Quality System Procedure 142.1: Pedigreed Seed Crop Inspection Procedures - Appendices

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Appendices

Appendix I: Health and Safety Considerations for Inspectors

Part I - Job Hazard Analysis for Crop Inspection

Sequence of Steps Associated Hazards Preventative Measures
1. Notify grower of visit and organize all necessary documents/equipment/ mapsN/AN/A
2. Drive to inspection location (farm)Road conditions, driver fatigue, vehicle conditionDriver training, ensure fleet is properly maintained, and contains a fleet safety kit
3. Inform grower of your arrival and intended workConfrontation with owner or company employeesTry to avoid arguments. If differing opinions ensue, refer such persons to the regulations or a senior inspector. If necessary, leave premises and reschedule inspection.
4. Drive/ walk to fieldRoad conditions, weather conditions. Slip, trip hazard - uneven ground.

Ergonomic concern - lifting, carrying equipment. Working alone, other farm machinery.

Same as # 2. Wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), including footwear. Use proper lifting and carrying techniques as outlined in the Safe Work Practices (SWP). Be aware of surroundings, notify owner of intended fields to be inspected and approximate time for completion. Carry a cellular phone.
5. Conduct a field survey and determine travel patternWeather conditions. Working alone. Other machinery, livestock.Wear appropriate clothing and PPE. Carry a cellular phone. Be aware of surroundings.
6. Conduct crop inspectionWorking alone. Weather conditions, ground conditions. Pesticides, fertilizers, herbicides and insects.Carry a cellular phone. Wear appropriate clothing, sunblock, PPE. Prior to inspection, have owner send all relevant spray schedules of fields to be inspected. Make sure adequate time is allowed between sprays and inspection.
7. Fill out reports (at inspection location)Weather conditionsWear appropriate clothing, PPE, try to fill reports in fleet if available
8. Return to farm/inform owner of completion of inspectionConfrontation with owner or company employeesSame as # 3

General Environmental Conditions: Working alone, extreme weather conditions, ground conditions, fertilizers and pesticides, insects, farm machinery.

Part II - Safe Work Practices for Crop Inspection

All inspection/ testing staff must be aware of the hazards in the environment in which they will be working. Pre-operational checks of the work area are essential to identify unsafe conditions or situations. Unsafe conditions and situations must be corrected before inspection or testing is started. Work should not proceed on third party premises until unsafe conditions and situations are corrected.

Following safe work practices combined with on-the-job training will help reduce the chance of an injury happening to an inspector. The following safe work practices are to be observed when performing testing or inspection tasks outlined in this manual.

Driving and Fleet Requirements

Always be careful where and how you park your vehicle. When you initially stop at the farm to check tags, drive in and turn around. Park so that you can walk in front of your vehicle and drive forward when you leave. Always watch for children and animals that may run out in front of you.

Be sure not to block any access routes (driveways, laneways, etc.). Do not park in front of implement sheds, farm equipment, milk houses or garages.

All inspectors must complete the Defensive Driving Course on the computer as a reference

Training Requirements

Training to perform crop inspection must include as a minimum:

  • completion of the Grower's Pesticide Safety Course;
  • participation in skin cancer prevention training;
  • participation in heat stress prevention training;
  • review of the CFIA Sun Protection Standard;
  • review of the Job Hazard Analysis and Safe Work Practices;
  • an on-the-job hazard awareness walkaround.

Personal Protective Equipment

Inspector must ensure they wear and are trained in the use, care and maintenance of the personal protective equipment as per the scales of entitlement.

  • CSA approved protective footwear;
  • rain suit;
  • coveralls;
  • insect repellent.

Sun Protection - Personal Protective Equipment

  • sun hat;
  • sun screen (SPF 30 or greater);
  • eye protection- includes CSA Z 94.3 & UV protection;
  • 2 litre jug of potable water to drink.

Slip and Fall Prevention

Inspector must reduce the risk of slip, trip and fall accidents by:

  • having equipment stored properly while carrying it into the field;
  • wearing CSA approved protective footwear;
  • keeping footwear tread in good condition- replace at 30% wear;
  • being aware of irrigation pipes and other field hazards;
  • keeping work area and walkways free from debris;
  • following safe work practices.

Third Party Premise Hazards

The inspector must inform the owner/ operator of farm of where inspection is to occur and the expected time of completion. Some areas are quite isolated and it could be difficult to track down an inspector in case of emergency. The inspector must leave a daily schedule of the crops for inspection and approximate times at the CFIA home office at the start of each day. If available, the inspector should carry a cell phone. All inspectors who work alone should take the St. John's Ambulance First Aid and Basic Rescue course.

The inspector must try to avoid getting into arguments with owners/ operators of farm/field. If differing opinions cannot be resolved quickly, the inspector must refer such persons to the pertinent sections of the Regulations or to a senior inspector. If necessary, the inspector must leave the premises and reschedule the inspection.

Heat Stress

Heat stress occurs when the body has difficulties regulating its temperature. It can cause disorders ranging from heat cramps to heat stroke. This occurs when heat causes the body's cooling system to fail, so that the core temperature of the body rises to critical levels of 41°C or more.

Symptoms of heat stroke include: confusion, irrational behaviour, hot and dry skin (usually with a lack of sweating), loss of consciousness and collapse. Heat stroke and heat related disorders are more likely to occur among workers who have not been acclimatized over at least two weeks.

Adequate water (a cup every twenty minutes) should be consumed by the heat exposed worker. Workers should wear loose fitting, tightly woven, lightly coloured clothing. They should ensure they take adequate rest breaks. Refer to attached documents on heat stress.

Pesticides

The inspector must not enter a field that smells of a recent chemical application until the inspector is sure it is safe. The inspector must contact the grower ahead of the time the field will be entered to ensure that pesticides have not been sprayed. This may involve contacting the grower the day before the inspection is scheduled.

