D- 96-15: Phytosanitary requirements to prevent the spread of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in Canada and the United States

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Effective date: April 27, 2018
(12th revision)

Subject

This directive contains the phytosanitary requirements intended to prevent the spread of Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) by regulating the movement of plants and other articles within Canada as well as the import and export of plants with soil between Canada and the continental United States and Hawaii. This directive aims to ensure that Japanese beetle pest risks are mitigated and prevent the introduction of Japanese beetle to non-infested areas of Canada and the United States. Canada and the United States have adopted a harmonized approach to prevent the spread of Japanese beetle.

The following changes have been made as part of this revision:

  • A description and map of the regulated area that has been established in Vancouver, British Columbia has been added;
  • A reference to the Japanese beetle Ministerial Order in Vancouver, British Columbia has been included;
  • The application form for Japanese beetle certification programs has been updated;
  • The descriptions of the Japanese beetle regulatory categories has been updated to improve consistency with the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan;
  • Outdated information related to Japanese beetle surveillance has been removed; and
  • The text of the directive has been revised to clarify meaning and remove redundancies.

This document supersedes all previous versions of directive D-96-15.

Table of contents

1.0 Legislative authority

2.0 Definitions, abbreviations and acronyms

Definitions of terms used in this document can be found in the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures 5: Glossary of phytosanitary terms - PDF (512 kb) or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's (CFIA's) Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

3.0 Introduction

Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, is native to Japan and was first discovered in North America in 1916 in a nursery near Riverton, New Jersey, in the United States (U.S.). The first Japanese beetle found in Canada was in a tourist's car, arriving in Nova Scotia at Yarmouth by ferry from Maine, in 1939. During that same year three additional beetles were captured at Yarmouth and three more at Lacolle in Southern Quebec. Japanese beetle is considered to be established in Ontario, Quebec, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and in many U.S. states.

Japanese beetle is a regulated plant pest that attacks many economically important plants, such as fruit trees, ornamental shrubs, trees, field crops and turf grasses. Japanese beetle larvae feed primarily on grass roots and are a major turfgrass pest in golf courses, parks, lawns, and pastures. The adult beetles feed above-ground on foliage, flowers and fruits of more than 300 plant species.

The purpose of the directive is to mitigate the risk of human-assisted spread of Japanese beetle to new provinces/states and to facilitate the movement of commercial plants for planting within North America. This directive is designed to be consistent with the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan, a plan developed by the U.S. National Plant Board and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA-APHIS).

4.0 Scope

4.1 Regulated pests

Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman

4.2 Regulated articles

  • Plants with soil attached (from any area of infestation, as per Schedule II of the Plant Protection Regulations)
  • Soil (from regulated areas as described in the Japanese beetle Infested Place Order for the City of Vancouver, in the Province of British Columbia)
  • Plants and plant parts with no soil attached (from regulated areas as described in the Japanese beetle Infested Place Order for the City of Vancouver, in the Province of British Columbia)

4.3 Exempted articles

Exempted articles are not subject to movement restrictions. Exempted articles include things that are unlikely to be a pathway for the movement of P. japonica larvae, pupae or adults, including:

  • Plants and plant parts, including plant root systems (e.g. roots, rhizomes, tubers, corms, bulbs) that are substantially free from soilFootnote *;
  • Houseplants (non-commercial) which have been grown indoors and have not been set outdoors as patio plants; and
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables for consumption.

4.4 Regulated areas

The areas regulated under this directive are Canada, the continental United States and Hawaii. "United States" used in this directive indicates the continental U.S. states and the state of Hawaii.

Phytosanitary requirements are established based on the category number of the state/province/territory of origin of the plant material and the category number of the state/province/territory of destination. These categories are harmonized between Canada and the United States. The regulatory status of Canadian provinces and U.S. states is provided in Appendix 1. The Japanese beetle regulated area in British Columbia is described in Appendix 2.

States, provinces and territories are assigned to one of four regulatory categories as follows:

Category 1: Uninfested / Quarantine pest

  • Japanese beetle is not known to be established in the province/state based on annual official surveys; and
  • There is risk of entry via artificial means; and
  • Natural spread from an infested area is not imminent or likely; and
  • Pest impact can only be mitigated to an acceptable level by applying certification programs or protocols; and
  • Phytosanitary measures are in place to prevent the entry of Japanese beetle; and
  • Official control measures are put in place for any incursions or incipient populations.

Category 2: Uninfested or partially infested

  • Japanese beetle may be established in limited areas within the province/state but is not widespread, based on annual official surveys; and
  • Japanese beetle is likely to spread into or throughout the province/state by artificial means; and
  • Natural spread of Japanese beetle from infested areas over time is not preventable; and
  • Japanese beetle could survive in the province/state; and
  • Pest risk assessment expects moderate to low impact from Japanese beetle; and
  • Impact can be mitigated to an acceptable level by applying certification programs or protocols; and
  • Official control measures are put in place for any incipient populations; and
  • Phytosanitary measures are in place to prevent the entry of Japanese beetle.

