The ABCs of Seed Importation into Canada
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The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has published this document in order to provide technical information solely with respect to the various requirements of the Seeds Act and Seeds Regulations. The reader should, therefore, consider this document in light of the relevant provisions of the Seeds Act and Seeds Regulations. Should there be any discrepancies between this document and the provisions of the Seeds Act and/or Seeds Regulations, the provisions of the latter shall prevail. Other legislation may apply to the importation of seed into Canada.
The reader is also encouraged to view this document in its entirety to ensure that all applicable requirements are identified.
AI: Authorized Importer
AIRS: Automated Information Reference System
CBSA: Canada Border Services Agency
CFIA: Canadian Food Inspection Agency
CSGA: Canadian Seed Growers' Association
CSI: Canadian Seed Institute
EDI: Electronic Data Interchange
ISC: Import Service Centre
PNT: Plant with Novel Trait
RSE: Registered Seed Establishment
SAC: Seed Analysis Certificate
SSTS: Seed Science and Technology Section
Table of Contents
- A. Applicable Legislation
- B. References and Contact Information
- C. Seeds Act and Seeds Regulations Requirements
- D. Acceptable Seed Analysis Certificate
- E. Lot Designation
- F. Seed Importation Paper Flow
- G. CFIA Forms
- H. Seed Import Instruction Notice
- I. Separate & Intact
- J. Clearance Decision
- K. Exemptions from Import Documentation Requirements
- L. Unregistered Varieties and Plants with Novel Traits (PNT)
- M. Authorized Importers
- N. Pre-clearance by Authorized Importers
- O. Purposes of Importation
- P. Conditioning
- Q. Research
- R. Seeding by the Importer
- S. Sale
- T. Seed Importation Fee
- U. Labelling Requirements for Seed upon Import
- V. Non-traditional Seed Items
- W. Seeds Regulated Under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
- X. False and Misleading Information
- Y. Lot Size and Seed Importation Fees Explanatory Notes
- Z. Approximate Number of Seeds per Gram
A. Applicable Legislation
A person importing seed into Canada must comply with Canada's Seeds Act and Seeds Regulations, and other applicable legislation.
This may include, but is not limited to:
- The Plant Protection Act and Regulations;
- The Pest Control Products Act;
- The Controlled Drugs and Substances Act;
- The Fertilizers Act and Regulations; and/or
- The Canadian Environmental Protection Act.
The requirements in this document only pertain to seed for propagation purposes. Seeds being imported for human consumption, feed and/or food products are not subject to the requirements of the Seeds Act and Regulations.
The term "seed" is defined under the Seeds Act as "any plant part of any species belonging to the plant kingdom, represented, sold or used to grow a plant".
It is the importer's responsibility to provide the information required for seed importation outlined in Section C and Section D and to ensure that seed imported into Canada is in compliance with the applicable legislation.
B. References and Contact Information
Please see the Automated Import Reference System (AIRS) for the import requirements of the Seeds Act and Seeds Regulations and of the Plant Protection Act and Regulations.
For information related to the importation of non-indigenous plant taxa, either not present in Canada or not yet widely distributed in Canada, contact the CFIA's Invasive Plant Section.
Seed contaminated with soil, pests and/or weeds may be refused entry into Canada. Please contact the Horticulture Section for more information regarding soil contaminants.
Any questions regarding the requirements for the importation of Plants with Novel Traits into Canada should be directed to the Plant Biosafety Office.
Any general inquiries regarding the importation of seed into Canada can be directed by sending an email to the Seed Section.
The National Import Service Centre (Toronto) contact information is:
7:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
Telephone: 1-800-835-4486 (Canada or U.S.A.)
1-289-247-4099 (local calls and all other countries)
The Eastern Import Service Centre (Montreal) contact information is:
7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. (Eastern Time)
Telephone: 1-877-493-0468 (Canada or U.S.A.)
1-514-493-0468 (local calls and all other countries)
Find the local CFIA office nearest to the point of import.
C. Seeds Act and Seeds Regulations Requirements
The Seeds Regulations prescribe specific document requirements in order to import seed into Canada. This is necessary in order to verify that seed imported into Canada is free of prohibited noxious weeds and meets the minimum standards for purity and germination for the seed in question.