Wherever any pesticide has been applied in a field, the grower must ensure that information on the substance, the nature of its harmful effects and precautions for safety are communicated to any inspector who may be entering the fields. The inspector should not depend on the fields being posted with warning signs after they have been sprayed. It is not mandatory by law to post fields, therefore, the farmer is under no legal obligation to post their fields after spraying.

Emergency Procedures

The inspector must be familiar with the emergency procedures of the premise on which the inspector is working and the following:

  • if such a plan does not exist, the inspector must ensure s/he has his own escape route, during all weather conditions and vehicle accessibility;
  • let the CFIA home office know the daily inspection schedule in case of an emergency;
  • ensure the CFIA home office has an emergency contact number (i.e., spouse, children);
  • the use of a two-way communication device, such as a cellular phone or a two-way pager is recommended.

The inspector always have the right to refuse to perform an inspection for occupational safety and health reasons. If the inspector has doubts about his/her safety, or a co-worker's safety, the supervisor must be notified as to the safety issue. The safety issue will be addressed and resolved before the inspector begins work.

Part III - Working in Sun and Heat

Heat and Sun Exposure Hazards

Many CFIA employees work in very hot and humid conditions in abattoirs or walk through acres of crops isolated and alone on very hot days. Ability to withstand heat is affected by:

  • health and fitness level;
  • food and fluid intake;
  • use of alcohol or drugs;
  • pregnancy;
  • history of heat-induced illness.

Hazards from the Sun

  • skin cancers, cataracts, suppression of the immune system, sunburn, wrinkles, dehydration and heat stroke.
  • harmful rays reflect off water, snow, sand or cement and can penetrate light cloud cover, fog and haze.

Heat Stress Symptoms

The inspector must notify the supervisor if experiencing these symptoms and take the necessary steps to protect him/herself: thirst, fatigue, dizziness, confusion, irrational behavior, cramps, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, hot and dry skin, loss of consciousness.

Safety Precautions

  • acclimatize to heat over a few days after returning from time off work;
  • keep fit;
  • wear white in the sun. Long sleeves and large-brimmed hats made of tightly woven fabric block the sun's rays and allow perspiration to evaporate;
  • scarves or wrist bands can be soaked or filled with ice or cold water;
  • wear UV sunglasses;
  • apply sun screen 30SPF+ before exposure and every 2 hrs during periods of exposure;
  • reschedule labour-intensive jobs to cooler parts of the day and year. This may include redesigning work/rest and staffing schedules;
  • drink 250 ml every 20 min. Avoid caffeinated and alcoholic beverages;
  • eat light meals more frequently throughout the day.

Sun and Heat Hazards

Sunburn
Inflammation caused by an increase in the flow of blood beneath the skin.
Increased Aging of Skin
With repeated exposure, skin becomes thin and elastic, resulting in blemishes and wrinkles.
Skin Cancer
There is a 1 in 7 risk of developing skin cancer in your life time. The current risk is greater due to more time spent outside and the thinner ozone layer. There are three types of skin cancer linked to sun exposure.
Basal Cell Cancer
Raised hard red or red-grey wound on body. Usually does not spread easily, easily treatable.
Squamous Cell Cancer
Blemishes develop into rough scaly patches with small areas of open wound that do not heal. Usually curable if treated in time.
Malignant Melanoma
Mole or pigment spot that begins to bleed, grow or change its colour, shape or texture. Rare, but of serious concern. Must be detected early for chance of cure.
Risk Factors
  • blonde, red or light-brown hair;
  • easily freckled;
  • large number of moles;
  • family history;
  • tendency to burn;
  • use of tanning devices;
  • long periods of daily sun exposure;
  • several blistering sunburns as a child.

Examine Your Skin Regularly

Use a small mirror to see your back or ask your partner to examine it. Consult your physician about anything that looks suspicious.

Part IV - Working in the Out-of-Doors

Vehicle Use

  • Pull completely off the road and use emergency flashers when parking on the shoulder;
  • Wear a safety vest;
  • Check vehicle condition frequently to ensure in good working order;
  • Communicate your workplan to your supervisor and check in at planned intervals.

Dogs

  • Observe the area, including around the porch and under cars or hedges.
  • Make noise when getting out of your vehicle. Make sure you can quickly retreat to the vehicle if necessary.
  • If confronted, stand your ground. Back away slowly. Hold your clipboard in front of you.

Preventing a Bear Encounter

  • Make noise! Clap, call out, whistle, sing or talk loudly - especially near streams, dense vegetation and berry patches, on windy days, and in areas of low visibility.
  • Listen and watch for bear signs - tracks, droppings, diggings, torn-up logs, turned-over rocks. Leave the area if the signs are fresh.
  • Leave the area if you come across large dead animals.
  • If the bear has not detected you, do not shout to attract its attention. Back off slowly towards cover.

Handling an Encounter

  • Stay calm. Do not alarm the bear. They may bluff by charging or be defensive by growling, jaw-snapping or laying their ears back. The bear has been frightened. This is an attempt to establish dominance without fighting, thus avoiding injury. Allow it a chance to retreat.
  • Speak to the bear calmly and firmly. If a bear rears on its hind legs and waves its nose about, it is trying to identify you.
  • Back away slowly, never run as this may trigger a pursuit... and you will lose.
  • Keep your pack on for protection.

Handling a Bear Contact

  • If you happen to startle a bear - play dead. Lie on you stomach with legs apart. Put your hands behind your neck. This makes you less vulnerable to being flipped over. Remain still.
  • If attack lasts more than 2 minutes - fight back!
  • If the bear is stalking you and attacks - try to escape into a building, car or up a tree. Do not play dead. Fight back!
  • Intimidate the bear: shout, extend your arms to look big; hit it with a branch or rock. Do whatever it takes.

Bear Spray

  • Be confident you can rapidly draw your spray.
  • If the bear is within 6-8 m and closing, a couple of short blasts at its face may discourage the charge.
  • Do not discharge into the wind.