Category 3: Partially or generally infested area

  • Infestations are sufficiently widespread that further natural spread cannot be effectively slowed; and
  • No official control, survey or other regulatory action is applied when Japanese beetle is detected; and
  • Regulation of host commodities is not likely to be effective; and
  • Specific phytosanitary measures are not in place to prevent the entry of Japanese beetle.

Category 4: Area not known to be infested / Unlikely to become established

  • Natural spread of Japanese beetle is not likely to occur or Japanese beetle is not likely to survive or become a pest; and
  • No official control, survey or other regulatory action is planned in the area if/when Japanese beetle is detected; and
  • Specific phytosanitary measures are not in place to prevent the entry of Japanese beetle.

5.0 General Requirements

Note: This directive describes only the phytosanitary requirements related to Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica. Other requirements may also apply. Please consult the list of Plant Health directives and the CFIA's Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) or contact the CFIA for details.

Plants with soil that are moved from a Category 1, 2, 3 or 4 province/territory/state to a Category 3 or 4 province/territory/ state do not require certification for freedom from Japanese beetle.

Plants with soil that are moved to a Category 2, 3 or 4 province/territory/state from a Category 2, 3 or 4 province/territory/state may not be considered free of Japanese beetle unless they have been certified as meeting the requirements to enter a Category 1 province.

Japanese beetle-certified shipments destined for Category 1 and 2 areas may transit through Category 2, 3 and 4 areas provided that the regulated commodities are safeguarded from infestation by Japanese beetle.

The phytosanitary requirements for Japanese beetle described in this directive may be administered under the Canadian Nursery Certification Program (CNCP), the Canadian Greenhouse Certification Program (CGCP), the United States Greenhouse Certification Program (USGCP) and the United States Nursery Certification Program (USNCP). Registered facilities must have appropriate Japanese beetle risk mitigation measures in place if they are located in Category 2, 3, or 4 areas and ship regulated articles to Category 1 or Category 2 areas under one of these programs. CGCP labels, CNCP Phytosanitary Certificates, USGCP labels and USNCP Phytosanitary Certificates are recognized in lieu of a Phytosanitary Certificate.

5.1 Certification programs specific to Japanese beetle

A number of Japanese beetle certification programs are available, in both Canada and the United States. The following Japanese beetle certification programs are available to Canadian facilities:

  • Japanese Beetle Pest-Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse Program (see Annex 1)
  • Japanese Beetle Greenhouse Plant Program (see Annex 2)
  • Japanese Beetle Nursery Management Program (see Annex 3)
  • Japanese Beetle Containerized Nursery Stock Program (see Annex 4)
  • Japanese Beetle Sod and Turfgrass Program (see Annex 5)

The application form for facilities seeking approval to participate in one or more of these programs is available in Appendix 3. The list of Canadian facilities approved under these programs can be found in Appendix 4.

Certification for freedom from Japanese beetle in the United States takes place according to the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan. Japanese beetle programs in the United States include:

  • U.S. Japanese Beetle Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse Program
  • U.S. Japanese Beetle Nursery Trapping Program
  • U.S. Japanese Beetle Field Grown Nursery Stock Accreditation Program
  • U.S. Japanese Beetle Containerized Nursery Stock Accreditation Program
  • U.S. Japanese Beetle Sod Program

5.2 Pest-free window

As an alternative to production under a certification program, plants may be produced during the pest-free window (the period of time during which Japanese beetle adults are not in flight). To qualify, the entire plant production cycle (planting, growth, harvest and shipment) must be completed outside the Japanese beetle adult beetle flight period (June 15 to September 30 in Canada and June 1 to September 30 in the United States). The plants must be grown in Japanese beetle-free commercial growing medium or field soil which has been sterilized (by steam heat to a temperature of 49°C for at least 15 minutes). If starter plants are used, the roots must be substantially free of soil or the plantlets must have been produced at a certified Japanese beetle-free facility or originate from a Category 1 province/state and must be safeguarded from Japanese beetle.

5.3 Regulatory Treatment

Pesticide drenches or dips may be used as a certification option for plants with soil, provided that the rootballs do not exceed the size restrictions specified below:

  • Balled and burlapped, potted and/or containerized plants with rootballs that are larger than 30 cm (12 inches) in diameter are not eligible for the regulatory treatment option if they are moving to a Category 1 area.
  • Balled and burlapped, potted and/or containerized plants with rootballs that are larger than 81 cm (32 inches) in diameter are not eligible for the regulatory treatment option if they are moving to a Category 2 area.

Plants must be safeguarded against re-infestation by Japanese beetle adults and larvae following treatment.

In Canada, regulated articles may only be treated with pest control products that are registered by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) and recognized as effective regulatory treatments against Japanese beetle. For guidance on product use, contact the PMRA or your provincial agriculture department. Pesticide application records associated with regulatory treatments to control Japanese beetle must be kept for a minimum of five years and must be made available to the CFIA upon request.

The CFIA recognizes the Japanese beetle regulatory treatments that are described in the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan as meeting Canada's import requirements for Japanese beetle.

6.0 Specific requirements for plants with soil

6.1 Domestic movement within Canada and export to the United States

Regulated articles that are exported to the United States must comply with USDA-APHIS's phytosanitary import requirements, including the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan.

