D-02-12: Import requirements for non-processed wood and other non-propagative wood products, except solid wood packaging material, from all areas other than the continental United States

Effective Date: July 18, 2011
(6th Revision)

Subject

This directive outlines the phytosanitary import requirements for logs, non-tropical lumber, tropical lumber, wood with bark attached, wood chips, bark chips, bamboo products, decorative wood items and dry cones from areas of the world other than the continental United States (U.S.)

The import requirements for wood dunnage, pallets, crating or other wood packaging material from areas of the world other than the continental U.S., are outlined in Directive D-98-08: Entry Requirements for Wood Packaging Material into Canada.

The import requirements for firewood are outlined in Directive D-01-12.

This directive has been revised to update review date, as well as minor administrative changes. The content of this directive has not changed.

Table of Contents

Review

This directive will be reviewed every 3 years unless otherwise needed. For further information or clarification, please contact the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA).

Endorsement

Approved by:

space
Chief Plant Health Officer

Amendment Record

Amendments to this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution below.

Distribution

  1. Directive mail list (Regions, PHRA, USDA)
  2. Provincial Government, Industry (determined by Author)
  3. National Industry Organizations (determined by Author)
  4. Internet

Introduction

In recent years, market trends have changed and Canada has seen an increase in the trade and import of non-processed wood products. Unfortunately, this increase in the volume of trade has been associated with a similar increase in the rate of interceptions of exotic plant pests accompanying these items. To ensure that these importations do not constitute an unacceptable risk for the spread of forest pests, this directive regulates the entry of non-propagative wood products.

All of the forest products regulated by this policy are known pathways for the movement of quarantine pests. Trees have co-existed with insects, plant diseases and other pathogens so it is not uncommon to find pests within harvested wood. Particular import requirements are based on the nature of each product, history of intercepted plant pests on imported consignments, product end-use, scientific evaluation and careful examination of all known pest risk mitigating factors.

Some forest products will present a high risk of pest introduction and require mandatory treatment. For instance, untreated forest commodities originating from off-continent temperate areas and containing bark would present the highest risk for introducing quarantine pests into Canada. The entry of such commodities is prohibited.

The presence of bark attached to a forest product can quickly account for a higher pest load carried by the wooden product. Surface pathogens and bark beetles are associated with bark. Heat treatment, chemical treatment or debarking will remove the risks associated with bark, although debarking will not remove the concerns of deep boring beetles.

The delivery of large commercial volumes of material produced through a mass production operation can present significant risk. This volume can also reduce the ability to effectively visually inspect each piece at points of entry. Conversely, similar products that are created by hand selecting high grades of wood and producing the product over time with greater care and attention should have dramatically lower frequencies of pest introduction.

Seasoned or aged wood products often carry fewer wood pests compared to fresh material. Over time, as wood dries its physical nature changes, bark may separate from the cambium and the attractive volatile chemicals decrease. Generally, most beetle larvae within the wood can not complete their life cycle at lower wood moisture contents. Seasoned dry wood is less habitable to the growth of fungal pathogens and wood nematode populations can become less viable with decreasing wood moisture. Re-infestation of aged dry wood is mainly limited to certain wood boring beetles and dry wood termites. Without re-infestation of the appropriate vectors or the viability of existing vectors it may not be possible to transfer fungal species and wood nematodes contained within the imported wood product.

In an effort to protect Canadian agriculture, forestry and the environment, Canada regulates the import of non-processed wood and non-propagative wood products to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of pests. History can provide many examples of invasive forest pests that have been associated with the movement of untreated wood products. Dutch elm disease (Ophiostoma ulmi), pine shoot beetle (Tomicus piniperda) and the chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) are a few notable examples of pests that have been introduced into areas of North America. All these pests have had extensive economic and/ or environmental impact. Some of these costs have been associated with expensive eradication programs and regulatory controls to reduce their spread and impact.

The process of identifying the risk posed by invasive plant pests can be complicated by their unpredictable habits associated with pests that are moved from their native ranges. For example, the brown spruce longhorn beetle (Tetropium fuscum), is recognized as a secondary pest in Europe and attacks trees that have already been weakened by other pest damage or environmental stresses. Once introduced into eastern Canada, T. fuscum was found to be attacking healthy red spruce trees, necessitating the implementation of a costly management program.

The import requirements outlined in this directive have been established to reduce the potential of introducing plant pests into Canada through the importation of wood products. This directive also provides approved treatment options for the import of non-processed wood products.