In order to import seed, the importer must provide a signed statement/declaration including the following:
- the name of the species or crop kind being importedFootnote 1;
- the weight of seed being imported;
- the lot designation of the seed (see Section E);
- the name and address of the exporter;
- the name, address and telephone number of the importer;
- for crop kinds requiring variety registration, the name of the variety (refer to the Seeds Regulations Schedule III);
- the country in which the seed was produced; and
- the intended purpose of importation (see Section O).
Please refer to the CFIA forms in Section G which were developed to facilitate the submission of import information.
The importer must also provide an acceptable certificate of analysis (see Section D) in order to ascertain freedom from prohibited noxious weed seeds, minimum purity standards and acceptable germination percentages.
Please also refer to Section K for possible exemptions from these requirements.
D. Acceptable Seed Analysis Certificate
Acceptable seed analysis certificates (SACs) may be obtained from:
- officially recognized laboratories;
- CFIA accredited graders for large seeded crop kinds;
- seed testing laboratories operating under the supervision of a Senior or Associate member of the Commercial Seed Analysts' Association of Canada;
- seed testing laboratories operating under the supervision of a Registered Seed Technologist registered by the Society of Commercial Seed Technologist;
- a seed testing laboratory operated by or under the authority of a national or state government of a foreign country; or
- a laboratory accredited by the International Seed Testing Association.
These SACs must provide sufficient information on purity and germination to verify that the seed lot meets the minimum standards for importation.
The lot numbers on the SACs must correspond to the lot numbers of the seed being imported. Please also refer to Section E.
E. Lot Designation
The lot number or unique identifier is important for linking the information on various import documents. It must appear on the seed analysis certificate (SAC) and one or more of the other submitted documents, i.e., import declaration form, invoice or blend sheet. It is not sufficient for there to be a lot designation appearing only on the SAC, with no corresponding lot designation on other documents.
There is currently no clear space on the import declaration form for the provision of this information. Please enter this information into Box 20 of the form "Other References".
F. Seed Importation Paper Flow
Please note that this is a general description of the recommended paper flow when importing seed into Canada. This process may vary depending on the specific import.
The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) assigns each shipment a transaction number. The transaction number is a unique 14-digit number. This number is used to identify shipments at various times throughout the customs process. The CBSA assigns these numbers individually to shipments, or in bulk to brokers who can then assign them to shipments. Generally, a shipment has a transaction number prior to it arriving at the border.
The Import Declaration (CFIA/ACIA 4560), the Request for Documentation Review (CFIA/ACIA 5272) and the seed analysis certificate (SAC) are then submitted to the Import Service Centre (ISC) though the Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) or by fax. The ISC confirms that all necessary documents are present. The documentation is then forwarded back to the importer, as well as to the CFIA Saskatoon Laboratory - Seed Science and Technology Section (SSTS). The ISC may also notify the local CFIA office of the import's destination.
In order to facilitate rapid processing of imports, importers are encouraged to submit all appropriate import documentation to the ISC well in advance of the seed being imported into Canada. Please refer to the CFIA forms in Section G.
The Authorized Importer import process is described in Section M.
G. CFIA Forms
Import information should be entered onto the Import Declaration Form (CFIA/ACIA 4560). The importer must sign the declaration form and send it to the Import Service Centre (ISC) closest to the point of entry.
The Import Service Centres and the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) also require the use of a Request for Documentation Review form (CFIA/ACIA 5272).
H. Seed Import Instruction Notice
At the time of importation, the importer presents all import documentation (seed analysis certificate, import declaration & Request for Documentation Review) to the CBSA (at the border, airport, port, etc.). If all documents are present, the seed can then be shipped to destination pending the clearance decision. When seed is authorized for importation into Canada by the Import Service Centre (ISC), the ISC will send a Seed Import Instruction Notice reminding the importer that seed must be kept separate and intact until a notice of import conformity is granted by the Saskatoon Laboratory - Seed Science and Technology Section (SSTS). The notice also reminds the importer of the information and documents required to obtain the notice of import conformity.
I. Separate & Intact
Until such time as a notice of import conformity is issued by the Saskatoon Laboratory - Seed Science and Technology Section (SSTS) indicating that the seed meets the requirements of the Seeds Regulations, the importer is required to keep the seed separate from all other seed and intact in its packaging.