Regulated articles that are moved domestically within Canada must comply with this directive and with other Canadian domestic movement requirements.

Additional Japanese beetle risk mitigation measures must be implemented during the adult Japanese beetle flight period to ensure consignments and conveyances are free of Japanese beetle and safeguarded from infestation.

Requirements for plants with soil moved domestically within Canada or exported to the United States from Canada
Origin Destination: Category 1 province/state Destination: Category 2 province/state
Category 1 provinces N/A Domestic movement requirements:
No Japanese beetle certification requirements.
Category 1 provinces N/A Export to United States:
Phytosanitary Certificate indicating the province/territory of origin, CGCP label or CNCP certificate.
Category 2, 3, 4 provinces and regulated areas in Category 1 provinces (Annex 2) Prohibitions:
Turf grass / sod
N/A
Category 2, 3, 4 provinces and regulated areas in Category 1 provinces (Annex 2)

Certification options:

  • Produced outside the Japanese beetle flight period (pest-free window), as per Section 5.2; or
  • Regulatory treatment, as per Section 5.3; or
  • Produced in compliance with the Japanese beetle Pest-free Greenhouse / Screenhouse Program (Annex 1); or
  • Produced in compliance with the Japanese beetle Greenhouse Plant Program (Annex 2); or
  • Produced in a Japanese beetle pest-free area.

Certification options:

  • Produced outside the Japanese beetle
  • Regulatory treatment, as per Section 5.3; or
  • Produced in a Japanese beetle pest-free area; or
  • Produced in compliance with the Japanese beetle Pest-free Greenhouse / Screenhouse Program (Annex 1); or
  • Produced in compliance with the Japanese beetle Greenhouse Plant Program (Annex 2).
  • Produced in compliance with the Japanese beetle Nursery Management Program (Annex 3); or
  • Produced in compliance with the Japanese beetle Containerized Nursery Stock Program (Annex 4); or
  • Produced in compliance with the Japanese beetle Sod and Turfgrass Program (Annex 5); or flight period (pest-free window), as per Section 5.2; or
  • Produced in a Japanese beetle pest-free area.
Category 2, 3, 4 provinces and regulated areas in Category 1 provinces (Annex 2) Domestic movement:
A Movement Certificate with the following additional declaration is required:
"The plant material meets the Japanese beetle requirements of Canada for Category 1 areas as described in directive D-96-15."
Domestic movement:
A Movement Certificate listing the following movement condition is required:
"The plant material meets the Japanese beetle requirements of Canada for Category 2 areas as described in directive D-96-15."
Category 2, 3, 4 provinces and regulated areas in Category 1 provinces (Annex 2)

Export to U.S.:
Regulated articles must be accompanied by one of the following:

  • CGCP label; or
  • CNCP certificate; or
  • Phytosanitary Certificate listing the following additional declaration:
    "The plant material meets the Japanese beetle Category 1 area requirements of the United States."

Export to U.S.:
Regulated articles must be accompanied by one of the following:

  • CGCP label; or
  • CNCP certificate; or
  • Phytosanitary Certificate listing the following additional declaration:
    "The plant material meets the Japanese beetle Category 2 area requirements of the United States."

6.2 Importation into Canada from the United States

A Permit to Import may be required depending on the plant species and state of origin.

Regulated articles that are exported to Canada from the United States must comply with the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan.

Regulated articles that are moved from a Category 1, 2, 3 or 4 state to a Category 3 or 4 province/territory do not require certification for freedom from Japanese beetle.

Additional Japanese beetle risk mitigation measures must be implemented during the adult Japanese beetle flight period to ensure consignments and conveyances are free of Japanese beetle and safeguarded from infestation.

Requirements for plants with soil imported into Canada from the United States
Origin Destination: Category 1 province/state Destination: Category 2 province/state
Category 1 States Requirements:
Phytosanitary Certificate indicating the state of origin, USGCP label or USNCP certificate.
Requirements:
Phytosanitary Certificate indicating the state of origin, USGCP label or USNCP certificate.
Categories 2, 3, 4 States and regulated areas in Category 1 States Prohibitions:
Turfgrass and sod
N/A
Categories 2, 3, 4 States and regulated areas in Category 1 States

Certification options:

  • Produced outside the Japanese beetle flight period (pest-free window); or
  • Regulatory treatment in accordance with the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan; or
  • Produced in an approved Japanese beetle-free greenhouse /screenhouse in accordance with the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan; or
  • Produced in a CFIA-recognized Japanese beetle pest-free area.

Certification options:

  • Produced outside the Japanese beetle flight period (pest-free window); or
  • Regulatory treatment in accordance with the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan; or
  • Produced in an approved Japanese beetle-free greenhouse /screenhouse in accordance with the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan; or
  • Certified in accordance with the U.S. Japanese Beetle Field Grown Nursery Stock Accreditation Program; or
  • Certified in accordance with the U.S. Japanese Beetle Containerized Nursery Stock Accreditation Program; or
  • Produced in a CFIA-recognized Japanese beetle pest-free area.
Categories 2, 3, 4 States and regulated areas in Category 1 States

Requirements:
Regulated articles must be accompanied by one of the following:

  • USGCP label; or
  • USNCP certificate; or
  • A Phytosanitary Certificate with the following additional declaration:
    "The plant material meets the Japanese beetle requirements of Canada for Category 1 areas as described in directive D-96-15."

