

        A Permit to Import is not required. The blueberries may be accompanied by a Movement Certification Label, in lieu of a Phytosanitary Certificate. The Movement Certification Label must be affixed to the commercial invoice or to the Customs entry invoice and must include the following declaration: "This shipment of fresh blueberry fruit meets the requirements of the Canada/United States Blueberry Certification Program".

        Example of a USDA-APHIS Blueberry Movement Certification Label

        Note: In this sample label, the initials "NJ" at the bottom refer to the state of New Jersey.

        sample label
        Description for photo - Example of a USDA-APHIS Blueberry Movement Certification Label

        "United States Department of Agriculture – Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service" appears at the top of the label. At the left is the USDA logo. At the right appears "Serial No. 000001", followed by the text "This shipment of fresh blueberries meets the requirements of the Canada/United States Blueberry Certification Program." At the bottom are the letters "NJ-". "Specimen" is written diagonally across the label.

        or

        B. CFIA-Approved Treatment

        The fruit must be treated according to Schedule 7 in Appendix 6 of this directive.

        A Permit to Import is not required. A Phytosanitary Certificate indicating the treatment details is required.

        or

        C. Destined to a CFIA-approved processing plant

        The fruit must be destined to a CFIA-approved processing plant in Canada that is authorized to receive fruit from areas regulated for R. mendax. The processing plant must meet the conditions and procedures for handling fruit as specified in directive D-02-04.

        A Permit to Import is required. A Phytosanitary Certificate is not required.

Appendix 3: Approval Process for the Importation of Fresh Fruits from New Sources

The importation of plants, fresh fruit and other plant products is regulated by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) to prevent the introduction and spread of quarantine pests. Quarantine pests are plant pests which do not occur in Canada (or are limited in distribution and being officially controlled) and could cause significant economic damage to Canadian crops or forests.

Information on requirements for importation of fresh fruit that have been approved for importation may be obtained by consulting the online Automated Import Reference System (AIRS), or by contacting the Import Service Center (ISC) for your area.

If information obtained from the CFIA indicates "Prior Approval Required", steps must be taken to identify the pest risk associated with the commodity, evaluate potential mitigation measures, and determine if approval can be authorized.

The approval process can be a lengthy one which involves various steps and consultations with a diverse range of stakeholders.

A pest risk analysis (PRA) must be conducted to identify the quarantine pests that are associated with the commodity produced in the exporting country and that could be introduced via material shipped to Canada. Fees related to PRA development will apply.

The information gathered during the PRA process may be used for the development of a Risk Management Decision (RMD) document which outlines the options considered to allow the import of the commodity and records the decision made by the CFIA.

In some cases, no specific phytosanitary import requirements will be required, and the product could readily be allowed entry into Canada. In other cases, pest mitigation measures which have been previously established will be acceptable, or the CFIA will ask the exporting country's NPPO to propose a PSMS that will minimize the risk of the introduction of quarantine pests identified in the PRA, to the satisfaction of the CFIA. Pest risk management measures can be considered as any combination of biological, chemical, cultural or plant-breeding measures whereby the use of chemical plant protection products is limited to the strict minimum necessary to maintain the pest population at levels below those causing economically unacceptable damage or loss. Some examples of the various types of measures that may be used, singly or in combination, are pest monitoring and control during the growing season, post-harvest treatments, sampling, and inspection.

An on-site audit by the CFIA may be required to evaluate the proposed program. If the PSMS is approved, a trial importation period may be required so that CFIA can assess the effectiveness of the program in operation. Shipments may be subject to inspection on arrival by the CFIA. Should quarantine pests be discovered in the shipments, or if other problems occur, changes may be required to the PSMS, or importation may be suspended.