J. Clearance Decision
Upon submission of the required documentation, the Import Service Centre (ISC) will allow the seed to enter Canada pending a notice of import conformity. When seed is released to destination, the ISC forwards the import documentation to the Seed Science and Technology Section (SSTS) for review to determine if the imported seed meets the Canadian requirements including purity and germination. The SSTS will communicate with the importer directly.
The SSTS reviews all import documentation. Once it has been confirmed that the shipment meets the minimum standards under the Seeds Regulations, a notice of import conformity is then issued. It is only at this point that the seed can be released and be sold or planted.
K. Exemptions from Import Documentation Requirements
Please note that these are only exemptions from import documentation and not an exemption from the requirements of the Seeds Act and Regulations. Therefore, the importer is responsible for ensuring that all requirements are met, including freedom from prohibited noxious weed seeds regardless of the exemptions that apply.
- Where the imported seed lot is 5 kg or less for large seeded crop kinds (such as peas, wheat, soybeans and corn) or is 500 g or less for small seeded crop kinds (such as alfalfa, tomato or canola), neither the import declaration information nor the seed analysis certificate need be supplied See Section Y for clarification of importations with multiple small seed lots.
- In order to determine whether the species is "large seeded" or "small seeded", please refer to Section Z. Species with 200 seeds or fewer per gram are considered large seeded. Species with more than 200 seeds per gram are considered small seeded.
- Where the seed is being imported for conditioning (refer to Section P) or for research purposes (refer to Section Q), the seed analysis certificates do not need to include information on the percent germination.
- Seed analysis certificates and import declarations are not required for lots of herb seed that are 5 kg or less, or for flower seed, tree or shrub seed, true potato seed, ginseng, seeds of aquatic plants or onion/garlic multiplier sets. Please note: This exemption does not apply to wildflower mixtures. Importations of seed lots of wildflower mixtures that are greater than 500 g require an import declaration and a seed analysis certificate. Please also refer to Section Y for an explanatory note regarding lot sizes.
- For non-pedigreed seed of forage species, the name of the variety need not be supplied on the import declaration. However, if a variety name appears on any documents accompanying an imported seed lot of a crop kind subject to variety registration, suggesting that the seed is of a variety not registered in Canada, that seed cannot be imported into Canada for sale.
L. Unregistered Varieties and Plants with Novel Traits (PNT)
Varieties of most agricultural crop kinds must be registered under Part III of the Seeds Regulations in order to be imported into or sold in Canada. There are specific exemptions to this requirement set out in section 41 of the Seeds Regulations.
Unregistered varieties may be imported into Canada for:
- seeding by the importer; or
- sale pursuant to subsection 5(4) of the Seeds Regulations.
However, unregistered varieties of wheat may only be imported into the Canadian Wheat Board Area (as defined in subsection 2(2) of the Seeds Regulations) for:
- research; or
- sale pursuant to subsection 5(4) of the Seeds Regulations.
In order to determine if the species you are importing is subject to variety registration, please refer to Schedule III of the Seeds Regulations. In order to determine if the specific variety you are importing is registered, please refer to the Variety Registration page on the CFIA website.
When importing seed of unregistered varieties, importers should be aware that they may be subject to additional regulatory requirements under Part V of the Seeds Regulations if the seed is derived from a plant with a novel trait (PNT).
Transgenic plants and other plants with novel traits (PNTs) including viable plant parts derived from them such as fruit, tubers, seed and grains are subject to the import requirements outlined in Directive D-96-13.
A "novel trait", in respect of seed, means a characteristic of the seed that
- has been intentionally selected, created or introduced into a distinct, stable population of cultivated seed of the same species through a specific genetic change; and
- based on valid scientific rationale, is not substantially equivalent, in terms of its specific use and safety both for the environment and for human health, to any characteristic of a distinct, stable population of cultivated seed of the same species in Canada, having regard to weediness potential, gene flow, plant pest potential, impact on non-target organisms and impact on biodiversity.
Importation into Canada of any PNTs that have not been previously authorized for unconfined release into the Canadian environment under Part V of the Seeds Regulations requires a permit issued under section 43 of the Plant Protection Regulations.
For more information on how to import a PNT, please see Directive D-96-13 "Import Requirements for Plants with Novel Traits, including Transgenic Plants and their Viable Plant Parts".