Requirements:
Regulated articles must be accompanied by one of the following:

  • USGCP label; or
  • USNCP certificate; or
  • A Phytosanitary Certificate with the following additional declaration: "The plant material meets the Japanese beetle requirements of Canada for Category 2 areas as described in directive D-96-15."

7.0 Non-compliance

Imported articles may be inspected by the CFIA and must meet all requirements when reaching their first point of arrival in Canada. Articles that are found to be infested with pests of quarantine concern or are otherwise non-compliant will be refused entry to Canada, and may be ordered removed from the country or destroyed. Infested articles may be ordered treated prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests. The importer is responsible for all costs relating to treatment, disposal or removal of the articles, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken. The CFIA will advise USDA-APHIS of any non-compliance as per directive D-01-06: Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.

Domestic shipments originating in an area of infestation and destined to all other areas of Canada may be inspected by the CFIA and must meet the phytosanitary requirements in this directive. Products that are found to be infested with pests of quarantine concern or are otherwise non-compliant may be ordered returned or destroyed. Infested shipments may be ordered treated prior to disposal to prevent the spread of pests. The person in possession, care or control of the shipment is responsible for any and all costs relating to disposal, removal, rerouting or diversion to processing facilities, including costs incurred by the CFIA to monitor the action taken.

Facilities participating in one of the Japanese beetle programs described in this directive will be audited for compliance and suspended if they do not meet the program requirements.

8.0 References

8.1 Fees

The CFIA charges fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees, please contact your local CFIA office or visit the CFIA's Fees Notice website.

8.2 Supporting documents

9.0 Annex

Annex 1: Japanese Beetle Pest-Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse Program

Purpose

To provide for the production of Japanese beetle (JB) free, screened greenhouse/screenhouse grown nursery stock within an area infested with JB, including grasses and sedges which are excluded from the Japanese Beetle Containerized Nursery Stock Production Program.

Note: Grasses include all genera and species in the family Poaceae (Gramineae). Sedges include all genera and species in the family Cyperaceae.

Criteria

  1. The facility develops and implements a Japanese Beetle Management Plan (JBMP) which ensures that the criteria listed below are incorporated into their operation and will be achieved. The JBMP must include a map illustrating the layout of the facility. The facility must keep their JBMP and documentation up to date and must inform the local Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) office of any changes to their operations with respect to the program. All JBMP criteria activities must be documented.
  2. Soil, humus, compost, manure or other growing media introduced into the screened greenhouse/screenhouse must have been sterilized (by steam heat to a temperature of 49°C for at least 15 minutes) prior to entry. Commercially processed or prepared soil free growing materials are exempted from sterilization.
  3. The cuttings, crowns or rooted plants must be substantially free of soil or growing media before planting. Plant material from JB free areas, or approved under the Japanese Beetle Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse Program or the Japanese Beetle Greenhouse Plant Program, is permitted with soil or growing media.
  4. The plants must be maintained within the screened greenhouse/screenhouse at all times during the adult flight period.
  5. The screened greenhouse/screenhouse must be tightly constructed so that adult JBs cannot gain entry. Ventilation and other openings shall be screened or otherwise covered to prevent entry. A double door entry system must be installed. Excelsior pads and other materials used in the cooling ducts must be maintained in good condition. These requirements must be applied during the JB adult flight period (June 15 to September 30).
  6. No material potentially infested with JB is allowed into the approved screened greenhouse/screenhouse at any time.
  7. The plants and their growing medium must be stored, packed and shipped in a manner that prevents possible infestation while at the facility.
  8. Certified screened greenhouse/screenhouse nursery stock may not be transported into or through any JB infested areas unless identity is preserved and adequate safeguards are applied to prevent possible infestation.
  9. The screened greenhouse/screenhouse, stock and records will be audit-inspected at least once during the JB adult flight period by a CFIA inspector or persons authorized by the CFIA and must be specifically approved as JB secure and compliant facilities. Root systems of potted plants may be examined.
  10. The facility must regularly monitor the plants and interior of the screened greenhouse/screenhouse for the presence of JB and immediately notify the CFIA of any detections.

Administrative procedures

Each screened greenhouse/screenhouse operation must submit annually by April 1 a completed application form (see Appendix 3) to the CFIA. The facility must be inspected, staff interviewed and documentation reviewed by persons authorized by the CFIA prior to June 15. The facility application must be approved by a Program Officer of the CFIA as having met and maintained the requirements described in the criteria above. This approval will be valid until the annual expiry date of June 15 of the following year. Records associated with this program must be kept for five years and made available to the CFIA upon request.

Annex 2: Japanese Beetle Greenhouse Plant Program

Purpose

To provide for the production of Japanese beetle (JB) free greenhouse plants within an area infested with JB. Greenhouse plants and environments are viewed as low risk for JB infestation. Greenhouse plants are species commonly known and recognized as indoor foliage, flowering plants and plants categorized as bedding plants for planting either indoors or outdoors. The following groupings comprise the majority of greenhouse grown plants: bedding plants, cacti, flowering house plants, foliage house plants, orchids, potted bulb plants and succulents.