Cougar Encounter

  • Look big. Talk calmly. Slowly back away.
  • If the cougar becomes more assertive, shout loudly, wave and throw things.
  • Convince the cougar that you are not prey.

Ticks

  • Wear light-colored clothing to spot them easily.
  • Tuck pant legs into socks or boots and shirt into pants.
  • Wear a hat and long-sleeved shirt.
  • If embedded, use tweezers to grasp it near its head or mouth and pull it straight out with a slow and steady motion.

Insect Bites

  • Avoid colognes. Wear insect repellent containing DEET and apply 20-30 minutes after applying sunscreen.
  • Wear long-sleeved shirt and pants.
  • Wear white or neutral colors.
  • If stung by a bee, scrape out the stinger. Clean the area with soapy water. Apply cold for 15 min. Take a pain killer or antihistamine for itching and swelling. For serious reactions, get help immediately.

Thunderstorms

Take cover indoors or in your vehicle when possible. Get out of aluminum frames of doorways and windows. Do not touch any metal parts of the vehicle. Tires do not provide protection from lightning (nor do rubber-soled shoes.) Turn the radio off.

Avoid trees. Lightning often hits trees, travels down the trunk and may explode the bark. The charge then spreads out on the ground. Go to a low lying area; brush is better than trees because it has "disbursed streamers" which do not act as lightning rods. Get off ridges, peaks, roofs or towers. Avoid rocks and being near others.

Stay low. Put your ankles and knees together and crouch down or drop to your knees and bend forward, putting your hands on your knees. Do not lie flat on the ground because electrical current from a strike can easily travel through your vital organs.

Get rid of the metal objects. This includes your ball cap with a metal rivet around the hole at the top, your keys and umbrella with metal in it. It is safe to use your cellphone.

Avoid Rattlesnakes

  • Rattlesnakes can be found in hot, dry regions.
  • Walk in areas where the ground is clear, so you can see where you step. Check the shade of your car. Do not put your hands in areas where you cannot see, such as ledges, cracks or holes.
  • Use a walking stick to alert snakes and other animals of your presence.
  • Wear protective clothing such as long heavy pants, high boots and gloves when moving rocks or brush.

First Aid for Snakebites

  • Wash bite with clean water and soap.
  • Immobilize area and keep it lower than the heart.
  • If the bite is on the hand or arm remove any rings, watches or tight clothing. Get medical help immediately.
  • If a victim is unable to reach medical care within 30 minutes, wrap a bandage (2-4 inches) above the bite to slow venom. The bandage should not cut off blood flow. A suction device may be placed over the bite to help draw venom out of the wound without making cuts. Suction instruments often are included in commercial snakebite kits.

Part V - Additional Information

Chemical Usage

Before entering fields, inspectors should be aware of the grower's plan for pesticide application. If a field has been treated recently, the inspector should be informed of the product applied and of the safe re-entry time. Appendix II contains a listing of commonly used pesticides. It is the inspector's responsibility to ensure that the field is safe to inspect and that they will not be putting themselves at risk by completing the inspection. If growers have an application planned, they must inform the inspector of this so that inspections can be rescheduled and to ensure that inspectors can be aware of spray planes in the area.

Environmental Risks

Inspectors may be faced with unexpected risks. It is important that inspectors know how to deal with these risks. In any situation, the inspector must remain calm, and seek the appropriate help. Common risks that inspectors face are insect bites and confrontations with wildlife such as bears, wild turkeys, and lynx.

Bees and Other Insects

For some crop species, bee hives are placed in the field to facilitate cross-pollination. However, bees may represent a safety and health risk. Early mornings or cloudy days are better times for inspection, rather then the heat of the afternoon, as bees are most active at this time. The use of netting over exposed skin is recommended if the netting does not cover the face, as this netting interferes with detecting off types during crop inspection. It should be noted that some bee species are more aggressive than others (native bumble bee vs Argentina bees).

Depending on the species of bee, some hives are large and clearly visible in the field, while other bee hives are small and hidden in the grass along isolation zones in the perimeter of the field. When one or two bees bounce off a person, this is an indication or warning that the person is too close to their hive.

If being attacked by bees, the inspector should run to a densely wooded area, water or vehicle. The inspector should never lie down in the field and try to cover himself.

It may be useful for an inspector to carry a current Epi-Pen and/or over-the-counter allergy tablets. Epi-Pens are made so one can inject quickly through denim jeans, as someone who is allergic must act promptly. First signs of severe allergic reaction are numbness of the lips, tongue, face and swelling of the throat. Use of an Epi-Pen will only provide enough time to reach a hospital. Allergy tablets are ineffective if the throat is swollen.

In some regions, an insect known as the blister beetle may be encountered. If one rubs against this black beetle, it may cause skin blisters. Some people may have an allergic reaction to this insect.

West Nile Virus

Persons who work outdoors where there is increased risk of exposure to mosquito bites (e.g., where there is standing water, stagnant pools, or in swampy or wooded areas), or whose occupation may place them at risk of infection by mosquito bite or by handling of dead birds or animals should consider the following recommendations.:

  • Wear long sleeved shirts and full length trousers (two layers of clothing make biting more difficult but obviously this may be hazardous in warm weather or while doing heavy work). In hot conditions where there is an increased risk, special suits of a mesh material with elasticized cuffs and attached hoods can be obtained.
  • High boots and taping or sealing the ends of trousers is useful to prevent mosquito bites. Wear light colored clothing as it is less attractive to mosquitos.
  • Use personal insect repellents containing DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and related compounds) on exposed skin following label directions carefully. Keep repellent away from eyes and mouth. Wash your hands after applying repellent and before eating and drinking. Personal insect repellent products contain DEET in varying concentrations. When applied to exposed skin, products with lower concentrations of DEET are as effective at repelling mosquitoes as products containing higher concentrations of DEET. However, products with higher concentrations of DEET remain effective for longer periods of time. For example, products containing 10% DEET technical (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and related compounds) provide approximately 3 hours of protection whereas products containing 30% DEET technical provide approximately 6 hours of protection. Adults should not use products containing more than 30% DEET technical.