The following summarizes the steps required for the completion of the approval process for fresh fruit from new sources:

  1. The Canadian importer submits an Application for a Permit to Import, requesting that a PRA be conducted (check box on the first page of the application). An electronic version of the application form can be found on-line.
    • Information on application, procedures, issuance and use of a Permit to Import may be found in the directive D-97-04. The importer must include a brief description of the proposed importation with the application, including the scientific (botanical) name of the commodity proposed for import, country of origin, end use of product (e.g., propagation, consumption), as well as any pertinent information on the fruit production (e.g., known culture practices, pests, existing certification programs). An importer must be a Canadian citizen or permanent resident, who is authorized to live in Canada for six months or more, or, in the case of a corporation with a place of business in Canada, is an agent or officer of the corporation and resides in Canada. An information guide can also be found on-line.
  2. Once the application is reviewed, the CFIA will request specific information from the NPPO of the exporting country regarding the pests associated with the fruit product in that country, including: pests associated with the commodity, pests distribution and biology, pest management practices, certification programs, etc. 
  3. If the exporting country's NPPO is unable to provide the CFIA with the requested technical information, the CFIA may be unable to complete the PRA, therefore the fruit in question will not be allowed entry into Canada. 
  4. Upon receipt of the exporting country's NPPO supplied information, the CFIA will conduct a PRA and may request further information if necessary. Upon completion of the PRA, the CFIA will determine whether or not the commodity can be imported, and request that the exporting country put in place appropriate pest risk management measures. The CFIA will also determine import requirements that are specific to the commodity. 
  5. The exporting country's NPPO may be required to develop a Phytosanitary Management System (PSMS) to address the quarantine pests identified in the PRA. Some examples of the various types of measures that may be used, singly or in combination, include pest monitoring and control during the growing season, treatments, sampling and inspection. More details are provided in Appendices 4 and 5. 
  6. The CFIA reviews the pest risk management measures, or the PSMS, that are put in place by the exporting country and may request an on-site inspection of growing sites, packing facilities, etc. 
  7. If the proposed program is approved, importation may be subject to a trial importation period to evaluate the effectiveness of the program in operation, and ensure that the exporting country can consistently meet Canada's import requirements. During this time, shipments must meet any additional conditions that may apply to the trial period only (refer to section 2.2.2.3 for details). 
  8. If non-compliant shipments are detected, import requirements may be modified, the trial period may be extended or importation may be suspended.

Note: The order in which the steps are taken may vary, depending on the commodity. If, at any stage, the exporting country's NPPO does not provide adequate or requested information, the approval process will be interrupted until the information is provided to the CFIA.

Appendix 4: General Guidelines for the Implementation of a Phytosanitary Management System (PSMS) for the Export of Fresh Fruit to Canada

The PSMS is a written description of procedures or processes designed to eradicate, control or suppress pest populations to a level that meets the Canadian import requirements.

When the implementation of a PSMS is chosen as an export option, each approved production site and packing facility must develop a PSMS manual which ensures consistent compliance with the phytosanitary standards set forth by the NPPO of the exporting country in order to meet the Canadian import requirements. The PSMS procedures must be documented in the PSMS manual, which must be approved by the NPPO of the exporting country. Once the manual has been approved, the PSMS procedures must be implemented at the participating facility. The participant must designate a PSMS manager to be appropriately trained in order to ensure and enforce the requirements of the PSMS. Elements that must be included in the PSMS are described in this appendix.

The participant must conduct regular internal audits to ensure that the elements of the PSMS manual are fully implemented and followed at all production stages. The NPPO must also conduct an annual external audit of the packing facility and the production site prior to harvest. The CFIA will conduct foreign site audits once a year during the trial period. Further audits may be required and conducted at a later time.

Integrity of the traceability chain must be maintained in a manner that will allow any trace back or trace forward activities "from tree to shipping cartons".

1. Pest and Commodity Specific Requirements

The CFIA may require the PSMS to include mandatory best management practices (BMPs), specific work instructions and procedures, additional examinations, and/or testing for fruit that has regulated pest considerations.

The PSMS must outline any sampling, testing, treatments, cultural practices, BMPs, or other measures in place to ensure that the product meets all of the phytosanitary requirements necessary to certify the product. The approved production site and packing facility must ensure that all pest and commodity specific requirements are met prior to shipping. The names and qualifications of any laboratories used for testing must be included in the PSMS manual. The PSMS manual must be readily available at all locations for use by employees involved in implementing the PSMS.