Scope

This directive is intended for the use of the CFIA inspection staff, Canada Border Service Agency and Canadian importers. The directive outlines the necessary requirements and inspection procedures for the importation of non-manufactured wood and non-propagative wood products, except solid wood packaging.

References

  • ISPM No. 5, Glossary of Phytosanitary Terms, FAO, Rome (updated annually)
  • ISPM No. 7, Phytosanitary certification system, 2011 FAO, Rome.
  • ISPM No. 13, Guidelines for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action, 2001, FAO, Rome
  • ISPM No. 15, Regulation of wood packaging material in international trade, 2009, FAO, Rome.

    This directive supersedes D-02-12 (5th Revision).

Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms

Definitions of terms used in the present document can be found in the Plant Health Glossary of Terms.

1.0 General Requirements

1.1 Legislative Authority

The Plant Protection Act, S.C. 1990, c. 22
The Plant Protection Regulations, SOR/95-212
Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice, Canada Gazette: Part I (as amended from time to time)

1.2 Fees

The CFIA is charging fees in accordance with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency Fees Notice. For information regarding fees associated with imported product, please contact the Import Service Centre (ISC). Anyone requiring other information regarding fees may contact any local CFIA office or visit our Fees Notice website.

1.3 Regulated Pests

The following is a list of forest pests identified on Canada's list of regulated pests that may be associated with non-processed wood and non-propagative wood products. This list should not be considered inclusive of all species that potentially represent a quarantine pest risk to Canada.

Fungi:

  • Ceratocystis fagacearum (Oak wilt disease)
  • Gremmeniella abietina var. abietina (Scleroderris canker)
  • Lachnellula willkommii (European larch canker)
  • Ophiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease)
  • Ophiostoma novo-ulmi (Dutch elm disease)
  • Phytophthora ramorum (Sudden oak death)
  • Phytophthora sp. (Phytophthora disease of alder)

Bacteria:

  • Xanthomonas populi (Bacterial poplar canker)
  • Erwinia salicis (Watermark disease of willow)

Insects:

  • Adelges piceae (Balsam woolly adelgid)
  • Agrilus planipennis (Emerald ash borer)
  • Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian long-horned beetle)
  • Callipogon relictus (Korean relict longhorned beetle)
  • Hylastes ater (European bark beetle)
  • Ips typographus (Spruce bark beetle)
  • Lymantria dispar (Gypsy moth)
  • Lymantria mathura (Rosy gypsy moth)
  • Lymantria monacha (Nun moth)
  • Monochamus alternatus (Japanese pine sawyer)
  • Sirex noctilio (European woodwasp)
  • Tetropium castaneum
  • Tetropium fuscum (Brown spruce longhorn beetle)
  • Tomicus piniperda (European pine shoot beetle)
  • Trichoferus (Hesperophanes) campestris

Species that have been identified as potential quarantine pests after a preliminary evaluation:

  • Callidiellum rufipenne (Japanese longhorn beetle)
  • Ceratocystis sp. (Stain - Wilt fungi)
  • Collybia fusipes (Root Rot)
  • Helicobasidium mompa (Violet root rot)
  • Helicobasidium tanakae (Violet root rot)
  • Hylurgus ligniperda (Red-haired pine bark beetle)
  • Loranthus europaeus (European mistletoe)
  • Ophiostoma kubanicum (Stain - Wilt fungi)
  • Ophiostoma grandicapara (Stain - Wilt fungi)
  • Ophiostoma quercus (Stain - Wilt fungi)
  • Ophiostoma roboris (Stain - Wilt fungi)
  • Phytophthora quercina (Phytophthora root rot/ oak decline)
  • Rosellinia quercina (Oak root rot)

1.4 Regulated Commodities

Non-manufactured, non-propagative wood products including:

Artificial Christmas trees containing bark or wood, bamboo fences, bamboo poles, bamboo rakes, bamboo stakes, bamboo torches, bark, bark chips, bark mulch, branches, cants, cut Christmas trees, decorative wood items, dry cones, logs, lumber, poles, railway ties, roots, round-wood, sawn wood, stems, wood chips, wood garden stakes, wood mulch, wood turning blanks, wreaths or any other non-processed wood product or non-propagative wood product, except those identified in Section 1.5. In addition, wood lathing, wood stickers, wood spacers and wood attached directly to lumber is regulated. These items are considered a form of lumber.

Note 1: The import requirements for wood dunnage, break bulk, pallets, crating or other wood packaging materials from areas of the world other than the continental U.S. are outlined in D-98-08: Entry Requirements for Wood Packaging Material into Canada.