Note: Refer to the safety tips as indicated in Health Canada's Information sheet "Safety Tips on Using Personal Insect Repellents".

Always read the insect repellent product label and follow the directions carefully.Certain DEET containing products can be applied to clothing. Read and follow instructions carefully. Keep repellent away from eyes and mouth. Wash your hands after applying repellent.

If practical, work outdoors when it is cooler and there is brisk air movement or when there is strong sunlight. Mosquitoes are less active in these weather conditions. If practical, stay indoors at dawn and dusk and in the early evening hours when mosquitoes are more active.

Symptoms

For people with a more severe case, symptoms could include the rapid onset of any of the following: severe headache, high fever, stiff neck, nausea, difficulty swallowing, vomiting, drowsiness, confusion, loss of consciousness, lack of coordination, muscle weakness and paralysis. Other symptoms that have been identified include movement disorders, Parkinsonism, poliomyelitis-like syndrome and muscle degeneration. Anyone who has a sudden onset of these symptoms should seek immediate medical attention.

How it Spreads

West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-borne virus. Mosquitoes transmit the virus after becoming infected by feeding on the blood of birds which carry the virus.

Lyme Disease

Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, Lyme disease is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis and is endemic in the north eastern and Great Lakes regions of the US. The disease can be characterized by special rash (i.e., erythema migrans) at an early stage. In the later stage, however, the disease involves major organ systems such as musculoskeletal, nervous, and cardiovascular systems.

Driving and Walking Hazards

There are specific hazards in driving and walking during crop inspection. In and around farm roads, there may be hidden rocks, culverts, irrigation pipes or ditches. Farm bridges will vary as to the quality of their maintenance and may be unstable. Inspectors should be alert for animal burrows that represent a tripping hazard. Inspectors must never drive through a swathed crop of loose hay because of the potential to lose traction at any time.

Appendix II: List of Potential Pesticides present during Crop Inspection

The following lists include commonly applied pesticides. This list does not include all pesticides that may be applied, nor is it conclusive in the crop kinds that the products may be applied to. It is the inspector's responsibility to contact the grower to verify that the field is safe to inspect. Growers are responsible for informing inspectors of their intentions to apply pesticides.

Fungicides

Trade Name Common Name Crop Kinds Re-Entry Time
BenlateBenomylalfalfa, beans, canola24 hrs
BravoChlorothalonillentils, peas, wheat48 hrs
Dithane DG Rainshield NTMancozebalfalfa, wheat24 hrs
Kumulus DFSulfurpeaswhen dry
Manzate 200-DFMancozebwheat24 hrs
Clean CropCopper 53WCopper hydroxidebeanN/A
ParasolCopper hydroxidebeanN/A
QuadrisAzoxystrobincanolawhen dry
Ronilan EGVinclozolinbean, canolano time
Rovral FloIprodionecanola12 hrs
Senator 70WPThiophanate-methylbeanN/A
Tilt 250EPropiconazolebarley, canola, oats, wheat24 hrs

Insecticides

Trade Name Common Name Crop Kinds Re-Entry Time
Ambush/PouncePermethrinmostwhen dry
Sevin, EcobaitCarborylmost24 hrs
Cygon, LagonDimethoatemost48 hrs
Malathion, FyfanonMalathionmost12 hrs
Lorsban, PyrinexChlorpyriphosmost48 hrs
DecisDelta methrinemost24 hrs
MatadorCyhalophrin-Lambdamost24 hrs
Cymbush, RipcordCypermethrinmostno time
DiazinonDiazinonvegetable cropsN/A
FuradanCarbofurancanola, mustard, potatoes, sugar beets48 hrs
DyloxTrichlorfonmost24 hrs
Guthion APM, SniperAzinphosmethylpotatoes, alfalfa, clover, rye4 days

Note: For areas where the average rainfall is less than 63 mm/year re-entry interval is 5 days.

Herbicides

Most fields will not be sprayed with herbicides during the crop inspection period. As a result the following chemical list is restricted to products applied to crop kinds that are inspected early.

Trade Name Common Name Crop Kinds Re-Entry Time
Compas 480EBromoxynilcanola12 hrs
Round UpGlyphosatecanolawhen dry
LibertyGlufosinate ammoniumcanola24 hrs
PursuitImazethapyrcanola, peasno time
Poast LSethoxydincanola, peas, lentil, flaxno time
GramoxoneParaquatcorn24 hrs
RegloneDiquatcanola , soybeans24 hrs

Appendix III: Count Area Calculation

The table below should be used to establish a count area for the detailed inspection. Inspectors must perform the area counts for the crops they inspect. The table shows the area that will contain approximately 10,000 plants when the number of plants per metre of row and the row spacing are known.

Approximate Area (in the nearest square metre) Required for 10,000 Plants as Determined by Plant Population and Row Spacing

Average No. of plants per metre of rowDistance between rows 15 cm (6")Distance between rows 18 cm (7")
16.593108
188498
19.57790
21.57283
236678
24.56272
265868
285564
29.55260
314957
334654
34.54452
364249
37.54047
39.53945
413743
42.53642
443440
463339
47.53237
493136
52.52934
55.52732
592630
62.52429
65.52327
692226
722125
75.52024
78.51923
821922
83.51821
88.51720
921719
951619
98.51618
101.51517
1051417
1081416
111.51416
1151316
1181315

Appendix IV: Abbreviations Recognized by CSGA for use on Crop Inspection Reports

Part I: Instructional Codes used by CSGA

AHC: the inspector is asked to verify with the grower the after harvest cultivation practices used on the field in question and provide the information on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection.

ARE: the inspector is asked to provide information on the area of the crop in acres on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection.