2. Maps of the Production Site or Facility

Maps of the production site or packing facility approved under the PSMS must indicate the flow of fruit through the facility and must be labelled to identify the production lots, shipping and receiving areas, processing, handling, cold storage, and shipping areas, and any areas that are referred to in the PSMS records.

3. Registered Production Sites

Production sites wishing to participate in the PSMS must occupy a continuous piece of land that is measurable, planted exclusively with fruit-producing plants of the same genus, and kept separated from non-registered production sites by physical borders (e.g., ditch, fence, hedge, etc.) Production sites must apply for registration by contacting their NPPO, which must conduct a systems audit prior to approval of the PSMS manual and must register each production site, at the beginning of each growing season. A systems audits is a systematic examination of the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources used in implementing the PSMS. A unique identification number must be issued to approved production sites by the NPPO. A list of registered production sites, including their unique identification numbers, must be provided to the CFIA at least four weeks prior to the beginning of the shipping season.

The production site specific PSMS must describe the measures that are in place to ensure that all fruit material produced in the registered production site is grown in a manner that ensures that it remains free of pests regulated by Canada, practically free of non-regulated plant pests, free of soil and related matter, leaves, and plant debris, and that the risk of introducing and transmitting fruit pests is mitigated.

4. Packing Facilities

Packing facilities must source the fruit material for export to Canada only from production sites that were audited, approved and registered by the foreign NPPO. Facilities wishing to participate in the NPPO PSMS must apply for registration by contacting their NPPO which must conduct a systems audit prior to approval and registration of the facility. A unique identification number must be issued by the NPPO to approved facilities. A list of registered packing facilities, including their unique identification number, must be provided to the CFIA at least four weeks prior to the beginning of the shipping season.

The facility specific PSMS manual must describe the measures that are in place to ensure that all fruit material entering the facility is free of pests regulated by Canada, practically free of non-regulated plant pests, free of soil, leaves, and plant debris and that the risk of introducing and transmitting fruit pests is mitigated.

The facility must have a system in place to ensure fruit material from registered production sites is received, handled, processed and stored separately from fruits originating from non registered sources. These safeguards must be in force as long as registered fruits are on the premises. In addition, registered fruit material approved for export to Canada must remain separated from other registered fruit material and should not be integrated into the facility production system until a visual examination of the material is completed by trained personnel. Once the material has been inspected and is determined to be free of regulated fruit pests and practically free of other pests it may be moved into the production or shipping areas of the facility or packing house. If pests are found, pest control measures and pest exclusion measures must be taken immediately. Details of all examinations, including a description of any pests found and corrective actions taken must be recorded.

5. Processing Areas (Facilities)

All fruit material in a facility processing area must be examined by the PSMS Manager or designated staff according to the methods, frequency and intensity specified in the PSMS. Details of all examinations, including a description of any pests found and corrective actions taken must be recorded.

6. Staff Training

Production sites and facilities must ensure that their staff is appropriately trained and has the knowledge to fully deliver the activities of the PSMS. Training records documenting the type of training provided (e.g., pest identification, pest control, etc.), attendance and marks should also be maintained.

7. Cold Storage Rooms, Shipping Areas, and Export Shipments

The Phytosanitary Manager or designated staff must examine the cold storage rooms and shipping areas when shipments are being prepared to prevent pest contamination and to ensure that the phytosanitary requirements are met. Each shipment of fruit material that is to be certified under the NPPO PSMS must be examined for pests at the time of shipping. Details of all examinations, including a description of any pests found and corrective actions taken must be recorded.

The Facility must establish adequate handling, storage and delivery procedures and ensure that the product that has been examined and verified free of pests is not contaminated by pests prior to its receipt by the consignee. Fruit product that has been examined and verified free of pests must be kept separated from non-verified material. Detailed inventory records for receiving, processing and storage rooms must be maintained showing daily confirmed balances.

8. Pest Detection

The CFIA will provide a list of pests regulated by Canada to the exporting country's NPPO, which in return should provide a list of pests detected in the production sites or facilities which will be reviewed by the CFIA.