Note 2: The import requirements for firewood, fuel wood pellets and processed fuel logs are contained in Directive D-01-12: Phytosanitary Requirements for the Importation and Domestic Movement of Firewood.

Note 3: The requirements for non-processed, non-propagative wood products from the U.S. and within Canada are provided in pest specific policies.

Note 4: The import requirements for Prunus branches are stated in Directive D-08-04: Plant protection import requirements for plants and plant parts for planting.

Note 5: The import requirements for wood species known to be hosts and originating in areas regulated for Phytophthora ramorum, are specified in Directive D-01-01: Phytosanitary Requirements to Prevent the Entry and Spread of Phytophthora ramorum.

Note 6: The import requirements for alder wood from areas regulated for Phytophthora spp. pathogenic to alders are specified in Directive D-00-08: Requirements to Prevent the Introduction of undescribed species of Phytophthora pathogenic to Alder (Alnus spp.).

1.5 Exempted Commodities

Processed wood materials that are completely free of bark, free of pests and free of signs of living pests and have been subjected to processing conditions that have altered the commodity in a manner to reduce significantly the ability of the wood items to provide a habitat for pests, such as: aspenite, masonite, plywood, veneer, fibre board, particle board, oriented strand board, saw dust, wafer board, pre-shaped moulding, end jointed or finger jointed lumber, pre-shaped banisters, railings, spindles, and processed cork. Additionally, commercially processed wooden furniture, finished wood flooring, finished wooden tool handles, pre-made windows and doors, routed wooden picture frames, kitchenware cedar planks and children's toys.

Note: All of the above commodities must be completely free of bark, free of pests and free of signs of living pests. Exempted commodities are subject to inspection and must be declared at the time of entry into Canada.

Other exempted commodities include:

Baskets and wreaths made of completely dried vines, stems or small branches with or without bark that are less than 1.5 cm in diameter.

All dried coniferous needles and dried leaves of trees and shrubs.

Dried non-cereal grasses, reeds, palm leaves and palm frond for ornamental purposes.

Decorative wood items without bark accompanying personal effects that are for personal use and not intended for resale. Non-commercial imports.

Dried and preserved herbarium samples of species of trees.

All dried bamboo furniture, souvenirs and baskets, with individual bamboo pieces that are less than 1.5 cm in diameter.

All split bamboo products used for indoor purposes.

Oak cubes (less than 1.5 cm in thickness), oak wood shavings and chips as part of wine kits or oak cubes in wine barrels specifically for the purpose of flavouring.

Note: Wooden barrels for wine and spirits are considered wood packaging and must satisfy the import requirements specified in Directive D-98-08.

1.6 Regulated Areas

All parts of the world except the continental U.S. Wood products from areas of the continental U.S. are regulated in other CFIA Directives including D-94-22, D-97-10, D-98-09, D-99-03, D-01-01, D-03-08, D-07-05. Please consult the Forestry Division's page of the CFIA website for details.

2.0 Specific Requirements

2.1 Import requirements for lumber of non-tropical species (without bark)

As lumber of non-tropical species is known to present a higher risk of pest introduction, this material must be treated in the following manner:

Each piece of wood must attain a minimum temperature of 56°C throughout the profile of the wood (including at its core) for a minimum of 30 minutes or must be fumigated with methyl bromide as specified in Appendix 1. The treatment must be verified by the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of the exporting country.

  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A valid Phytosanitary Certificate endorsed by the NPPO of the exporting country specifying all applicable treatment details in the treatment section of the certificate is required. In the case of heat treatment, the following declaration must appear in the treatment section of the Phytosanitary Certificate must state: Each piece of wood has attained a minimum temperature of 56°C throughout the profile of the wood (including at its core) for a minimum of 30 minutes.
  • Referencing a Fumigation Certificate in lieu of providing the treatment details in the Phytosanitary Certificate will not be accepted.

Note: Refer to Appendix 2 (List of tropical and non-tropical tree species). For lumber that is not heat treated or fumigated - see Section 2.4.

2.1.1 Import requirements for lumber of non-tropical species from a country of re-export when the lumber originates from a Third country.

Each piece of wood must attain a minimum temperature of 56°C throughout the profile of the wood (including at its core) for a minimum of 30 minutes or must be fumigated with methyl bromide as specified in Appendix 1.

  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A valid Phytosanitary Certificate for re-export or a valid Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the NPPO of the re-exporting country is required.