CPC: the inspector is asked to verify with the grower the variety, kind and crop certificate numbers issued to cover the crops grown on this land for the last two years and provide this information on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection.

DESC: If the inspector was provided a description of variety by the applicant, the inspector is requested to provide this description to the CSGA with the Report of Seed Crop Inspection.

FPC, FP3, FP5, RP3, RP5, S3C: the previous land use has not been verified; the inspector is requested to obtain this information from the grower and provide it on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection. Where a number is indicated in the code, this is the number of years of previous land use for which CSGA is requesting information. For FPC, two years of previous land use information is requested.

GEN: The crop does not appear to be eligible for pedigreed seed crop certification. The inspector is requested to verify with the grower whether the inspection is for land use, re-certification or if the inspection is to be cancelled.

LOK: the previous land use has been accepted; no other verification is required.

PED: It appears that the Crop Certificate number of the seed used to plant this crop does not agree with CSGA records. The inspector is requested to send the tags representing the seed used to plant this crop to the CSGA.

TAG, TAGCC, TAGNE: the inspector is asked to attach a representative seed tag to the original copy of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection for forwarding to CSGA. In the case of TAGCC, the previously submitted tag did not contain a valid crop certificate number and a corrected tag is requested. In the case of TAGNE, the previously submitted tag was not issued by a seed certification agency.

YRS: The inspector is requested to contact the grower and provide CSGA with the month and year that the crop was planted.

0P: indicates that a grower is authorized to begin probationary period for plot production.

1P, 1Q: indicates that a grower has completed one year of probation plot production.

2P, 2Q: indicates that a grower has completed two years of probation plot production.

3P, 3Q: indicates a grower has completed his probation period but is not yet fully accredited as a plot producer.

Part II: Codes that may by used by Inspectors*

Abbreviation Impurity
2RTwo rowed
2RRATwo rowed rough awned
2RSATwo rowed smooth awned
6RSix rowed
6RRASix rowed rough awned
6RSASix rowed smooth awned
AC (on flax)Anthocyanin coloured pods
AC (canola)Apetalous canola (no petals)
ALAwns long
ARAwns rough
ARCHAwned and red chaffed
ARCTAwned, redchaffed and tall
ASAwns short
ASSMAwns semi-smooth
ASTAwns smooth, tall plants
ATAwned and tall
AWAwns white
AWCAwned and white chaffed
AWCTAwned, white chaffed and tall
BAAwns black
BARBBarbs
BATAwns black and tall plants
BCHBrown chaffed
BFFFlowers with blue filaments
BUSHBush type plants
ERErect plants
FATFatuoid oats
FISFertile in sterile
FWOFalse wild oats
GIXGlume awns same length as glume
G2XGlume awns twice length of glume
G3XGlume awns three times length of glume
GBLGlume beak is long
GBSGlume beak is short
HOHulless oat
HRSWHard red spring wheat
LMLater (less mature)
LPLeafy plants
LWFLeafed, white flowers
NANo awns (awnless)
NABGTNo awns, brown glumes tall plants
NAPUSNapus (Argentine type)
NARCNo awns and red chaffed
NARCTNo awns, red chaffed tall plants
NATNo awns, tall plants
NAWCNo awns and white chaffed
NAWGTNo awns, white glumes and tall plants
PDBPetals are dark blue
PFLPurple flowered, leafed
PFSLPurple flowered, semi-leafless
PLBPetals are light blue
PWPetals are white
RAPARapa (polish type) canola
RCRed chaffed
RSRed spring
SASmooth awns
SFSummer fallow
SLPSemi-leafless plants
STSterile plants
TCOTan chaffed oat
TFTall flax
TLTaller and later plants
TLGOTaller, lighter green oats
TPFTaller, purple flowered
TPLATaller and purple on leaf axis
TPSTaller and purple on stem
TWPTaller, white flowers
VINEVine type
WCTWhite chaffed, taller plants
WFFFlowers with white filament
WFLWhite flowered, leafed
WFRWhite flowered rapeseed
WMWild mustard
WNSSWill not set seed
WOWild oats

* This list has been approved by the CSGA for use in all parts of Canada except Quebec. This list differs from that to be used in Quebec in order to allow Quebec staff to use abbreviations that are meaningful to them and to respect the crop kinds grown in Quebec. Inspectors wishing additions to this list may consult with the contact person listed on page 4 of this document.

Appendix V: Other Crop Kinds to Report in Counts

Cereals

Inspected Crop Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
BarleyAll cereals, buckwheat
CanaryseedFlax
OatsAll cereals, fatuoids
RyeAll cereals
TriticaleAll cereals
WheatAll cereals

Report these crop kinds found in inspected cereal crops on a per count basis

Grasses

Inspected Crop Kind Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
BentgrassesRedtop, bluegrasses, orchardgrass, other bentgrasses
BluegrassesOther bluegrasses, bentgrasses, orchardgrass, redtop
BromegrassesMeadow fescue, other bromegrasses, wheatgrasses, wild ryes
FescuesBromegrasses, other fescues, ryegrasses, wheatgrasses, wild ryes
JunegrassBentgrasses, bluegrasses, orchardgrass, redtop
NeedlegrassBromegrasses, fescues, ryegrasses, wheatgrasses, wildryes
OrchardgrassBentgrasses, bluegrasses, redtop
RedtopBentgrasses, bluegrasses, orchardgrass
Reed CanarygrassNone
RyegrassesFescues, other ryegrasses, wheatgrasses
TimothyNone
WheatgrassesBromegrasses, fescues, ryegrasses, other wheatgrasses, wild ryes
Wild RyeFescues, wheatgrasses, other wild ryes

Report these crop kinds found in inspected grass crops on a per area inspected basis (e.g., alsike: 4 per 10 m2)

Legumes

Inspected Crop Kind Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
AlfalfaSweet clover, red clover, canola
Alsike CloverTimothy, birdsfoot trefoil, white clover, black medick
Bird's-foot TrefoilWhite clover, alsike clover, black medick
Black medickAlsike clover, birdsfoot trefoil, white clover
Chickling vetchChickpea, lentil, pea
Cicer milkvetch, crownvetchCanola, other vetch species
Red CloverAlfalfa, sweet clover
SainfoinBarley, oats, wheat
Sweet CloverAlfalfa, red clover
White cloverAlsike clover, birdsfoot trefoil, black medick

Report these crop kinds found in inspected legume crops on a per area inspected basis (e.g., alsike: 4 per 10 m2) with the exception of chickling vetch which must be reported based on counts of 10,000 plants.