The production sites and the packing facilities must maintain a pest log which records the date, the person carrying out the examination, a description of the damage, symptoms, or pest finds, identifications, recommended corrective measures (e.g. treatments), evaluation of corrective measures, efficacy and submissions to laboratories, etc. The NPPO must be notified immediately of any pest finds of significance, which in turn will notify the CFIA. Examples of such situations are: a typical or uncommon pest damage or symptoms, a new pest detected in an area of production, or when a new regulated pest is suspected. In the event of an infestation by a regulated pest, the NPPO should work co-operatively with the production site or packing facility personnel to ensure that effective controls are exercised by the facility to eradicate the pest and to minimize the effects to the producer. Failure to notify the NPPO when a new regulated pest is found by the production site or packing facility personnel is considered a critical non-conformance which will result in immediate suspension from the Export Certification Program.

9. Pest Control and Pest Exclusion

Pest control strategies must be utilized to ensure that the production site or packing facility remains free of regulated pests and that fruit material shipped by the production site or facility is free of all regulated pests and practically free of non-regulated pests.

The tolerance for non-regulated pests in the production site or packing facility depends on the phytosanitary risk they present to certified fruit material and whether the integrity of the PSMS is being compromised. Pest control and exclusion strategies must be documented in the PSMS and may include cultural, physical, biological and/or chemical controls. Treatments and cultural practices must be applied in a manner that mitigates the risk of spreading pests and contaminating other products. Records must be kept verifying that a treatment was applied, when, by whom, for what reason and whether the treatment was effective.

10. Control of Non-Conforming Product

The PSMS must describe how non-conforming product is identified and treated and what measures are in place to ensure that fruit material that does not meet the phytosanitary requirements of this directive is not shipped to Canada. Culled fruit material must be disposed of in a manner that minimizes the risk of infesting other fruit material and the environment. The PSMS must include procedures for sampling and testing fruit material and production lots in order to detect pests of concern that are not easy to discover by visual inspection alone and for notifying the PSMS Manager and the foreign NPPO if product is contaminated, or suspected to be contaminated, with a regulated pest.

11. Record Maintenance

Records verifying that the PSMS has been implemented, including details of all examinations, pest finds and corrective actions must be maintained for three (3) years. Records pertaining to product identity and traceability must be maintained for five (5) years. Refer to Appendix 5 for a checklist of the elements to be included in the Manual.

Please note that a record is considered as a piece of evidence or information constituting an account of something that has occurred. For the purposes of this directive, a record is used to verify continuous compliance with the PSMS and to demonstrate that procedures have been carried out as specified in the PSMS Manual. Records must include the date that the activity was carried out, the signature of the designated person that carried out the activity, specific information related to the activity, comments, and notes describing any deviations from described procedures.

12. Non-Compliance

An approved production site or packing facility that is not able to maintain the required phytosanitary conditions, does not implement corrective actions in a timely manner, or is found violating any condition of the PSMS will be advised in writing by the NPPO of the exporting country that their material no longer meets the Canadian import requirements, as stipulated in this policy directive.

Production sites, facilities, or packing houses that have not met the PSMS manual requirements will not be allowed to ship to Canada for the current shipping season and until the exporting country's NPPO is satisfied that all corrective measures were taken to bring the facility into compliance with the PSMS manual. Suspended production sites or packing facilities can re-submit a PSMS manual at the beginning of the next shipping season and must be audited by their NPPO prior re-approval.

Appendix 5: PSMS Checklist

The PSMS Manual must describe the procedures implemented by the facility to ensure compliance with all the Canadian import phytosanitary requirements. The PSMS Manual consists of a general overview of the orchard or facility and describes the activities carried out to implement and maintain the Phytosanitary Management System (PSMS).

Note: The following checklist is designed to be a guideline for production sites and packing facilities developing a PSMS Manual. All the described elements may not be included because of the differences in cultural, production, processing, and shipping practices. Manuals developed by exporters, in conjunction with the exporting country's NPPO, must be reviewed by the CFIA prior to approval. An on-site audit conducted by the CFIA may be required.