When the country of re-export requires a Phytosanitary Certificate, a valid Phytosanitary Certificate for re-export issued by the NPPO of the re-exporting country and a true copy of the original Phytosanitary Certificate are required. The re-exporting country must ensure that the Canadian phytosanitary import requirements for the specific regulated commodity have been met in the country of re-export or the country of origin.

When the country of re-export does not require equivalent phytosanitary treatment for the import of the regulated commodity, the regulated commodity must be certified to meet Canadian import requirements by the re-exporting country. In this case, a valid Phytosanitary Certificate from the country of re-export stating the treatment details is required.

For non-tropical wood species originating from outside the continental U.S. which are treated in the U.S. and are re-exported from the U.S. to Canada, the following is required:

  • A valid U.S. Phytosanitary Certificate specifying the origin of the lumber and all applicable treatment details in the treatment section of the Phytosanitary Certificate

or

  • A Phytosanitary Certificate for re-export attesting to the above treatment specifications

or

  • A separate treatment document issued by a Heat treatment facility registered with an American Lumber Standards Committee (ALSC) accredited Grading Agency

or

2.2 Import requirements for lumber of tropical species (without bark)

Tropical species are identified in Appendix 2

  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A valid Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the NPPO of the exporting country, is required.

The import of tropical lumber must meet the following conditions:

  • free of bark; and
  • free of pests; and
  • free of signs of living pests; and
  • species listed in Appendix 2.

2.2.1 Import requirements for lumber of tropical species from a country of re-export when the lumber originates from a Third Country

The import of tropical lumber from a country of re-export into Canada is permitted under the following conditions:

  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A valid Phytosanitary Certificate for re-export or a valid Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the NPPO of the re-exporting country is required.

When the country of re-export does require a Phytosanitary Certificate for the original import of tropical lumber, and the consignment meets Canada's phytosanitary import requirements, a Phytosanitary Certificate for re-export shall be issued. A valid Phytosanitary Certificate for re-export issued by the NPPO of the re-exporting country with a copy of the original Phytosanitary Certificate are required.

When the country of re-export does not require a Phytosanitary Certificate for the import of tropical lumber or if the Phytosanitary Certificate from the country of origin does not state the appropriate conditions, the CFIA import requirements can be fulfilled with an additional visual inspection based on the inspection criteria listed below. In this case, the country of re-export shall issue a valid Phytosanitary Certificate.

The Phytosanitary Certificate, or the Phytosanitary Certificate for re-export, must identify the species of tropical lumber, the origin and meet the following import requirements:

  • free of bark; and
  • free of pests; and
  • free of signs of living pests, and
  • species listed in Appendix 2.

Note 7: Wood species not meeting the requirements of Section 2.2 (Import requirements for lumber of tropical species) must meet the import requirements of section 2.1 (Import requirements for lumber of non-tropical species) or Section 2.4 ( Import requirements for wood chips, bark chips, lumber, logs, telephone poles, cants, railway ties and related commodities).

Note 8: Additional wood species may be added to Appendix 2 (List of tropical and non-tropical tree species) with prior approval by the CFIA. In order to initiate this process, please complete the Application for Permit to Import form - PDF (429 kb) (CFIA/ACIA 5256).

2.3 Import requirements for non-propagative dried tree and shrub roots, branches and bark intended for cosmetic or medicinal purposes

  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A valid Phytosanitary Certificate endorsed by the NPPO of the exporting country is required.
  • The material must be free of pests and signs of living pests.

Other government departments, for example Health Canada, may have import requirements for tree and shrub roots intended for cosmetic or medicinal purposes. Health Canada should be contacted to confirm their import requirements for tree and shrub roots intended for cosmetic or medicinal purposes. Also, see Section 1.5 (exempted commodities) and Section 2.8 (Re-export from a third country).

The import requirements for non-propagative tree and shrub roots for uses other than cosmetic or medicinal are contained in Section 2.6 (Import requirements for decorative wood items).

2.4 The import requirements for wood chips, bark chips, logs, telephone poles, cants, railway ties, lumber not meeting the requirements as specified under Section 2.1, and related commodities

  • A Permit to Import is required.
  • Prior approval is required before importation of these products from off-continent. As part of the approval process, a pest risk assessment will be required to evaluate the plant health risk posed by the commodity, the efficacy of proposed treatment options and to identify any known pests including bacteria and phytoplasmas, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects, mites, molluscs and weeds and the potential to introduce those pests.
  • The CFIA may approve the import of wood chips, bark chips, logs, lumber, telephone poles, cants, railway ties not meeting the requirements as specified under Section 2.1, and related commodities upon the completion of the pest risk analysis and the evaluation of proposed treatment measures and certification systems.
  • If required, the CFIA may approve private or government treatment facilities in the exporting countries operating under a system acceptable to the CFIA (i.e., fumigation, heat treatment) and monitored and endorsed by the NPPO of the exporting country.
  • Post-entry treatment in Canada will not be allowed.
  • Importers must contact a local CFIA office in advance of arranging for any importation of regulated wood products. A registry of CFIA offices is maintained on the Forestry Division's page of the CFIA website.