Although other phytosanitary requirements may still apply, PNT-specific import requirements do not apply to seed conforming to the following exemptions:
1. PNTs authorized for unconfined release in Canada
- PNTs that have been authorized for unconfined release into the Canadian environment under Part V of the Seeds Regulations have already undergone a safety assessment that includes an evaluation of their plant pest potential.
2. Plants derived from those PNTs authorized for unconfined release
- Plants that are further developed from, and are considered substantially equivalent to, an authorized PNT are also exempt from PNT-specific import requirements provided that the intended use is similar, the plants do not contain any additional novel traits, and have not been subject to interspecific breeding.
M. Authorized Importers
Registered Seed Establishments (RSEs) that have been registered as "Authorized Importers" (AI) upon the recommendation of the Canadian Seed Institute (CSI) need only provide their AI number along with the Request for Documentation Review Form (CFIA/ACIA 5272) at the time of importation. They are required to inform their local CFIA office within 30 days of the importation and provide the information required by subsection 40(3) of the Seeds Regulations.
If the seed meets the minimum importation requirements, the seed is released. AIs are required to retain a copy of the notice of import conformity and supporting documentation. If the seed does not meet import requirements, the AI must communicate with the local CFIA office to arrange for appropriate corrective action.
N. Pre-clearance by Authorized Importers
Authorized Importers (AI) may issue import pre-clearance decisions for non-authorized importers prior to the importation of the seed. The AI must notify the local CFIA office nearest to the destination of the seed prior to the importation. The non-authorized importer must supply the information required in Section C and Section D to the AI in advance of the importation. The importer must supply a notice of import conformity issued by the AI along with the Request for Documentation Review Form at the time of importation. Not all Authorized Importers choose to supply this service to the public.
O. Purposes of Importation
When completing the import declaration, the importer must declare the purpose of the importation. Under the Seeds Regulations, there are five purposes of importation:
- sale (see Section S);
- conditioning includes conditioning for re-export (see Section P);
- research (see Section Q);
- seeding by the importer (see Section R); or
- sale/resale pursuant to subsection 5(4) of the Seeds Regulations.
The term "conditioning" means to prepare by cleaning, processing, packing, treating or changing in any other manner the nature of a seed lot. Seed imported for conditioning is exempt from most standards under the Seeds Act and Regulations. However, the importer must provide an acceptable seed analysis certificate at the time of importation to show the lot is free of any prohibited noxious weed seeds. Prior to conditioning, this lot is to be cleared even though it does not meet a minimum grade standard, on the basis of the conditioning exemption. If imported seed will be further cleaned after arrival in Canada please contact the Import Permit Office.
The following are examples of what is considered research for the purposes of the Seeds Regulations only and should not be used to interpret any other regulations.
- Variety registration trials conducted for the purposes of generating data to be reviewed by a committee that is recognized by the Minister as a variety registration recommending committee; and
- Scientific evaluation, such as adaptation trials and/or pest control trials, conducted by a recognized university, provincial or federal department of agriculture or by a plant breeder recognized by the Canadian Seed Growers' Association (CSGA); or confined research field trials conducted under the authority of the Part V of the Seeds Regulations.
Please note that where imported seed is to be crushed and analyzed for chemical purposes, there are no requirements under the Seeds Regulations as the seed is not being imported for propagation. Similarly, where seed is being imported for purity and germination analysis and not for further propagation, the seed is exempt from the requirements of the Seeds Regulations.
R. Seeding by the Importer
Seeding by the importer is defined as the planting of seed on one's own land or on land rented by the owner of the seed.
Sale is defined by the Seeds Act as including: agree to sell, or offer, keep, expose, transmit, send, convey or deliver for sale, or agree to exchange or to dispose of to any person in any manner for a consideration.
T. Seed Importation Fees
For the purposes of calculating fees:
"small shipment" means an imported seed shipment that weighs less than
- 5 kg, in the case of large seeded crop kinds; and
- 500 g, in the case of small seeded crop kinds.
There are no fees for the small shipments described above. For all other shipments by non-Authorized Importers, the fees are:
- For a shipment of 1,500 kg or less: $15.00
- For a shipment of more than 1,500 kg: $0.01 per kg
Authorized Importers (AI) pay an annual authorization fee and are exempt from fees for individual shipments. Please also refer to Section Y for further explanatory notes regarding seed importation fees and lot/shipment sizes.