Note: Grasses (Gramineae or Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae), preferred hosts of JB, are not admissible for certification under this program and may not be present within the certified greenhouse. These plants may instead be grown under the JB Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse Program (see Annex 1).

Exemption: Grasses and sedges may be present within facilities exclusively for use as banker plants (open rearing systems for biological control agents).

Criteria

  1. The facility develops and implements a Japanese Beetle Management Plan (JBMP) which ensures that the criteria listed below are incorporated into their operation and will be achieved. The JBMP must include a map illustrating the layout of the facility. The facility must keep their JBMP and documentation up to date and must inform the local Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) office of any changes to their operations with respect to the program. All JBMP criteria activities must be documented.
  2. Soil, humus, compost, manure or other growing media introduced into the greenhouse/screenhouse must have been sterilized (by steam heat to a temperature of 49°C for at least 15 minutes) prior to entry. Commercially processed or prepared soil free growing materials are exempted from sterilization.
  3. The cuttings, crowns or rooted plants must be substantially free of soil or growing media before planting. Plant material from JB free areas, or approved under the Japanese Beetle Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse Program or the Japanese Beetle Greenhouse Plant Program, is permitted with soil or growing media.
  4. The plants must be maintained within the greenhouse at all times.
  5. When banker plants are used, they shall be employed as per Best Management Practices as described in provincial production guides.
  6. No material potentially infested with JB is allowed into the approved greenhouse at any time.
  7. The greenhouse must be maintained within a minimum 3.0 metre vegetation-free border around the structure which serves as a ground barrier against JB. If the greenhouse has screened sidewall vents to prevent JB entry or no side wall vents, a 1.0 metre vegetation-free border is allowed along those walls. These borders shall be maintained from May 15 until October 31.
  8. The plants and their growing medium must be stored, packed and shipped in a manner that prevents possible infestation while at the facility.
  9. Certified greenhouse plants may not be transported into or through any JB infested areas unless identity is preserved and adequate safeguards are applied to prevent possible infestation.
  10. The greenhouse, stock and records will be audit-inspected at least once during the JB adult flight period by a CFIA inspector or persons authorized by the CFIA and must be specifically approved as in compliance. Root systems of potted plants may be examined.
  11. The facility must regularly monitor the plants and interior of the greenhouse for the presence of JB and immediately notify the CFIA of any detection.

Administrative procedures

Each greenhouse operation must submit annually, by April 1, a completed application form (see Appendix 3) to the CFIA. The facility must be inspected, staff interviewed and documentation reviewed by persons authorized by the CFIA prior to June 15. The facility application must be approved by a Program Officer of the CFIA as having met and maintained the requirements described in the criteria above. This approval shall be valid until the annual expiry date of June 15 of the following year. Records associated with this program must be kept for five years and made available to the CFIA upon request.

Annex 3: Japanese Beetle Nursery Management Program

Purpose

To provide for the production of Japanese beetle (JB) free nursery stock grown at nursery sites or individual nursery fields located within a JB infested area.

Note: Grasses (Gramineae or Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae), preferred hosts of JB, are not admissible for certification under this program and may not be present within the certified area. These plants may instead be grown under the JB Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse Program (see Annex 1).

Criteria

  1. The facility develops and implements a Japanese Beetle Management Plan (JBMP) which ensures that the criteria listed below are incorporated into their operation and will be achieved. The JBMP must include a map illustrating the layout of the facility. The facility must keep their JBMP and documentation up to date and must inform the local Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) office of any changes to their operations with respect to the program. All JBMP criteria activities must be documented.
  2. A Critical Zone free of vegetation must be established before weeds begin to grow and maintained throughout the adult flight period within the plant rows to a width of at least 30 cm wider on all sides than the largest anticipated soil ball to be taken when harvesting plants.
  3. Treatment practices may be incorporated in the JBMP to ensure that the risk of introducing JB into nursery fields is minimized. These could include but are not limited to:
    • Bio-control methods (i.e., microbial products and parasitic nematodes);
    • Adult treatments (in combination with adult trapping);
    • Larval treatments;
    • Weed control; and
    • Pest monitoring.
  4. The facility, stock and records will be audit-inspected at least once during the JB adult flight period by a CFIA inspector or persons authorized by the CFIA and must be specifically approved as in compliance.

    If and only if Criteria 1, 2, 3 and 4 are complied with, proceed to 5, 6 and 7.

  5. Freedom from JB larvae must be based on soil surveys conducted at the appropriate rate for individual fields (see table below). A field will be removed from the program if one JB larva is present in the samples collected. Sampling takes place separately from the audit-inspection visit and is conducted between September and May. Sampling is to be conducted under the supervision of persons authorized by the CFIA.
  6. The plants and their growing media must be stored, packed and shipped in a manner that prevents possible infestation while at the facility. This includes balled and burlapped stock, wire baskets and field potted plant material placed in holding yards (see criteria for holding yards below). The maximum time for which the plants can remain in a holding yard is 14 days. If plants are held in a yard for longer than 14 days, the yard must be certified under the JB Containerized Nursery Stock Program (see Annex 4).
  7. Certified nursery stock may not be transported into or through any JB infested areas unless identity is preserved and adequate safeguards are applied to prevent possible infestation.

