RMD-13-04: Consolidated Pest Risk Management Document for pest plants regulated by Canada
Appendix 15B: Risk Management Considerations for Zygophyllum fabago (Syrian bean-caper)

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Potential Mitigation Measures for Natural Means of Dispersal

As described in Section V, natural dispersal is a possible pathway; however there is a high level of uncertainty regarding this. The species is regulated in Washington and Idaho and populations have been controlled. Therefore, risk mitigation measures will not be suggested.

Potential Mitigation Measures for Intentional Introduction Pathways

Plants for Planting Excluding Seed

Intentional introduction for planting is the most likely pathway for entry of Zygophyllum fabago into Canada, as it can be used as a medicinal herb or as a flavoring.

Previous imports

The CFIA requires a Permit to Import, with the scientific and common names, for all plants and propagative material from origins other than the continental U.S. (CFIA 2008, 2009). Some plants from the continental U.S. also require a Permit to (CFIA 2009).

Based on the information available in the CFIA's Import Permit System, Import Retrieval System, and information compiled at the CFIA's Import Service Centres, Zygophyllum fabago has not been recently imported into Canada.

Potential risk mitigation measures

Non-regulatory measures:

Regulatory measures:

For species intended for large scale cultivation in Canada:

Trade Implications

Cost-effectiveness and Feasibility

Seed

Previous imports

Websites list seeds of this species for sale as a medicinal herb (CFIA, 2009), but it is difficult to know the level of interest in the plant in Canada.

Potential risk mitigation measures

Regulate Zygophyllum fabago as a prohibited noxious weed (Class 1) under the Weed Seeds Order of the Seeds ActFootnote 2.

Regulate as a quarantine pest under the Plant Protection Act and add this species to the List of Pests Regulated by Canada (CFIA 2009) in order to:

Regulatory actions under the Plant Protection Act could include the following:

Sufficient information about the use of Zygophyllum fabago as a potential crop does not exist. If the proponent, located in Canada, needs to collect more information about the plant (e.g. to generate data for a determination of environmental safety), then confined research field trials under Part V of the Seeds Regulations could be authorized by the Plant Biosafety Office.

Trade Implications

Cost-effectiveness and Feasibility

Potential Mitigation Measures for Non-intentional Introduction Pathways

Seed

Zygophyllum fabago is "thought to have been imported to the United States at the turn of the century in contaminated alfalfa seed" (Davison and Wargo 2001).

Previous imports

Import data for Alfalfa seed originating from countries where Zygophyllum fabago (Syrian beancaper) is present.

Although a large percentage of imported alfalfa seed originates from areas where Zygophyllum fabago is present, the level of risk associated with this pathway is relatively low since the species is not a common weed of agricultural fields (CFIA 2009). No imports are coming from countries in the weed’s native range, which would be the most likely source of contaminated alfalfa seed.

Table 2a: Value in Canadian Dollars ($)
HS 1209210 Lucerne (Alfalfa) seeds for sowing
Exporting Country 2006 2007 2008
Australia208,607234,443198,929
France272,52952,220
Spain03,6620
U.S. - Idaho4,772,7221,580,3442,799,074
U.S. - California421,346649,464197,474
U.S. - Washington26,447404,826199,382
U.S. - Montana7,70910,58318,097
Total:5,436,8582,885,8513,465,176
Table 2b: Quantity in Kilograms (KGM)
HS 1209210 Lucerne (Alfalfa) seeds for sowing
Exporting Country 2006 2007 2008
Australia69,57141,71831,372
France191806,335
Spain06000
U.S. - Idaho955,171327,406440,995
U.S. - California114,149166,79943,479
U.S. - Washington5,45780,16545,398
U.S. - Montana9712,1585,275
Total:1,145,338619,026572,854

Source: Statistics Canada 2009

Potential risk mitigation measures

Regulate Zygophyllum fabago as a prohibited noxious weed (Class 1) under the Weed Seeds Order of the Seeds Act Footnote 6.

Regulate Zygophyllum fabago as a quarantine pest under the Plant Protection Act. and add this species to the List of Pests Regulated by Canada (CFIA 2009) in order to:

Regulatory actions under the Plant Protection Act could include one or more of the following:

Trade Implications

Cost-effectiveness and feasibility

Vehicles and Used Farm Machinery

Root fragments can sprout to form new plants (Davison and Wargo, 2001). It is possible that root fragments could be transported on equipment. Since Zygophyllum fabago is not a common weed of agricultural fields, this is considered a low-risk pathway.

Previous imports

Potential Risk mitigation measures

Enforcement of the Directive 95-26: "Phytosanitary requirements for soil and related matter, alone or in association with plants" (CFIA, 2008).

In 2003, the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) assumed responsibility for the initial import inspection services in respect to the Acts and Regulations administered by the CFIA to the extent that they are applicable at Canadian border points. The inspection of goods that may be contaminated with soil are among the responsibilities that were transferred to the CBSA in 2003. The Food, Plant and Animals Programs Section of the CBSA has developed Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) concerning the "Inspection of Imported Goods Potentially Contaminated with Soil." This SOP provides the CBSA's Border Services Officers with formal procedures for the inspection and disposition of goods that may be contaminated with soil, including used agricultural machinery and vehicles.

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