Oil Seed - Crops Difficult to Separate

Inspected Crop Kind Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
Canola, rapeseedMustard, oilseed radish, white mustard
MustardCanola, oilseed radish, rapeseed, white mustard
Oilseed radishMustard, canola, rapeseed, white mustard
White mustardMustard, canola, rapeseed, oilseed radish

Report these crop kinds found in inspected oilseed crops on a per count basis

Pulse Crops

Inspected Crop Kind Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
Bean, FababeanOther bean types, soybeans, peas
Lentil, lupinNone
Pea/ChickpeaFababeans, soybeans, beans, other pea types
SoybeanOther bean types, corn, lupins, peas

Report these crop kinds found in inspected pulse crops on a per count basis

Special Crops

Inspected Crop Kind Other Crop Kinds to be Reported in Counts
BuckwheatAll cereals
Camelina, corianderNone
CanaryseedFlax
FenugreekCanaryseed, Flax
FlaxCanaryseed
Hybrid asparagus, industrial hempNone
MilletSorghum
Niger, Phacelia tanacetifolia, safflowerNone
SorghumMillet
Sugar beetFodder beet, mangel, red beet, swiss chard
SunflowerNone
TobaccoNone

Report these crop kinds found in special crops on a per count basis with the exception of coriander and niger which are reported on an area basis.

Appendix VI: Weeds to Report in the Inspected Crop

All Class 1 Prohibited Noxious weed species are to be reported in all crops as objectionable weeds.

Inspected Crop Kinds Difficult to Separate Weeds (Report in Counts) Objectionable Weeds (Report by Frequency)
OatsWild oatsCleavers (bedstraw)
Dock*
Stickseed
Stinkweed
Tartarian buckwheat
Wild buckwheat
Wild mustard
BuckwheatTartarian buckwheat
Cleavers (bedstraw)
Dock*
Sterile oats
Stickseed
Stinkweed
Wild buckwheat
Wild mustard
Wild oats
Barley
Rye
Triticale
Wheat
NoneCleavers (bedstraw)
Dock*
Sterile oats
Stickseed
Stinkweed
Tartarian buckwheat
Wild buckwheat
Wild mustard
Wild oats
Canola
Rapeseed
Mustard
Oilseed radish
Cleavers (bedstraw)
Wild mustard
Wild radish
Ball mustard and dog mustard
Lady's thumb
Stickseed
Smartweed
Chickpeas
Fababeans
Lupins
Lentils
Peas
NoneCleavers (bedstraw)
Large seeded vetches
Nightshade*
Sterile oats
Wild mustard
Wild oats
Field beansNoneNightshade*
Velvetleaf
SoybeansNoneField bindweed
Nightshade*
Velvetleaf
Alfalfa
Black medick
Cicer milkvetch
Crown vetch
Red clover
Sainfoin
Sweet clover
NoneAmerican dragonhead
Bladder campion
Canada thistle
Cleavers (bedstraw)
Cow cockle
Dock*
Giant foxtail
Green foxtail
Hemp nettle
Kochia
Night-flowering catchfly
Redroot pigweed
Round leaf mallow
Russian pigweed
Russian thistle
Stickseed
White cockle
Wild mustard
Alsike clover
Birdsfoot Trefoil
Persian clover
White clover
NoneAmerican dragonhead
Bladder campion
Canada thistle
Cleavers (bedstraw)
Dock*
Giant foxtail
Green foxtail
Hemp nettle
Kochia
Lady's thumb
Lamb's quarters
Night-flowering catchfly
Redroot pigweed
Russian pigweed
Russian thistle
Stickseed
White cockle
Wild mustard
Chickling vetchNoneCleavers (bedstraw)
Large seeded vetches
Nightshade*
Sterile oats
Wild mustard
Wild oats
BromegrassCouchgrass
Downy brome
Barnyard grass
Canada thistle
Giant foxtail
Green foxtail
Lamb's quarters
Wild oats
Fescues
Ryegrasses
Needlegrass
Wheatgrasses (other than green wheatgrass)
Wild ryes
CouchgrassBarnyard grass
Beckmann's grass
Beggars tick
Canada thistle
Cinquefoils*
Cleavers
Dock*
Downy brome
Giant foxtail
Green foxtail
Hawk's beard
Lamb's quarters
Persian darnel
Russian pigweed
Scentless chamomile
Shepherd's purse
Sow thistle*
Stickseed
Stinkweed
Wild barley
Wild oats
Green wheatgrassNoneas per other wheatgrasses (above)
Bentgrasses
Bluegrasses
Junegrass
Orchardgrass
Redtop
Reed canarygrass
NoneBarnyard grass
Canada thistle
Chickweeds*
Cinquefoils*
Cleavers
Couchgrass
Crabgrass*
Dock*
Flixweed
Heal-all
Lamb's quarters
Night-flowering catchfly
Ox-eye daisy
Panic grass
Rat's-tail fescue
Stickseed
Windgrasses
Industrial hempBroomcorn (Orobanche sp.)
Hemp nettle
None
Millet
Sorghum
NoneBarnyard grass
Giant foxtail
Green foxtail
Yellow foxtail
Niger
Dill
NoneVetches
FlaxNoneCow cockle
Night-flowering catchfly
Sterile oats
Stinkweed
Stickseed
Wild oats
TimothyOx-eye daisyBarnyard grass
Bladder campion
Canada thistle
Chickweeds*
Cleavers (bedstraw)
Couchgrass
Narrow leafed hawk's-beard
Night-flowering catchfly
Sow thistle*
Scentless chamomile
Stickseed
Stinkweed
White cockle
Wild mustard
CamelinaNonePrickly lettuce
Stinkweed
Shepherd's purse
CanaryseedNoneCleavers (bedstraw)
Cow cockle
Green foxtail
Night-flowering catchfly
Sterile oats
Stickseed
Stinkweed
Wild buckwheat
Wild mustard
Wild oats
Asparagus hybrids
Coriander
fengreek
Safflower
sugar beet
sunflower
tobacco
NoneNone

* Alternate common names:

Dock: Curled dock; Broad leaved dock; Clustered dock; Fiddle dock.