Soil sampling rates for the Japanese Beetle Nursery Management Program

Determining numbers of soil samples to collect
Block/field size in hectares (acres) Cup cutter method Spade method
Block/field size in hectares (acres) Cup cutter method Spade method
0.0404 - 0.404 (0.1 - 1.0) 50 20
0.444 - 2.02 (1.1 - 5.0) 70 30
2.06 - 4.04 (5.1 - 10.0) 80 35
4.08 - 10.1 (10.1 - 25.0) 90 40
10.14 - 20.2 (25.1 - 50.0) 125 50
> 20.2 (50.0) 125 plus 2 samples for each additional 4.04 ha (10 acres) 50 plus 1 sample for each additional 4.04 ha (10 acres)

Criteria for holding yards

  1. Plant material must be maintained year-round within a minimum 3.0 metre vegetation-free border around the container growing area and on material which serves as a ground barrier against JB (e.g., gravel, plastic, hard-packed clay, landscape cloth, etc.).
  2. Certified lots shall be identified and segregated in a manner satisfactory to a person authorized by the CFIA.
  3. All plant material shall be maintained free of weeds year round.

Administrative procedures

Each nursery operation must submit annually by April 1 a completed application form (see Appendix 3) to the CFIA. The facility must be inspected, staff interviewed and documentation reviewed by persons authorized by the CFIA prior to June 15. The facility application must be approved by a Program Officer of the CFIA as having met and maintained the requirements described in the criteria. This approval shall be valid until the annual expiry date of June 15 of the following year. Documents, sampling records and maps shall be maintained and made available to the CFIA upon request. Records associated with this program must be kept for five years.

Annex 4: Japanese Beetle Containerized Nursery Stock Program

Purpose

To provide for the production of Japanese beetle (JB) free containerized nursery stock grown in JB infested areas. Containerized plant areas can be outdoor yards, pot-in-pot installations, opened hoop-houses and polyhouses.

Note: Grasses (Gramineae or Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae), preferred hosts of JB, are not admissible for certification under this program and may not be present within the certified area. These plants may instead be grown under the JB Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse Program (see Annex 1).

Criteria

  1. The facility develops and implements a Japanese Beetle Management Plan (JBMP) which ensures that the criteria listed below are incorporated into their operation and will be achieved. The JBMP must include a map illustrating the layout of the facility. The facility must keep their JBMP and documentation up to date and must inform the local Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) office of any changes to their operations with respect to the program. All JBMP criteria activities must be documented.
  2. Unapproved soil or growing media may not be introduced into the facility. Plant material brought into the facility must be transplanted to remove all unapproved soil and media. Soil or media from JB free areas, or certified under the Japanese Beetle Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse Program, the Japanese Beetle Greenhouse Plant Program, the Japanese Beetle Containerized Nursery Stock Program, or the Japanese Beetle Nursery Management Program, is approved. Plant material produced under these programs or originating from JB free areas is exempt from the requirement to transplant. For transplanting, commercially processed or prepared soil-free growing materials are approved. Field soil and other growing media are approved if sterilized by steam heat to a temperature of 49°C for at least 15 minutes.
  3. Potted plants must be maintained year-round within a minimum 3.0 metre vegetation-free border around the container growing area and on material which serves as a ground barrier against JB (e.g., gravel, plastic, hard-packed clay, landscape cloth, etc.).
  4. Certified lots must be identified and segregated in a manner satisfactory to a person authorized by the CFIA.
  5. All containers must be maintained free from weeds year round.
  6. The plants and their growing medium must be stored, packed and shipped in a manner that prevents possible infestation while at the facility.
  7. Certified nursery stock may not be transported into or through any JB infested areas unless identity is preserved and adequate safeguards are applied to prevent possible infestation.
  8. The facility, stock and records will be audit-inspected at least twice during the JB adult flight period by a CFIA inspector or persons authorized by the CFIA and must be specifically approved as in compliance. Examination of root balls is not required.

Administrative procedures

Each nursery operation must submit annually by April 1 a completed application form (see Appendix 3) to the CFIA. The facility must be inspected, staff interviewed and documentation reviewed by persons authorized by the CFIA prior to June 15. The facility application must be approved by a Program Officer of the CFIA as having met and maintained the requirements described in the criteria. This approval shall be valid until the annual expiry date of June 15 of the following year. Records associated with this program must be kept for five years and made available to the CFIA upon request.

Annex 5: Japanese Beetle Sod and Turfgrass Program

Purpose

To certify commercial turfgrass and sod farms located within a Japanese beetle (JB) infested area as being free from JB. Sod produced under this program may be shipped to uninfested Category 2 areas.

Criteria

  1. The facility must comply with one of the following two options. A facility may be composed of several production sites. Sites will be considered as separate if at least 250 metres apart.