2.5 Import requirements for wood turning blanks (without bark) for the purposes of wood turning, spindle turning and lathe work

  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A valid Phytosanitary Certificate endorsed by the NPPO of the exporting country stating the applicable treatment details in the treatment section of the certificate, is required.
  • Referencing a Fumigation Certificate in lieu of providing the treatment details in the Phytosanitary Certificate will not be accepted.

Wood turning blanks may be imported into Canada if meeting one of the following conditions:

  • Debarked; and
  • Heat Treated to attain a minimum temperature of 56°C throughout the profile of the wood (including at its core) for a minimum of 30 minutes.

or

  • less than 200 mm in thickness; and
  • Fumigated with methyl bromide as described in Appendix 1.

Note 9: Some species of wood turning blanks may qualify for an exemption of import requirements under Section 2.2 (Import requirements for lumber of tropical species).

2.6 Import requirements for decorative wood items, including, baskets, branches, and wreaths containing dry cones; and artificial Christmas trees containing bark or wood

The requirements specified here apply to articles imported for household decorative purposes. The requirements do not apply to forest products such as lumber, logs, branches and other commercial wood products.

2.6.1 Import requirements for decorative wood items, including, baskets, branches and wreaths containing dry cones

Non-treated decorative wood items must meet the following conditions:

  • free of pests and signs of living pests, and
  • dried (i.e. a moisture content of less than 8%), and
  • bark free; and
  • not exceed 1.5 centimetres in thickness (for decorative wood items, baskets, branches and wreaths);
  • dry cones must be completely sealed with paint or thick coatings of varnish or other sealants.
  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A Phytosanitary Certificate is not required.

Note 10: Decorative wood items not meeting the above description must be imported under section 2.6.2 (Import requirements for treated decorative wood items).

Note 11: Importers who are uncertain about the admissibility of a decorative wood item should contact a local CFIA office prior to the import.

Note 12: Decorative wood items may be required to comply with additional import requirements if they are constructed with non-wood components such as fungus, straw, moss, lichen or other biological components.

2.6.2 Import requirements for decorative wood items not meeting 2.6.1: baskets, branches, wreaths, dry cones and artificial Christmas trees containing bark or wood

Decorative wood items containing bark or wood exceeding 1.5 cm in thickness, dry cones, artificial Christmas trees containing bark or wood, branches exceeding 1.5 cm in thickness and wreaths containing branches exceeding 1.5 cm in thickness can be imported into Canada if fumigated with methyl bromide as described in Appendix 1 and if the moisture content is less than 20%. The treatment must be verified by the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of the exporting country.

  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A valid Phytosanitary Certificate endorsed by the NPPO of the exporting country specifying all applicable treatment details in the treatment section of the certificate is required.
  • Referencing a Fumigation Certificate in lieu of filling the treatment details in the Phytosanitary Certificate will not be accepted.

Note 13: Cones imported for propagation require a Permit to Import.

Note 14: Also see Section 1.5 (Exempted commodities) and Section 2.8 (Re-export from a Third country).

2.7 Import requirements for bamboo products

Regulated bamboo products, poles, stakes and similar items may be imported into Canada if fumigated with methyl bromide as described in Appendix 1. The treatment must be verified by the National Plant Protection Organization (NPPO) of the exporting country.

  • A Permit to Import is not required.
  • A valid Phytosanitary Certificate endorsed by the NPPO of the exporting country specifying all applicable treatment details in the treatment section of the certificate is required.
  • Referencing a Fumigation Certificate in lieu of providing the treatment details in the Phytosanitary Certificate will not be accepted.

Note 15: Also see Section 1.5 (Exempted commodities) and Section 2.8 (Re-export from a third country).

2.8 Import documentation requirements for bamboo products and treated decorative wood items, from a country of Re-export when the product originates from a Third country

The import of bamboo products and treated decorative wood items, are subject to the phytosanitary measures contained in section 2.6.2 (treated decorative wood items), and section 2.7 (bamboo products). The documentation requirements for these products when imported from a country of re-export into Canada where the product originates from a third country are as follows:

  • A Permit to import is not required.