Nightshade species: Eastern Black nightshade; American nightshade; Climbing nightshade; Hairy nightshade; Smooth ground cherry; Clammy ground cherry; Wild tomato.

Cinquefoils: Rough cinquefoil; Sulfur cinquefoil; Silvery cinquefoil.

Sow thistle: Annual sow thistle; Perennial sow thistle.

Crabgrass: Large crabgrass; Smooth crabgrass.

Chickweeds: Common chickweed; Mouse-eared chickweed; Field chickweed.

Appendix VII: Recommended Procedures for Sampling Plants or Plant Parts for Laboratory Identification and Investigations

While counting, describing and recording the presence of suspected deviant plants during crop inspection, there may be a need to confirm their status. These plants may be sampled and sent to the Seed Science Unit of the Ottawa Plant Laboratory - Fallowfield. Only submit samples when confirmation is required to determine if they are off-types or variants.

When possible, entire plants should be sampled. At the very least, heads or panicles including the culm and upper node of cereal crops should be sampled. When collecting and packaging plants, care must be taken to cause as little damage to the plants as possible. In order to maintain the integrity of the sample, each type of suspicious plants must be packaged separately from the sample of the norm of the variety; each package must be accurately labelled.

Soybean and bean plants should be individually wrapped in paper or plastic bags (if the plants are dry enough).

In the case of corn, one main ear from the suspected deviant plant may be harvested.

If it is suspected that there is more than one deviant type in the crop, the inspector may submit all suspected deviant plants to the Seed Science Unit, providing that they are kept separate.

The inspector must collect 5 or 6 suspected deviant plants of each type and proceed to collect and properly label a sample of five to six plants from the normal bulk of the variety in a separate envelope or paper bag. These are to be labelled as NB (normal bulk).

The inspector must include a LSTS sample submission form and a photocopy of the crop inspection report giving a brief description of the off-types. The sample code to be used is IDS. The inspector's name must be legible to assist the Seed Science Unit in forwarding results. When samples are submitted, the inspector must note on the Report of Seed Crop Inspection that samples have been submitted to the Seed Science Unit.

These samples can be shipped by Canada Post or courier, to the attention of the Seed Science Unit, Ottawa Plant Laboratory (Fallowfield), 3851 Fallowfield Rd., Building No. 210, Ottawa, Ontario K2H 8P9.

When submitting samples of varieties not registered in Canada for varietal testing, the inspector is asked to include a copy of the variety description with the sample.

Include the fax number or e-mail address to which the results should be sent.

Note: Some off-types may be confirmed on the basis of morphological characteristics while others may require some other tests in the laboratory necessitating a longer return time. The test reports are copied to the CSGA, Seed Section and the Area Program Specialist (Seeds). Casual inspectors may not receive feedback from the samples they collected due to the time frame needed for analysis.

Appendix VIII: Procedures for Reduced Plant Counts

When under exceptional circumstances, six counts of 10,000 plants each cannot be conducted due to the variety, and the nature or number of the variants and/or off-types that are found (based on experience with the variety or on three initial plant counts of 1,000 plants), or where the variety description indicates a single variant with maximum allowable levels in excess of 200 per 10,000 plants.

1. The following procedure will be used for species for which the CSGA standards for off-types or other varieties of the same crop kind are:

Foundation and Registered: 1 per 10,000 plants
Certified: 5 per 10,000 plants

A = take 15 additional plant counts of 1000 plants to allow CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets current standard;
B = take 10 additional plant counts of 1000 to allow CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets current standard;
C = take 5 additional plant counts of 1000 plants to allow CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets standard at demoted level;
D = discontinue counts.

Crops producingInitial Counts of 1000 plantsTotal Off-types found in initial counts
0123456>6
Foundation15
DAADCCCD
Registered15DAADCCCD
Certified10DDDDBBBD

2. The following procedure will be used for species for which the CSGA standards for off-types or other varieties of the same crop kind are:

Foundation and Registered: 2 per 10,000 plants
Registered: 4 per 10,000 plants
Certified: 20 per 10,000 plants

A = take 15 additional plant counts of 1000 plants to allow CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets current standard;
B = take 10 additional plant counts of 1000 to allow CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets current standard;
C = take 5 additional plant counts of 1000 plants to allow CSGA to clearly determine if the crop meets standard at demoted level;
D = discontinue counts.

Crops producingInitial Counts of 1000 plantsTotal Off-types found in initial counts
0-12-345-67-1617-21>21
Foundation15
DADCDCD
Registered15
DDDADCD
Certified10
DDDDDBD

In those exceptional circumstances where reduced counts are used, this must clearly be highlighted along with an explanation of why the reduced count procedure was used. When reduced count sizes are used, the inspector must immediately provide the grower, the CSGA, and the lead inspector or inspection supervisor with a copy of the Report of Seed Crop Inspection.