    Option 1: Production within an established Japanese Beetle Free Production Site

    The facility develops and implements a Japanese Beetle Monitoring Plan which ensures that the criteria listed below are incorporated into their operation and will be achieved. The monitoring plan must include a map illustrating the layout of the facility. The facility must keep their plan and documentation up to date and must inform the local Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) office of any changes to their operations with respect to the program. All monitoring plan criteria activities must be documented.

    The facility must annually survey all sod production sites at a rate of 1 trap per 5 hectares (13 acres). There must be a minimum of 3 traps per site regardless of the size of the site. The traps must be placed around the perimeter of each site. CFIA-approved traps must be baited with a lure consisting of an attractant and a pheromone. Traps must be purchased, placed, monitored weekly and renewed by the facility at regular intervals. This trapping must be conducted annually during the adult flight period.

    If no beetles are captured at that site, the site meets the criterion for shipping sod to pest free Category 2 areas. If one or two beetles are captured in total for that site, the sod farm may maintain its JB free status provided that, in the judgement of the CFIA, the detection does not represent an established population of JB. If more than two beetles are captured in total from all traps, the sod production site is considered to be infested with JB. This infested site can be certified under Option 2 (see below).

    Detailed maps and trapping records must be maintained and made available to the CFIA upon request. All captured beetles must be presented to the CFIA. An infested site will retain its infested status until two consecutive years of negative trap surveys are completed.

    Or

    Option 2: Production at an infested site

    The facility develops and implements a Japanese Beetle Management Plan (JBMP) which ensures that the practices listed below are incorporated into their operation and will be achieved. The JBMP must include a map illustrating the layout of the facility. The facility must keep their JBMP and documentation up to date and must inform the local CFIA office of any changes to their operations with respect to the program. All JBMP criteria activities must be documented.

    Practices which must be incorporated in a JBMP include:

    1. Larval treatments: Sod must be treated according to product label directions with a pest control product registered by the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) which is recognized as an effective treatment against JB grubs.
    2. Adult treatments: Application of a JB adulticide program according to product label directions with a PMRA registered pest control product which is recognized as an effective treatment against JB adults. This treatment program must also be maintained on the sod farm periphery where adults are observed to be feeding. Large trees may be exempt as these may be difficult to spray.
    3. The facility should remove plant species upon which JB adults feed in areas adjacent to the production area (where practical; adjacent properties are exempt).

    For guidance on product use, contact the PMRA or your provincial agriculture department.

    Additional practices which could be incorporated include but are not limited to:

    1. Bio-control methods (i.e., microbial products and parasitic nematodes).
    2. Pest monitoring.
  2. The facility, fields and records shall be audit-inspected at least once in the latter half of the JB adult flight period for compliance by a CFIA inspector or persons authorized by the CFIA and must be specifically approved as in compliance.

    If and only if criteria 1 and 2 are complied with, proceed to 3, 4 and 5.

  3. Freedom from JB larvae is confirmed by inspection at the time of harvest (sod cutting). Inspection must be conducted by persons authorized by the CFIA.
  4. The sod and turfgrass must be stored, packed and shipped in a manner that prevents possible infestation while at the facility.
  5. Certified sod and turfgrass may not be transported into or through any JB infested areas unless identity is preserved and adequate safeguards are applied to prevent possible infestation.
Instructions to CFIA staff regarding inspection to certify freedom from JB larvae at time of harvest (sod cutting)

CFIA inspectors or persons authorized by the CFIA may choose one of the two following inspection options:

  1. Product inspection of each harvested shipment after it has been cut and stacked on pallets. The inspection shall include some destructive examination of 30 cm section samples of the cut sod.

    Or

  2. Field inspection of the crop. In each section to be harvested, the inspector will follow the sod cutter as it completes a pattern within the section of the field and inspect for JB larva. The inspector may require additional cuts in areas exhibiting symptoms of JB infestation or areas of preferred JB habitat.

If a JB larva is detected during inspection options a or b, that field is excluded from the Japanese Beetle Sod and Turfgrass Program.

Administrative procedures

Each facility must submit annually by April 1 a completed application form (see Appendix 3) to the CFIA. The facility must be inspected, staff interviewed and documentation reviewed by persons authorized by the CFIA prior to June 15. The facility application must be approved by a Program Officer of the CFIA as having met and maintained the requirements described in the criteria above. This approval will be valid until the annual expiry date of June 15 of the following year. Documents, sampling records and maps must be maintained and made available to the CFIA upon request. Records associated with this program must be kept for five years.

10.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Regulatory status of areas in Canada and the United States for Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica)

Regulatory status of areas in Canada and the United States for Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica)

Appendix 2: Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) regulated area in British Columbia

A regulated area for Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) has been established within the City of Vancouver, British Columbia based on detections of Japanese beetle during official surveys in 2017, and updated as required based on subsequent survey data.

Effective February 7 2019, the regulated area is defined as follows:

All parts of the City of Vancouver, in the Province of British Columbia, located within the area commencing at the point of intersection between Clark Drive and East 12th Avenue and proceeding westward along the centre of East 12th Avenue to Burrard Street;

Thence proceeding northward along the centre of Burrard Street to Cornwall Avenue;

Thence proceeding westward along the centre of Cornwall Avenue to Balsam Street;

Thence proceeding northward along the centre of Balsam Street to English Bay;

Thence following the high water mark northeastward along the shoreline of English Bay around Stanley Park and along the shoreline of Burrard Inlet eastward to Clark Drive;

Thence proceeding southward along the centre of Clark Drive to the initial point of intersection with East 12th Avenue.