U. Labelling Requirements for Seed upon Import
Seed is exempt from most of the labelling requirements of the Seeds Regulations at the time of import pursuant to subsection 22(2). However, this exemption is not absolute; the seed must still be labelled with the following prescribed information at the time of import:
1. Seed that has been treated with a pest control product
Where seed has been treated with a pest control product, it must be stained with a conspicuous colour. The seed package must also be marked with the precautionary symbol and signal word prescribed by the Pest Control Products Regulations to indicate the nature and degree of risk inherent to the pest control product along with one of the following statements:
- "Do not use for food or feed. This seed has been treated with (common or chemical name of pest control product)"; or
- "Ne pas utiliser pour l'alimentation des personnes ou des animaux. Cette semence a été traitée avec (nom commun ou chimique du produit antiparasitaire)"
Please note that there may be additional requirements under the Pest Control Products Act when importing seed that has been treated with a pest control product.
2. Label contains a claim that the seed is suitable for shady places
Where seed is described on the label as being suitable for shady places, it must contain no less than forty percent (40%) by weight, of Chewing's fescue, creeping red fescue, or rough bluegrass seed.
Please note that the seed must meet the labelling requirements set out in the Seeds Regulations prior to being sold.
V. Non-traditional Seed Items
The Seeds Act and Regulations apply to the following:
- seed mixed with or attached to any fertilizer, soil, compost, peat, moss, mica, plastic, paper, cellulose or other material including artificial seeds (e.g. seed attached to paper gift cards that directs the purchaser that the packaging/card may be planted to grow plants, seed/fertilizer mixtures, seed coated with polymers, seed tapes, seed mats and lawn patch mixtures); and
- seed designed to be grown in pots for grazing by domestic house pets (e.g. Catgrass).
The applicable provisions of the Fertilizers Act and Regulations apply if a seed contains a fertilizer or supplement component as defined by the Fertilizers Act. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act may also apply.
Please note that "Catgrass" seed is not a recognized species but is rather the end use of a number of possible species such as wheat, barley and oats. It is important for importers to clearly specify the species or kind of seed as well as the variety being imported, e.g., oats, barley, etc. as catgrass. Forage oats are exempt from variety registration, and therefore can be imported and sold without being of a registered variety.
The following seed imports are not subject to the requirements of the Seeds Act and Regulations:
- items such as pottery objects with seeds for ornamental sprouting purposes (Chia Pet);
- seed for the production of sprouts for human consumption (e.g. alfalfa and bean sprouts);
- seeds that are attached to an item solely for decorative purposes (e.g. jewellery made of seeds or pens containing seed in clear tubes);
- seed not represented for the purpose of growing plants;
- seed being imported for use in a food product such as mustard seed or cumin seed;
- seed being imported for laboratory analysis including purity and germination; and
- seed that is imported to be crushed and analyzed for chemical purposes.
W. Seeds Regulated Under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act
Seeds may also be regulated under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.
Importers of industrial hemp, in the form of seed, must be licensed by Health Canada. In addition to holding a licence, they are also required to obtain a permit from Health Canada for each shipment. For more information, please contact the Industrial Hemp Section, Health Canada.
X. False and Misleading Information
It is a contravention of the Seeds Act to provide false or misleading information orally or in writing to an inspector or other officer engaged in carrying out his/her duties or functions under the Act.
- importing seed for own use (seeding by the importer) and then subsequently selling the seed; and/or
- importing seed for research and then subsequently selling the seed.
If following the importation, the importer's intentions for the seed change, the importer must submit a revised import declaration to:
- The Saskatoon Laboratory - Seed Science and Technology Section (SSTS), if the notice of import conformity has not been issued; or
- The nearest CFIA office, if the notice of import conformity has been issued.
Similarly, importations of wheat as grain for food or feed use may not be subsequently used for the purposes of plant propagation unless the required importation documentation has been submitted to the SSTS and a notice of import conformity is issued.
Y. Lot Size and Seed Importation Fees Explanatory Notes
- When determining the weight of seed being imported for the purpose of determining fees and lot sizes, the weight of the seed refers only to the weight of the seed itself. The weight does not include any seed coatings, seed packaging material or any material to which the seed is attached, e.g., seed tape.
- For the purposes of determining whether a "small lot" exemption applies, "seed lot" refers to a quantity of seed to which a unique identifier (such as a variety name or seed lot number) is assigned. There may be one or more packages that make up the seed lot being imported.