Appendix IX: Travel Patterns for Crop Inspection

The following diagrams are suggested patterns to be used as general guidelines. As each inspection must consist of a minimum of 6 representative counts in the crop, the inspector should divide the field into 6 equivalent areas and randomly take a count in each area. Patterns A and B are taken from the AOSCA Suggested Sampling Procedure For Inspecting Fields For Seed Certification. All examples are based on a hypothetical rectangular 40 hectare (100 acre) field.

Pattern A

Pattern A
This pattern covers seven-eights of the crop and requires the inspector step out of the pattern to reach the isolation or check the isolations when accessing the crop. The most remote part of the crop is sufficiently close to the inspector walking the pattern so that the pattern can be easily varied to examine any part of the crop that appears doubtful from a distance.

Pattern B

Pattern B
This pattern is a shorter travel pattern than pattern A that covers about one-half of the crop and requires the inspector step out of the pattern to reach the isolation or check the isolations when accessing the crop.

Pattern C

Pattern C
This pattern satisfactorily covers the inspection of the crop but not the isolation. The central area of the crop is covered twice while the outer edges of the middle are not approached. Using this pattern, the inspector must divert from the travel pattern to check the isolation and possibly to take counts as well.

Pattern D

Pattern D
This pattern adequately covers all areas of the crop including the isolation. However, this pattern is more time consuming. It may be useful for small fields, plots and crop requiring close scrutiny due to previously identified problems with the variety. If the inspector needs to exit the crop on the side of entry, the inspector may modify the pattern by the addition or deletion of one pass.

Pattern E

Pattern E
The diamond pattern is commonly used. It allows for verification of the isolation as well as the crop. The inspector may need to divert from the pattern in order to examine the central part of the crop if it appears doubtful from a distance.

Pattern F

Pattern F
This pattern may be used when two inspectors are available for simultaneous inspection or when the crop condition prohibits mobility in one corner of the crop.

Appendix X: Official Verification of Isolation Corrective Action Notice

Attention !

OFFICIAL Verification of ISOLATION May Be Required
by the Canadian Seed Growers' Association (CSGA)

The following crop(s) may not have met isolation requirements "at the time of inspection".

Sequence # (and / or Field No.) space

Variety space

Acreage space

Sequence # (and / or Field No.) space

Variety space

Acreage space

Sequence # (and / or Field No.) space

Variety space

Acreage space

You can confirm this by comparing the isolation distance(s) for the above crop(s), on your "Report of Seed Crop Inspection", with the isolation requirements in the CSGA's "Canadian Regulations and Procedures for Pedigreed Seed Production (Circular 6 and its amendments)". These Regulations (Circular 6) are available from the CSGA office by phone: (613) 236-0497, fax: (613) 563-7855 or from the Regulations section on CSGA's website at: www.seedgrowers.ca.

Isolation requirements must be "officially" verified for CSGA to certify seed crops.

When the required isolation is NOT present at the time of crop inspection, one of the following two options must be chosen. Both options involve a re-inspection that must be arranged directly with the local CFIA office or seed crop inspector recognized by the CSGA in order to verify the isolation corrective action(s).

Options:

  1. The isolation can be corrected and then verified "prior to harvest"; OR
  2. For crop kinds in Sections 2, 3 and 12 of Circular 6, an isolation perimeter strip of the required distance can be left standing in the seed crop and verified "after harvest". This is not an option for most cross-pollinated crop kinds such as canola and forage grasses and legumes.

Note: Re-inspection fees are paid directly to CFIA, by a cheque to the Receiver General for Canada, at the rate of $60.00 per hour including travel with a minimum charge of $90.00 per inspection visit and all fees are subject to GST. Re-inspections are subject to staff availability and completion of initial inspections of pedigreed seed crops.

For a re-inspection, please contact the following local inspector or office

Name: space

Telephone: space

Fax: space

E-mail: space

Address: space

Inspector (Signature) :space

(ID Number) space (Date) space

Appendix XI: CSGA Pedigreed Class Codes

Class CodeClass Name
0Pre-variety Germplasm
1Foundation
2Registered
3Synthetic Select
4Certified
5Breeder
6Select
7Certified OECD
8Re-Certified
9Certified 2nd Generation under OECD Seed Scheme
G0Generation 0, Pre-Variety Germplasm
G1Generation 1, Pre-Variety Germplasm
G2Generation 2, Pre-Variety Germplasm
G3Generation 3, Pre-Variety Germplasm

Appendix XII: Disease Sample Submission Procedures

Collecting Plant Samples for Analysis

The inspector must look for areas that have just begun to show symptoms. Plants or parts of plants which have been dead too long are likely to have many organisms in them, most of which didn't cause the disease.

The inspector must take enough plant material to represent the problem and be useful. A few leaves or a stem are not enough. Generally, samples should include some roots and a little soil, even if there does not appear to be any problem in the roots.

Packing and Mailing Samples

Samples are to be sent to:

Plant Pathology Unit
Ottawa Plant Laboratory (Fallowfield)
3851 Fallowfield Rd.
PO Box 11300
Ottawa, Ontario K2H 8P9

If samples are being shipped, overnight courier service is to be used.

The inspector must pack the samples in paper or plastic Ziploc bags. However, if the samples are wet, or are already badly decomposed or infected, a plastic bag should not be used as it will encourage everything on the plant material, both pathogens and saprophytes, to grow rapidly. In this case, the samples are to be placed in a dry paper towel and in a paper bag. Leaves can be placed in a dry paper towel before placing them in a Ziploc plastic bag.

The inspector must not add any water or moisture to any samples when packing them. Samples should be placed in a cooler or box with ice packs.

If sending samples in very cold or hot times of the year, it is best not to ship them out on a Friday, as the samples may be left in a non-climate controlled condition which could result in freezing or heat spoilage of the samples.

The entire Pest Identification Report (PIR) form (CFIA/ACIA 1303) must be completed with adequate sample description.

When in doubt about what to send or how much of a sample is required for analysis, the inspector should contact the lab for advice at: Quarantine Plant Pathology Laboratory (613) 228-6690 ext 5911.

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