I. General Requirements

  • The PSMS Manual must be type written, dated and signed by the Phytosanitary Manager and the NPPO representative, and include a version number.
  • The title page must include the name and address of the packing facility or the orchard, the date, and the name of the person(s) who prepared the document.
  • An amendment sheet must be included that provides space to document any additions, omissions or changes to the document, the date they were made and who authorized the changes.
  • A general description of the packing facility's or production site's business including:
    • area under production (if applicable)
    • brief description of production, shipping and receiving locations
    • target markets (local, inter-provincial, other exporting countries).

Note: This information could be provided in the form of a company brochure, if available.

  • A statement of commitment to the NPPO by management of the packing facility or orchard.
  • List of facility management names and titles.
  • Name, title, qualifications, specific duties and responsibilities of all staff involved in implementing the PSMS, such as:
    • PSMS Manager
    • Grower
    • Pesticide Applicator
    • Fruit Inspection Manager
    • Shipping Manager
    • Cold Storage Manager
    • Processing Manager
    • Pest Control Manager
    • Other
  • Training plans for the staff involved in implementing the PSMS.

II. Phytosanitary Management system (PSMS)

A. Fruit Material
  • Description of measures in place to ensure that documentation is maintained.
  • Description of a record keeping system that verifies that all fruit material produced under the PSMS meets the Canadian phytosanitary requirements outlined in this directive.
  • Description of measures in place to ensure that sourced fruit material is free of pests of concern and that the risk of introducing and transmitting fruit pests is mitigated.
B. Product Identity (traceability)
  • Description of procedures for maintaining product identity within the packing facility or the orchard from the harvested tree to the shipping area.
  • Description of procedures for tracing product forward and backward from the orchard or facility.
C. Control of Non-Conforming Product
  • Description of the procedures in place to ensure that non-conforming product does not contaminate other products.
  • Description of the procedures in place to ensure that facility staff immediately notifies the PSMS Manager of any products found not to conform to the requirements of the PSMS.
  • Specific work instructions for handling and/or disposing of fruit material that is contaminated with pests.
  • Description of the procedures used to maintain detailed records of all non-conformances, corrective actions, audits and follow-up examinations to verify compliance with the PSMS manual.
D. Internal Audits
  • Description of the procedures in place to ensure that one internal system audit and three internal surveillance audits are conducted per production season and that an audit report is prepared within two weeks of performing each audit.
  • Description of how internal audits will be conducted and by whom.
  • Templates of the internal audit reports and checklists.
  • Templates of Corrective Action Requests and Observation Reports generated by the facility.
E. Corrective Action Requests
  • Description of the procedures in place to ensure that Corrective Action Requests are generated for each non-conformance that is detected by the packing facility or production site personnel.
  • Description of the procedures in place to ensure that non-conformances are classified as being either critical, major, or minor in nature.
  • Description of the procedures in place to ensure that corrective actions are completed in a timely fashion.
  • Description of the procedures in place to prevent recurrences of non-conformances, including amendments to the PSMS Manual.
  • Description of the procedures used to ensure immediate notification of the NPPO regarding the presence, or suspected presence, of any critical non-conformance in the packing facility or production site.
F. Records and Documents
  • Develop forms that can be used to describe and verify the implementation of the PSMS.
  • Describe procedures for ensuring that records that pertain to product identity (traceability) and trace back / trace forward of certified fruit material are maintained and retrievable for five (5) years. Other records that are required by the PSMS manual must be maintained for a minimum of three (3) years.
  • Describe the procedures for maintaining the following documents, reports and records:
    • Internal audit reports and records including the non-conformances identified and the corrective, or preventative actions taken.
    • Copies of all NPPO audit reports.
    • Lists of all suppliers of fruit material or fruit propagation material (if applicable), indicating country of origin.
    • Domestic-origin fruit material or fruit tree propagation material: records that document the source of all nursery stock purchased within the country.
    • Import documentation: evidence of the NPPO Release Forms and invoices indicating the sources, type, quantity and dates of importation.
    • Copies of all invoices, bills of lading, and records of all fruit material shipped from a production site to a packing facility.
    • A system for maintaining training records.
    • Procedures to ensure that the most up-to-date versions of the following reference documents are readily available to individuals involved in implementing the PSMS manual:
      • List of pests regulated by Canada
      • Copies of this policy directive
      • Copies of the orchard or packing facility Manual.