Japanese Beetle - Regulated Area (Vancouver). Description follows.
Description of map – Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) regulated areas of Vancouver, British Columbia

This map shows the boundaries of the Japanese beetle regulated area in the City of Vancouver in British Columbia. The regulated area includes downtown Vancouver, the West End, Stanley Park, and False Creek and extends east to Clark Drive, south to 12th Avenue and west to Burrard Street, including Kits Point.

Japanese Beetle - Regulated Area (British Columbia). Description follows.
Description of map – British Columbia regulated areas: Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica)

This map shows the location of the Japanese beetle regulated area within the City of Vancouver in relation to the adjacent municipalities, including: West Vancouver, North Vancouver, Burnaby and Richmond are indicated. The regulated area is located in the north central part of the City of Vancouver.

Appendix 3: Application for approval under Japanese beetle programs

Note: This form is for use by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) in approving Canadian growers under one of the Japanese Beetle Program. Separate forms will be used by the appropriate agencies in the United States for approving American growers.

Application for approval under Japanese beetle programs for Canadian Producers

Compliance Agreement & Registration Application Form

PDF (103 kb)

A. Contact Information

Production Facility (Nursery/Greenhouse) Name: space

Owner / Manager: space
(name of person signing this agreement)

Mailing Address: space

Street Address: space

Telephone: space Email / Fax: space

Contact information of the CFIA pest control manager and alternate

  1. Primary Contact: space

    Position / Title: space

    Telephone: space Email: space

  2. Alternate Contact: space

    Position / Title: space

    Telephone: space Email: space

Participation in the Japanese beetle program(s) must be renewed as needed. The CFIA must receive a completed and signed application form from the facility by April 1st each year. Registration in the Japanese beetle program(s) and the Greenhouse Certification Program / Canadian Nursery Certification Program should be coordinated / combined.

B. Japanese Beetle Pest Management Program Options

Please select the Japanese Beetle Pest Management Program(s) for which you are applying and indicate (for each) whether this is your initial application or a renewal of an existing approval:

Initial Renewal
Japanese Beetle Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse Program checkbox checkbox
Japanese Beetle Greenhouse Plant Program checkbox checkbox
Japanese Beetle Nursery Management Program checkbox checkbox
Japanese Beetle Containerized Nursery Stock Program checkbox checkbox
Japanese Beetle Sod and Turfgrass Program checkbox checkbox

C. Compliance Agreement Requirements for the Japanese Beetle Program(s):

  1. The facility agrees to comply with the specific program requirements associated with the selected Japanese beetle program(s), as described in directive D-96-15: Phytosanitary requirements to prevent the spread of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in Canada and the United States.
  2. The facility must maintain all documents, records and maps associated with the regulated commodities produced under the Japanese beetle program(s) for five years. Documents, records and maps must be made available to the CFIA upon request.
  3. The facility will be inspected by the CFIA, at appropriate intervals. The facility agrees to cooperate with these audits.
  4. The facility agrees to immediately suspend all shipments of regulated commodities to Category 1 and 2 provinces/states if notified by the CFIA that the facility is in non-compliance.
  5. Approved facilities will be listed on the public CFIA website indicating the facility's status within the program(s). Should a facility be in non-compliance or suspended, the facility's name will be removed from the website and regulated plant material will not be permitted to be shipped to Category 1 and 2 provinces/states.

D. Applicant's statement:

I am the owner/manager and/or the legally authorized representative of the Production Facility.

I have read, understood and agree to comply with all the requirements outlined above and as set out in CFIA directive D-96-15: Phytosanitary requirements to prevent the spread of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in Canada and the United States.

I understand that the information I provide on this document is collected by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) under the authority of the Plant Protection Act for the purpose of preventing the spread of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in Canada and the United States. In relation to this, I understand/acknowledge that my personal information collected by the CFIA under Plant Protection Programs will be dealt with under the provisions of the Privacy Act and will be stored in Personal Information Bank CFIA IPP 155 and this information may be accessible or protected as required under the provisions of the Access to Information Act. I also acknowledge that this information will be retained for a period of 10 years in accordance with the Agency's retention and disposition policies.

space

Applicant Signature

space

Printed name

space

Date

E. Approval Statement from the CFIA (to be completed by CFIA Regional Program Officer or Inspector)

The above facility has been inspected and complies with all the requirements outlined in this agreement.

Date of inspection: space

I hereby approve the above-mentioned establishment for participation in the following selected Japanese Beetle Program(s):

  • Japanese Beetle Free Greenhouse/Screenhouse Program
  • Japanese Beetle Greenhouse Plant Program
  • Japanese Beetle Nursery Management Program
  • Japanese Beetle Containerized Nursery Stock Program
  • Japanese Beetle Sod and Turfgrass Program
space

Signature

space

Printed name

space

Date

Appendix 4: Facilities approved under a Japanese beetle certification program in Canada

Facilities approved under a Japanese beetle program

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