- If a seed shipment contains:
- 250 envelopes, each containing 1 g of carrot seed of a variety called "Fred" (250 envelopes x 1 g); and
- the carrot seed is accompanied by equal lot sizes of tomato, beet, and bell pepper seed (3 x 250 g).
- the seed lot sizes are each 250 g; and
- the total weight of the seed shipment is 1 kg (4 x 250 g).
Z. Approximate Number of Seeds per Gram
- Species ≤ 200 seeds per gram = Large seeded species
- Species > 200 seeds per gram = Small seeded species
|Seed type||Scientific Name||Seeds per gram|
|Alkaligrass, weeping||Puccinellia distans||4107|
|Balm, lemon||Melissa officinalis||1713|
|Barley||Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare||30|
|Bean, broad||Vicia faba||1|
|Bean, faba, broad, Chinese||Vicia faba var. faba (Vicia faba var. major)||2|
|Bean, field||Phaseolus vulgaris||4|
|Bean, lima||Phaseolus lunatus||2|
|Bean, runner||Phaseolus coccineus||1|
|Beet, field||Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris||55|
|Beet, sugar||Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris||55|
|Bentgrass, colonial||Agrostis capillaris||13515|
|Bentgrass, colonial (Astoria)||Agrostis capillaris||12985|
|Bentgrass, colonial (Highland)||Agrostis capillaris||12660|
|Bentgrass, creeping||Agrostis stolonifera var. palustris||13515|
|Bentgrass, velvet||Agrostis canina||18180|
|Bentgrass, annual||Poa annua||2635|
|Bentgrass, Kentucky||Poa pratensis||3065|
|Bentgrass, rough||Poa trivialis||4610|
|Bentgrass, supina||Poa supina||3500|
|Bentgrass, wood||Poa nemoralis||4330|
|Broccoli||Brassica oleracea var. botrytis||315|
|Bromegrass, meadow||Bromus riparius||195|
|Brussels sprouts||Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera||315|
|Buckwheat, common||Fagopyrum esculentum||45|
|Buckwheat, tartarian||Fagopyrum tataricum||45|
|Cabbage||Brassica oleracea var. capitata||315|
|Canarygrass, reed||Phalaris arundinacea||1185|
|Canola / Rapeseed||Brassica juncea||625|
|Canola / Rapeseed||Brassica napus||350|
|Canola / Rapeseed||Brassica rapa||540|
|Carrot||Daucus carota subsp. sativus||825|
|Cauliflower||Brassica oleracea var. botrytis||315|
|Celeriac||Apium graveolens var. rapaceum||2094|
|Celery||Apium graveolens var. dulce||2094|
|Celtuce||Lactuca sativa var. angustana||900|
|Chives, garlic||Allium tuberosum||350|
|Citron||Citrullus lanatus var. citroides||11|
|Clover, alsike||Trifolium hybridum||1500|
|Clover, crimson||Trifolium incarnatum||330|
|Clover, hop, large||Trifolium campestre||5435|
|Clover, hop, small||Trifolium dubium||1950|
|Clover, hop, yellow||Trifolium aureum||2200|
|Clover, ladino||Trifolium repens||2000|
|Clover, red||Trifolium pratense||600|
|Clover, strawberry||Trifolium fragiferum||635|
|Clover, subterranean||Trifolium subterraneum||120|
|Clover, sweet||Melilotus officinalis||570|
|Clover, white||Trifolium repens||1500|
|Collards||Brassica oleracea var. viridis||315|
|Coriander (Chinese Parsley)||Coriandrum sativum||95|
|Corn, field||Zea mays subsp. mays||3|
|Corn, pop||Zea mays subsp. mays||3|
|Corn, sweet||Zea mays subsp. mays||4|
|Cowpea||Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata||8|
|Cress, garden||Lepidium sativum||425|
|Cress, upland||Barbarea verna||1160|
|Cress, water||Nasturtium officinale||5170|
|Dogtail, crested||Cynosurus cristatus||1900|
|Emmer||Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccon||25|
|Fescue, Chewings||Festuca rubra subsp. fallax||900|
|Fescue, hard||Festuca brevipila||1305|
|Fescue, meadow||Festuca pratensis||495|