III. Pest Management Plan

A. Maps of Certified Packing Facility or Production Site
  • Maps of the registered packing facility or production site.
    • Maps indicating the flow of fruit material through the packing facility or the orchard.
    • Maps labelled to identify the receiving, production, handling and shipping areas, and any areas that are referred to in the pest management records.
B. Production Site
  • Description of procedures to be followed if any non-regulated or regulated pests are found including the procedures for ensuring that the NPPO is notified immediately of any pest finds of significance.
  • Description of the records to be kept, including: a pest log for recording pest finds, damage and symptoms, identifications and submissions to laboratories, etc. The pest log must include the date the pest was detected, who detected it and where (what plants and where in the production site), identification, who made the identification, notes on damage and/or symptoms, whether control measures are required, and an evaluation of the efficacy of any control measures applied, including date and signature.
  • Description of all pest control strategies used to maintain freedom from pests and practical freedom from other injurious pests.
  • Description of the records to be kept, including a treatment log which records any treatments applied, including a description of the treatment, date of application, name of applicator, location, reason for treatment, evaluation of treatment efficacy, etc.
C. Incoming Fruit Material (Packing Facility)
  • Description of the measures in place at the facility level to ensure that all fruit stock entering is free of regulated pests to Canada and is practically free of non-regulated plant pests; and that the risk of introducing and transmitting fruit pests is mitigated.
  • Description of procedures to ensure that new fruit material remains physically separated from other fruit material at the facility until an examination of the material is completed and the material is found free of plant pests.
  • Description of procedures to be followed if non-regulated or regulated pests are found.
  • Description of the records to be kept, including: the date, person carrying out the examination, any pests, damage and/or symptoms found and any corrective actions taken.
  • Specific Work Instructions for inspecting incoming fruit material.
D. Examination of Processing Areas (Facility)
  • Description of the methods, frequency and intensity used to examine all fruit material.
  • Description of the records to be kept, including: the date, person carrying out the examination, any pests, damage or symptoms found, and any corrective actions taken.
E. Examination of Cold Storage Areas (Facility)
  • Description of the records to be kept, including: the temperature and humidity regime, the receiving date, the duration of cold storage period, and the date of Shipping/removal from cold storage/packing.
F. Examination of Shipping Areas and Export Shipments (Facility)
  • Description of the methods used to examine fruits in the shipping areas where shipments are being prepared to prevent pest contamination and to ensure that the phytosanitary standard is being met.
  • Specific work instructions describing the methods used to examine fruit material at the time of shipping.
  • Description of the procedures in place to ensure that product that has been inspected and verified free of pests has been kept separate from non-verified material.
  • Description of the handling, storage and delivery procedures in place that ensure that product that has been examined and verified free of pests is not contaminated by pests prior to its receipt by the consignee.
  • Description of the records to be kept, including: the date, person carrying out the examination, any pests, damage or symptoms found, and any corrective actions taken.
G. Control of Non-Conforming Product
  • List of the criteria for determining whether fruit material meets the requirements of this directive.
  • Description of procedures that will ensure expedient control or eradication of non-regulated pests discovered during examinations or audits.
  • Description of procedures that will ensure effective treatment or disposal of products that are contaminated by regulated or non-regulated fruit pests.
H. Records
  • Description of the procedures for maintaining written records that document all import, export and facility examinations and that indicate the type and quantity of material examined; the type and quantity of material intended for export; the date of examination; the name and signature of the person conducting the examination; any pests, damage or symptoms detected; the methods used to eradicate/control pests; methods used to evaluate the efficacy of any treatments; and the methods used to control any non-conforming product.
  • Description of the data collected from pest control and surveillance activities, or samples of forms used to record data.

Note: Once certified by the facility, the product may require inspection by the exporting country's NPPO inspectors prior to shipping. A Phytosanitary Certificate may be required.