When the country of re-export requires a Phytosanitary Certificate, a valid Phytosanitary Certificate for re-export issued by the NPPO of the re-exporting country and a true copy of the original Phytosanitary Certificate are required. The re-exporting country must ensure that the Canadian phytosanitary import requirements for the specific regulated commodity have been met in the country of re-export or the country of origin.

When the country of re-export does not require equivalent phytosanitary treatment for the import of the regulated commodity, the regulated commodity must be certified to meet Canadian import requirements by the country of re-export. In this case, a valid Phytosanitary Certificate from the country of re-export stating the treatment details is required.

When the country of re-export is the United States, where wooden handicrafts are considered to be processed or manufactured products by that country, the regulated commodity when exported to Canada should meet the following requirements:

  • A copy of the original Phytosanitary Certificate with treatment details must be stamped with a USDA-APHIS, stamp and signed by the authorizing Officer.

Note: The original Phytosanitary Certificate must be endorsed by the NPPO of the exporting country and must specify all applicable treatment details in the treatment section of the certificate).

  • Referencing a Fumigation Certificate in lieu of providing the treatment details in the Phytosanitary Certificate will not be accepted.

2.9 Import requirements for cut Christmas trees

  • A Permit to Import is required.
  • Prior approval is required before importation from off-continent sources of cut Christmas trees. As part of the approval process, a pest risk assessment may be required to evaluate the plant health risk posed by the commodity, the efficacy of proposed treatment options and identify any known pests and diseases potentially associated with the commodity including bacteria and phytoplasmas, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects, mites, molluscs and weeds.

2.10 Requirements for items imported for scientific, educational, industrial or exhibition purposes

  • A Permit to Import is required.
  • A Permit to import may be issued pursuant to section 43 of the Plant Protection Regulations for regulated material imported for the specific purposes of scientific research, educational, processing, industrial or exhibition purposes. The permit will only be issued under specific conditions which ensure that the applicant is able and willing to comply with the conditions to be set out in the permit and will take every precaution to prevent the spread of any pest or biological obstacle to the control of a pest.

An Application for a Permit to Import - PDF (429 kb) can be obtained from the Forms Catalogue of the CFIA website. For additional information, consult the Directive D-97-07: Phytosanitary Requirements for the Importation from the United States and Domestic Movement of Elm Material (Ulmus spp. and Zelkova spp.) to Prevent the Introduction and Spread of Dutch Elm Disease Ophiostoma ulmi (Buisman) Nannf. and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi (Brasier) within Canada or contact the local CFIA office. A registry of CFIA offices is maintained on the Forestry Division's page of the CFIA website.

2.11 Other options for the import of regulated commodities

  • A Permit to Import is required.
  • The CFIA may approve the import of regulated commodities (Section 1.4) on the evaluation of proposed treatment measures or certification systems if they can be proven to mitigate the risk of introducing any life stage of all quarantine pests.
  • Post entry treatment of non-processed wood and non-propagative wood products is not permitted, unless prescribed in a Permit to Import issued under section 43 of the Plant Protection Regulations.
  • The process of approval may involve a pest risk assessment to identify all regulated pest associations and the efficacy of proposed treatment or certification options.

If required, the CFIA may approve specific treatments (e.g., phosphine fumigation, heat treatment, chemical impregnation) conducted by private treatment facilities operating in the country of export under a system acceptable to the CFIA and monitored and endorsed by the NPPO of the exporting country.

Importers wishing to use alternative options should contact a local CFIA office in advance of arranging for any importation of wood products. A registry of CFIA offices is maintained on the Forestry Division's page of the CFIA website.

3.0 Inspection Procedures

3.1 Document Verification

Appendix 4 outlines the import documentation requirements for commodities regulated in this directive.

3.2 Product Examination

All regulated products must be referred to one of the CFIA Import Service Centres upon arrival and are subject to inspection and sampling by the CFIA. Import inspections will be conducted at either the port of entry, a designated import facility or another place designated by a CFIA inspector. The frequency of commodity import inspections are defined in current operational work plans.

Consignments will be examined for living regulated and potential quarantine pests, soil and for signs of living pests such as bore holes, frass and product damage related to pest activities.

During product inspections, CFIA inspectors may be required to disassemble wood products and collect evidence of wood damage and/or pests.

If required, inspectors may collect samples of any detected pests, detain shipments, and submit specimens for identification.