|Fescue, red||Festuca rubra subsp. rubra||990|
|Fescue, sheep's||Festuca ovina||1165|
|Fescue, tall||Festuca arundinacea||455|
|Foxtail, meadow||Alopecurus pratensis||895|
|Kohlrabi||Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes||315|
|Lentil||Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris||20|
|Lespedeza, common||Kummerowia striata||750|
|Lespedeza, Korean||Kummerowia stipulacia||525|
|Lespedeza, sericea||Lespedeza cuneata||820|
|Lettuce||Lactuca sativa var. capitata||1036|
|Lupine, blue||Lupinus angustifolius||7|
|Lupine, white||Lupinus albus||7|
|Lupine, yellow||Lupinus luteus||9|
|Mangel||Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris||55|
|Medick, black||Medicago lupulina||585|
|Millet, foxtail||Setaria italica subsp. italica||480|
|Millet, Japanese||Echinochloa frumentacea||315|
|Millet, pearl||Pennisetum glaucum||180|
|Millet, proso||Panicum miliaceum subsp. miliaceum||185|
|Mint, pepper||Mentha piperita||16660|
|Mint, spear||Mentha spicata||11520|
|Mustard, black||Brassica nigra||1255|
|Mustard, Indian||Brassica juncea||625|
|Mustard, spinach||Brassica rapa var. perviridis||535|
|Mustard, white||Sinapis alba||160|
|Needlegrass, green||Nassella viridula||370|
|Oatgrass, tall||Arrhenatherum elatius||417|
|Pakchoi||Brassica rapa var. chinensis (=Brassica chinensis)||635|
|Pea, field||Pisum sativum||4|
|Pea, garden||Pisum sativum||3|
|Pe-Tsai (Chinese cabbage)||Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis||635|
|Rhubarb||Rheum × hybridum (R. rhaponticum)||60|
|Rye||Secale cereale subsp. cereale||40|
|Ryegrass, annual||Lolium multiflorum||420|
|Ryegrass, perennial||Lolium perenne||530|
|Savory||Satureja hortensis or S. montana||1750|
|Sorghum almum||Sorghum × almum||150|
|Soybean, natto-type||Glycine max||13|
|Spelt||Triticum aestivum subsp. spelta||25|
|Spinach, New Zealand||Tetragonia tetragonoides||13|
|Sudangrass (Sorghum-sundangrass)||Sorghum bicolor nothosubsp. Drummondii (=Sorghum×drummondii; Sorghum sudanense )||100|
|Sunflower (cultivated)||Helianthus annuus||9|
|Thyme, mother-of||Thymus serpyllum||>1000|
|Tomato||Lycopersicon esculentum or L. lycopersicum||405|
|Tomato, husk||Physalis pubescens||1240|
|Trefoil, bird's foot||Lotus corniculatus||815|
|Turnip||Brassica rapa subsp. rapa||535|
|Vetch, common||Vicia sativa subsp. sativa||19|
|Vetch, hairy||Vicia villosa subsp. villosa||35|
|Vetch, Hungarian||Vicia pannonica||24|
|Watermelon||Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus||11|
|Wheat, common||Triticum aestivum||25|
|Wheat, durum||Triticum turgidum subsp. durum (T. durum)||25|
|Wheatgrass, fairway crested||Agropyron cristatum||685|
|Wheatgrass, intermediate||Thinopyrum intermedium subsp. intermedium (=Elytrigia intermedia subsp.intermedia)||175|
|Wheatgrass, northern||Elymus lanceolatus subsp. lanceolatus||370|
|Wheatgrass, pubescent||Thinopyrum intermedium subsp. barbulatum (=Agropyron trichophorum)||180|
|Wheatgrass, slender||Elymus trachycaulus (Agropyron trachycaulum)||295|
|Wheatgrass, standard crested||Agropyron desertorum||430|
|Wheatgrass, streambank||Elymus lanceolatus subsp. riparius||370|
|Wheatgrass, tall||Elytrigia elongata (Agropyron elongatum)||165|
|Wheatgrass, western||Pascopyrum smithii (Agropyron smithii)||250|
|Wildrye, Altai||Leymus angustus (Elymus angustus)||155|
|Wildrye, Dahurian||Elymus dahuricus||190|
|Wildrye, Russian||Psathyrostachys juncea (Elymus junceus)||360|
Source: Association of Official Seed Analysts, 2010
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