RMD-13-04: Consolidated Pest Risk Management Document for pest plants regulated by Canada
Appendix 2B: Risk Management Considerations for Alopecurus myosuroides (slender foxtail)

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Values at Risk

Alopecurus myosuroides is considered the most serious weed of winter cereals in Europe, reducing crop yield (CAB International 2007). Alopecurus myosuroides will most likely have the greatest impact on crops in Ontario, where winter wheat is produced. In 2008, approximately 650,000 tonnes (or 24 million bushels) of winter wheat were produced in the southwestern Ontario counties of Chatham-Kent, Essex and Lambton where Alopecurus myosuroides could potentially occur. This represents almost a quarter of winter wheat production in Ontario (OMAFRA 2009). Between the year 2000 and 2004, the average value of winter wheat production in Ontario was $250 million per year (OMAFRA 2009). Other crops that could be affected (to a lesser extent) by Alopecurus myosuroides in the respective counties include oats and barley with production values of 5,300 tonnes (85,000bu and 2,400 tonnes (112,000bu respectively in 2008 (OMAFRA 2009).

Potential Mitigation Measures for Natural Means of Dispersal

Wind is the main natural means of dispersal for Alopecurus myosuroides, but only over short distances. Given the current range, wind dispersion is an unlikely pathway for entry into Canada (Allison 2009); thus, no mitigation measures for natural means of dispersal are required at this time.

Potential Mitigation Measures for Intentional Introduction Pathways

No intentional introduction pathways were identified (Allison 2009). Alopecurus myosuroides is not available in Canada as an ornamental plant (CNLA 2009). Although no mitigation measures are currently needed, this pathway will still be regulated under the Plant Protection Act if this species is placed on the List of Pests Regulated by Canada and the Seeds Act if placed on the Weed Seeds Order.

Potential Mitigation Measures for Non-intentional Introduction Pathways

Field Crops Not Intended for Propagation

Previous imports

Potential risk mitigation measures

Regulate Alopecurus myosuroides as a quarantine pest under the Plant Protection Act and add this species to the List of Pests Regulated by Canada (CFIA 2009) in order to:

Regulatory actions under the Plant Protection Act could include one or more of the following:

Trade implications

Cost-effectiveness and Feasibility

Seed

Previous imports

Potential risk mitigation measures

Regulate Alopecurus myosuroides as a prohibited noxious weed (Class 1) under the Weed Seeds Order of the Seeds Act Footnote 2.

This species meets the definitions for Class 1 Footnote 3 species under the Weed Seeds Order.

All imported and domestic seed lots must be free of prohibited noxious weed seeds. Imported seed lots would require a certificate of analysis stating Alopecurus myos uroides is absent from the seed lot before it can be imported.

Regulate Alopecurus myosuroides as a quarantine pest under the Plant Protection Act and add this species to the List of Pests Regulated by Canada (CFIA 2009) in order to:

Regulatory actions could include one or more of the following:

Trade implications

Cost-effectiveness and Feasibility

Hay and Straw

Previous imports

The total value of hay and straw imports was around $13 million in 2008; 98% of this value came from the U.S. (Industry Canada 2009).

Potential risk mitigation measures

Regulate Alopecurus myosuroides under the Plant Protection Act as a quarantine pest by placing it on the List of Pests Regulated by Canada in order to:

Regulatory actions could include one or more of the following:

Trade implications

Cost-effectiveness and Feasibility

Resources will be needed by CFIA for marketplace monitoring and sampling, inspector training, and communication material development.

Vehicles and Used Farm Machinery

Previous imports

Potential Risk mitigation measures

Enforcement of the Directive 95-26: "Phytosanitary requirements for soil and related matter, alone or in association with plants" (CFIA 2008).

In 2003, the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) assumed responsibility for the initial import inspection services in respect of the Acts and Regulations administered by the CFIA to the extent that they are applicable at Canadian border points. The inspections of goods that may be contaminated with soil are among the responsibilities that were transferred to the CFIA in 2003. The Food, Plant and Animals Programs Section of the CFIA is currently finalizing its Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) concerning the "Inspection of Imported Goods Potentially Contaminated with Soil." This SOP provides the CFIA's Border Services Officers with formal procedures for the inspection and disposition of goods that may be contaminated with soil, including used agricultural machinery and vehicles.

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