Appendix 6: Methyl Bromide Fumigation Schedules for Fresh Fruit

Important Notice: As a signatory to the Protocol to the Vienna Convention on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol, 1987), Canada has entered the phase-out period for the use of Methyl Bromide for quarantine purposes. Exporting countries are encouraged to submit alternatives to Methyl Bromide fumigation for review.

Treatment Schedule 1:

Cold treatment at or below 1.1°C (33.98°F) for 40 days, followed by fumigation with methyl bromide according to schedule A or B below.

Schedule A: Methyl Bromide Fumigation Schedule for Fresh Fruit containing information on temperatures, dosage rates, and minimum concentration readings
Temperature Dosage Rate
Methyl Bromide
g/m3
Min. Conc. Readings at:
0.5 hr
g
Min. Conc. Readings at:
0.5 hr
oz
Min. Conc. Readings at:
2 hrs
g
Min. Conc. Readings at:
2 hrs
oz
10°C or above
50°F or above
48 44 44 36 36

Exposure for two hours is required at normal atmospheric pressure in a fumigation chamber or under tarpaulin (plastic field bins; maximum load factor 50 percent or less).

Schedule B: Methyl Bromide Fumigation Schedule for Fresh Fruit containing information on temperatures, dosage rates, and minimum concentration readings
Temperature Dosage Rate
Methyl Bromide
g/m3
Min. Conc. Readings at:
0.5 hr
g
Min. Conc. Readings at:
0.5 hr
oz
Min. Conc. Readings at:
2 hrs
g
Min. Conc. Readings at:
2 hrs
oz
15°C or above
59°F or above
38 35 35 29 29

Exposure for two hours is required at normal atmospheric pressure in a fumigation chamber or under tarpaulin (cardboard cartons only; maximum load factor 40 percent or less).

Treatment Schedule 2:

Shipments must be fumigated as described below at normal atmospheric pressure
Temperature Dosage Rate
Methyl Bromide
g/m3
Min. Conc. Readings at:
0.5 hr
g
Min. Conc. Readings at:
0.5 hr
oz
Min. Conc. Readings at:
2 hrs
g
Min. Conc. Readings at:
2 hrs
oz
27°C or above
80°F or above
24 19 19 14 14
21 - 26°C
70 - 79°F
32 26 26 19 19
16 - 20°C
60 - 69°F
40 32 32 24 24
10 - 15°C
50 - 59°F
48 38 38 29 29
5 - 9°C
41 - 49°F
64 48 48 38 38

Treatment Schedule 3:

Schedule A: Methyl Bromide at normal atmospheric pressure - Chamber, van container or tarpaulin
Temp. Dos. Rate
g/m3
Exp.
Time
- Hrs.
MCR at:
30 min
kg
MCR at:
30 min
oz
MCR at:
3 hrs
kg
MCR at:
3 hrs
oz
MCR at:
4 hrs
g
MCR at:
4 hrs
oz
MCR at:
5 hrs
kg
MCR at:
5 hrs
oz
MCR at:
6 hrs
kg
MCR at:
6 hrs
oz
32.2 - 35.5°C
90-96°F
64 3 2 58 1 34
26.7 - 31.6°C
80-89°F
64 4 2 58 0.9 32
21.1 - 26.1°C
70-79°F
80 4 2 72 1.2 42
15.5 - 20.5°C
60-69°F
80 5 2 72 1.1 40
9.5 - 15.4°C
50-59°F
96 6 2 85 1.4 50
4.4 - 9.4°C
40-49°F
96 6 2 85 1.4 48
Schedule B: Methyl Bromide in 26" vac
Temperature Dosage Rate
- g/m3
Exposure Time
- Hours
26.6 - 35.5°C
80 - 96°F
48 2
21.1 - 26.1°C
70 - 79°F
64 2
15.5 - 20.5°C
60 - 69°F
64 3
9.5 - 15.4°C
50 - 59°F
64 4
4.44 - 9.44°C
40 - 49°F
64 5

Treatment Schedule 4:

