RMD-13-04: Consolidated Pest Risk Management Document for pest plants regulated by Canada
Appendix 10B: Risk Management Considerations for Paspalum dilatatum (Dallis grass)

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Potential Mitigation Measures for Natural Means of Dispersal

According to Allison (2009) it is unlikely that natural dispersal will allow the species to enter Canada, as established populations are in the southern states.

Potential Mitigation Measures for Intentional Introduction Pathways

Plants for Planting excluding Seed

Paspalum dilatatum is not reported to occur in Canada, and no evidence was found that it is cultivated in Canada. Paspalum dilatatum, as an ornamental plant, is not available in Canada (CNLA 2009).

Previous imports

The CFIA requires a Permit to Import, with the scientific and common names, for all plants and propagative material from origins other than the continental U.S. (CFIA 1997; CFIA 2009). Some plants from the continental U.S. also require a Permit to Import as listed in CFIA (2009). The CFIA has not issued a Permit to Import for Paspalum dilatatum plants in the past three years (CFIA internal data).

Potential risk mitigation measures

Non-regulatory measures

Currently, no specific non-regulatory measures are required.

Regulatory measures

Regulate Paspalum dilatatum as a quarantine pest under the Plant Protection Act and add this species to the List of Pests Regulated by Canada.

Trade Implications

As Paspalum dilatatum is mainly used for pasture and soil retention in tropical and subtropical regions and is not cultivated in or imported into Canada as plants or seed, the regulation of Paspalum dilatatum is not expected to have a significant impact on trade.

Cost-effectiveness and Feasibility

CFIA plant health programs are already in place to prevent the entry of prohibited plant materials. Measures under the Plant Protection Act are already in place for other pests regulated by Canada (CFIA 2009).

Seed

Previous imports

Seed of new crop species, such as field crops, can be imported without a Permit to Import or a Phytosanitary Certificate. There is no regulatory policy or application process in place to adequately control these imports.

Potential risk mitigation measures

Regulate Paspalum dilatatum as a Class 1 prohibited noxious weed under the Weed Seeds Order of the Seeds Act Footnote 2.

Regulate as a quarantine pest under the Plant Protection Act. Add this species to the List of Pests Regulated by Canada(CFIA 2009) in order to:

Regulatory actions under the Plant Protection Act could include the following:

Require importers of plant material from the non-continental U.S. to apply for a Permit to Import with scientific name specified.

Sufficient information about the use of Paspalum dilatatum as a potential crop does not exist. If the proponent, located in Canada, needs to collect more information about the plant (e.g. to generate data for a determination of environmental safety), then confined research trials under Part V of the Seeds Regulations could be authorized by the Plant Biosafety Office.

Trade Implications

Cost-effectiveness and Feasibility

The CFIA Seed Program is already in place to prevent the entry of prohibited noxious weeds.

Field Crops Not Intended for Propagation

Previous imports

Based on the information available in the CFIA's Import Permit System, two import permits have been issued, in 2003 and 2007, for various dried plant specimens from the genus Paspalum. Import permits were issued under section 43 and were for research purposes only.

Risk mitigation measures

Regulate Paspalum dilatatum as a quarantine pest under the Plant Protection Act and add this species to the List of Pests Regulated by Canada in order to:

Regulatory requirements under the Plant Protection Act could include one or more of the following:

Trade implications

As there is no identified usage of Paspalum dilatatum as as non-propagative product (food, ornamental, decorative) there will be no impact on trade.

Cost-effectiveness and Feasibility

CFIA plant health programs are already in place to prevent the entry of prohibited plant materials. Measures under the Plant Protection Act are already in place for other pests regulated by Canada (CFIA 2009).

Potential Mitigation Measures for Non-intentional Introduction Pathways

Field Crops Not Intended for Propagation

Previous imports

Potential risk mitigation measures

Regulate Paspalum dilatatum as a quarantine pest under the Plant Protection Act and add this species to the List of Pests Regulated by Canada (CFIA 2009) in order to:

Regulatory actions under the Plant Protection Act could include one or more of the following:

Trade implications

Cost-effectiveness and Feasibility

Seed

Previous imports

In 2008 the total value of seeds of forage plants imported from the U.S. was $6.68 million. Sixty-three percent of those imports ($4.23 million) came from states where Paspalum dilatatum is present (Industry Canada 2009). See appendix 10C. The probability of the weed seeds contaminating seed lots is unknown. The seed has not been reported as a contaminant in the marketplace of imported seed lots coming into Canada. There is risk associated with Paspalum dilatatum because it is commonly used as a forage crop, for pasture in cultivated subtropical areas, and it is also a serious weed in turf and golf courses in the southern states.

Potential risk mitigation measures

Regulate Paspalum dilatatum as a prohibited noxious weed (Class 1) under the Weed Seeds Order of the Seeds Act Footnote 10.

Regulate Paspalum dilatatum as a quarantine pest under the Plant Protection Act and add this species to the List of Pests Regulated by Canada (CFIA 2009) in order to:

Regulatory actions under the Plant Protection Act could include one or more of the following:

Trade implications

Exporting countries currently devote resources towards inspection of seed lots and issuance of Phytosanitary Certificates when required. Laboratories in foreign countries will need to be able to identify seeds of Paspalum dilatatum within a seed sample. Exporters need to ensure freedom of Paspalum dilatatum in seed lots, otherwise CFIA can refuse import.

Cost-effectiveness and Feasibility

Hay and Straw

Previous imports

Potential risk mitigation measures

Regulate Paspalum dilatatum under the Plant Protection Act as a quarantine pest by placing it on the List of Pests Regulated by Canada in order to:

Regulatory actions under the Plant Protection Act could include:

Trade implications

Cost-effectiveness and Feasibility

This measure is already in place for other pests regulated by Canada. Minor costs will be incurred for identification training for inspectors.

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