4.0 Non-Compliance

Any regulated material found to be infested with a pest or found to have signs or symptoms of live pests may be treated prior to it being ordered for removal from Canada or disposed of in a manner approved by the CFIA. Any regulated material not meeting the import requirements specified above will be required to be removed from Canada or disposed of in a manner approved by the CFIA.

Notification of non-compliance and emergency action will be issued in accordance with Directive D-01-06, Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.

All costs associated with non-compliant commodities are the responsibility of the importer.

CFIA approved methods of disposal are defined in Appendix 3.

5.0 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

It is the responsibility of the importer to check if tropical or non-tropical wood species being imported is listed under CITES. Additional permits from Environment Canada, may be required. For more information consult the CITES website.

6.0 Appendices

Appendix 1: Canadian Food Inspection Agency Approved Treatments

Methyl bromide

Canada is a signatory of The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (1992) agreeing to the reduction and eventual phase-out of methyl bromide use. The CFIA encourages exporters to use methyl bromide recovery systems and investigate the use of methyl bromide alternatives.

The minimum temperature must not be less than 10°C and the minimum exposure time must be at least 24 hours. Monitoring of concentrations must be carried out at a minimum of 2, 4 and 24 hours after application of the fumigant.

Regulated products may be fumigated with methyl bromide in the following manner:

Temperature Dosage (g/m3) Minimum concentration (g/m3) at 2 hours Minimum concentration (g/m3) at 4 hours Minimum concentration (g/m3) at 24 hours
21°C or above 48 36 31 24
16°C or above 56 42 36 28
10°C or above 64 48 42 32

A Phytosanitary Certificate issued by the certifying NPPO is required specifying fumigation details on the certificate: the average commodity temperature, the general rate (g/m3) of methyl bromide used and exposure time.

Appendix 2: List of Tropical and Non-tropical Tree Species

Some of the above tropical tree species may be regulated by the Convention in Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) administered by Canadian Wildlife Services of Environment Canada. CITES is an international agreement between governments that is aimed at ensuring that the international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival. It is the importer's and exporter's responsibility to ensure imported commodities meet the CITES requirements.

Appendix 3: Canadian Food Inspection Agency Approved Disposal Methods

The CFIA may permit the movement of non-compliant wood and wood products, bamboo, decorative wood items and dry cones to be disposed or treated in the following ways:

  • incineration;
  • deep burial to a minimum depth of 2 metres with immediate soil coverage;
  • chipping to produce wood by-products such as wood dust, wood mulch or wood fuel. Raw wood by-products must undergo either a sanitation process (steam, heat, compost) to render them free of potential regulated pests or to be contained and used for secondary processes;
  • secondary processing to produce wood by-products such as paper, finish mulch, recycled fibre board and oriented strand board;
  • other methods as approved by the CFIA.

Every attempt should be made to dispose of non-compliant wood and wood products within two (2) business days of import by the importer under the direct oversight of the CFIA. Long term storage of non-compliant material is prohibited. During short term storage, while waiting for disposal, non-compliant material must be contained in a manner that would preclude the escape for pests. The method of short term storage must be approved by a CFIA inspector.

During transportation, detained material must carried in a sealed container or be enclosed by a tarpaulin to provide assurance that soil contaminates and pests can not be lost or freed while on route to the disposal area. The containment of detained materials must be approved by a CFIA inspector prior to movement.

Appendix 4: Reference List for the Import of Non-Processed and Non-propagative Wood Products from Areas Outside the Continental U.S.

MB
Methyl Bromide treatment. The approved schedule for MB is contained in Appendix 1.
HT (56/30)
Each piece of wood must attain a minimum temperature of 56°C through the profile of the wood for a minimum of 30 minutes.
MC
Moisture content.

All imports of plants and plant products are subject to inspection.