Temperature Dosage Rate
- g/m3
Exposure Time
- Hours
39 - 40°C
51.8 - 59°F
48 2
16 - 20°C
60.8 - 68°F
40 2
21 - 26°C
69.8 - 78.8°F
32 2
27 - 31°C
80.6 - 84.2
24 2

Treatment Schedule 5:

Shipments must be fumigated as described below at normal atmospheric pressure. After fumigation, then shipment must be maintained at a continuous temperature of 0°C for 21 days.
Temperature Dosage Rate
- g/m3
Exposure Time
- Hours
21°C
69.8°F
16 2
16°C
60.8°F
24 2

Treatment Schedule 6:

Shipments must be fumigated as described below at normal atmospheric pressure. This treatment is not acceptable for material in used containers destined to canneries.
Temperature Dosage Rate
- g/m3
Dosage Rate
- oz/1000 ft3
Exposure Time
- Hours
26 +°C
80 +°F
12 0.42 2.5
21 - 25°C
69.8 - 77°F
16 0.56 2.5
16 - 20°C
60.8 - 68°F
20 0.71 2.5
11 - 15°C
52 - 59°F
24 0.85 2.5

Treatment Schedule 7:

Shipments must be fumigated as described below at normal atmospheric pressure
Temperature Dosage Rate
- g/m3
Exposure Time
- Hours
27.7 +°C
82 +°F
32 2
22.2 - 27.2°C
72 - 81°F
32 2.5
16.6 - 21.6°C
62 - 71°F
32 3
10 - 16.1°C
52 - 61°F
32 3.5

Appendix 7: Directives Superceded by D-95-08

Directive number Directive Title
Permit Letter 24A Notice To Importers - Plant Protection Requirements: Importation of Fresh Fruit.
D-07-04 Canadian Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Blueberry Fruit (Vaccinium) from Uruguay
D-04-02 Plant Protection (phytosanitary) import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit from South Africa
D-03-13 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Apples (Malus spp.) from Brazil
D-03-11 Plant Protection import requirements for fresh pears Pyrus spp. from Japan
D-03-06 Plant protection (phytosanitary) import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit from Ecuador
D-02-11 Plant protection (phytosanitary) import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit from Chile
D-02-07 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Apples (Malus spp.) from the People's Republic of China
D-01-10 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Apples (Malus spp.) from the United Kingdom
D-01-09 Canadian Plant Protection import requirements for fresh strawberry fruit (Fragaria) from Argentina
D-01-08 Canadian Plant Protection import requirements for fresh blueberry fruit (Vaccinium) from Argentina
D-00-06 Plant protection (phytosanitary) import requirements for fresh grapes from Peru
D-00-01 Plant Protection (Phytosanitary) Import Requirements for Fresh Cherries from Spain
D-98-05 Plant protection import requirements for untreated fresh grapes from Australia
D-98-03 Plant Protection (phytosanitary) import requirements for fresh Asian pears from the Republic of Korea
D-96-22 Plant Protection Import Requirements for fresh strawberries from Gaza
D-96-17 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Grapes from Lebanon
D-96-16 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Grapes from Uruguay
D-96-06 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Blueberries from Chile
D-95-27 Plant protection import requirements for rubus fruits from Mexico (blackberries and raspberries)
D-95-25 Plant Protection Import Requirements for fresh Fuji Apples from Japan
D-95-23 Plant Protection import requirements for Fresh apples from the Republic of Korea
D-95-20 Phytosanitary Requirements for the importation of fresh grapes from Greece
D-95-19 Plant Protection import requirements for phytosanitary requirements for the blueberry fruit from Australia
D-95-08 The Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Fruit
D-94-37 Plant Protection Import Requirements for Prunus Fruit from South Africa
D-94-36 Plant Protection Import Requirements for pears from the Netherlands
D-94-32 Interim Policy for Plant Protection Import Requirements for Fresh Pears from the People's Republic of China
D-94-21 Plant Protection Import Requirements for grapes from Japan
D-94-19 Trial Importation of Apple fruit from Uruguay
D-94-15 Importation of fresh fruit of strawberry from Colombia and Blackberry from Costa Rica and Guatemala
D-94-05 Trial Importation of apple fruit from the Netherlands
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