This list is only a reference, consult appropriate policy sections for complete import details.
Commodity Import Permit Phytosanitary Certificate Entry Conditions Policy
Artificial Christmas trees with bark No Yes
  • MB
D-02-12,
Section 2.6.2
Bamboo products, including bamboo furniture with pieces greater than 1.5 cm in diameter; all sizes of garden supplies, poles, stakes, ladders, trellises, etc. No Yes
  • MB
  • all sizes
D-02-12,
Section 2.7,
Section 2.8
Bamboo furniture No No
  • dried
  • all pieces must be less than 1.5 cm
D-02-12,
Section 1.5
Bamboo baskets, bird cages No No
  • dried
  • all pieces must be less than 1.5 cm
D-02-12,
Section 1.5
Bamboo souvenirs No No
  • dried
  • all pieces must be less than 1.5 cm
D-02-12,
Section 1.5
Bamboo utensils;
spoons, chop sticks
No No
  • dried
  • all pieces must be less than 1.5 cm
D-02-12,
Section 1.5
Bark Yes
  • prior approval
D-02-12,
Section 2.4
Bark
Cosmetic or medicinal
No Yes
  • free of soil
  • dried
D-02-12,
Section 2.3
Bark chips Yes
  • prior approval
D-02-12,
Section 2.4
Branches, stems and vines No Yes
  • greater than 1.5 cm in diameter
  • MB
  • MC < 20%
D-02-12,
Section 2.6.2
Branches with bark
Cometic or medicinal
No Yes
  • free of soil
  • dried
D-02-12,
Section 2.3
Branches, stems and vines
(with or without bark)
No No
  • less than 1.5 cm in diameter
  • dried
D-02-12,
Section 1.5
Cants Yes
  • prior approval
D-02-12,
Section 2.4
Coniferous needles No No
  • free of debris and soil
  • dried
D-02-12,
Section 1.5
Cones, dried No Yes
  • dried
  • no pests
  • no soil and related debris
D-02-12,
Section 2.6.2
Cones, dried and painted or lacquered as a component of wreaths No No
  • dried
  • no pests
  • painted or lacquered
D-02-12,
Section 2.6.1
Cut Christmas trees Yes
  • prior approval
D-02-12,
Section 2.9
Decorative wood items, commercial imports with bark and/ or with cones No Yes
  • wood greater than 1.5 cm in thickness
  • MB
  • dried
  • MC < 20%
D-02-12,
Section 2.6.2
Decorative wood items, commercial imports without bark and less than 1.5 cm in thickness without cones No No
  • no bark
  • wood pieces less than 1.5 cm in thickness
  • dried
  • MC < 8%
D-02-12,
Section 2.6.1
Decorative wood items without bark, non-commercial No No
  • free of bark
  • personal effects
  • personal use
  • not for resale
  • non-propagative
  • non-commercial quantities
D-02-12,
Section 1.5
Firewood Yes Yes
  • consult policy
D-01-12
Herbarium samples No No
  • dried
D-02-12,
Section 1.5,
D-95-09
Logs Yes
  • prior approval
D-02-12,
Section 2.4
Processed wood products No No
  • examples: plywood, oriented strand board
D-02-12,
Section 1.5
Non-tropical lumber No Yes
  • HT (56/30) or
  • MB
  • free of bark
D-02-12,
Section 2.1
Oak cubes, shavings and chips No No
  • less than 1.5 cm in thickness
  • as part of wine kits or in wine barrels for the purpose of flavouring
D-02-12,
Section 1.5
Roots
Cosmetic and medicinal only
No Yes
  • dried
  • free of soil
D-02-12,
Section 2.3,
D-95-09
Roots
Not for cosmetic and medicinal
No Yes
  • wood greater than 1.5 cm in thickness
  • MB
  • dried
  • MC < 20%
D-02-12,
Section 2.6.2
Sawn wood No Yes
  • HT (56/30) or
  • MB
  • free of bark
D-02-12,
Section 2.1
Telephone poles Yes
  • prior approval
D-02-12,
Section 2.4
Tree and shrub leaves No No
  • free of debris and soil
  • dried
D-02-12,
Section 1.5
Tropical lumber No Yes
  • free of bark
  • listed in Appendix 2
D-02-12,
Section 2.2
Tropical logs with bark Yes
  • prior approval
D-02-12,
Section 2.4
Turning blanks No Yes
  • free of bark and
  • HT (56/30) or
  • less than 200 mm in thickness and
  • MB
D-02-12,
Section 2.5
Railway ties Yes
  • prior approval
D-02-12,
Section 2.4
Wood chips Yes
  • prior approval
D-02-12,
Section 2.4
Wood flooring
processed
No No
  • planed
  • sanded
  • tongued and grooved
  • dried
D-02-12,
Section 1.5
Wood Packaging;
wooden barrels for wine and spirits
  • consult policy
D-98-08
Wreaths No No
  • dried
  • with branches and vines less than 1.5 cm in diameter
D-02-12,
Section 1.5

Note 16: The import requirements for regulated commodities from the United States are contained in pest specific policies.

Note 17: The import requirements for propagative plants and plant products are regulated by the CFIA Horticulture Section.

Note 18: This reference list is not inclusive, contact a local CFIA office to confirm the import requirements prior to the import of a commodity.

Appendix 5: CITES Identification Guide - Tropical Woods