Weed Seeds Order Review Secondary Consultation Document
7.0 Species Placement

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Class 1: Prohibited Noxious

Current Classification: Prohibited
(Weed Seeds Order, 2005)
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
(Oct 2009 Consultation)
Scientific Name: Aegilops cylindrica
(Source: GRIN)
Common name: Jointed Goatgrass
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious
(May 2011)

The presence of Aegilops cylindrica in Canadian seed or grain could have negative trade impacts with Mexico, certain U.S. states, Australia, China and possibly other countries. As A. cylindrica is under eradication in Ontario, it still meets the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Alopecurus myosuroides
Common Name: Slender Foxtail
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Alopecurus myosuroides is likely to become weedy or invasive in parts of southern Canada, particularly in winter cereals in southwestern ON A. myosuroides is considered a serious weed of winter cereals in Europe and the states of OR and WA. Herbicide-resistant populations of A. myosuroides are reported in Europe.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Bothriochloa ischaemum
Common Name: Yellow Bluestem
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

This species is not reported to occur in Canada and no evidence that it is cultivated in Canada was found. Efforts are now being made in the U.S. to curb its planting in favour of native grasses and to control this troublesome species in native vegetation.

CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Centaurea diffusa
Common Name: Diffuse Knapweed
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

There was not consensus to remove this species from Prohibited Noxious. Stakeholders voiced concern about the seriousness of this weed and its significant economic impact.

Centaurea diffusa is reported from BC, AL, SK, ON and QC.

Official Control: In Forest and Range Practices Act Centaurea diffusa is regulated throughout the province (BC 2010), and is prescribed as an invasive plant under the Forest and Range Practices Act (BC 2004). In Alberta the species is regulated as a prohibited noxious weed under the provincial Weed Control Act (Alberta 2010). In Manitoba it is listed as a noxious weed (Manitoba 1996).

In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, C. diffusa was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed.

The National Seed Herbarium (NSH) has confirmed that C. diffusa (Diffuse knapweed) and C. stoebe (Spotted knapweed) are distinguishable with training.

The CFIA recommends that this species remains as Class 1.

Additional Stakeholder feedback regarding species distribution and control measures is requested

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Centaurea iberica
Common Name: Iberian Star Thistle
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

The main pathway for introduction of Centaurea iberica into Canada is considered to be as a contaminant in seed lots. This species displaces valuable forage species in pastures and rangelands and its sharp spines deter grazing animals which restricts access for livestock and reduces the value of hay. The presence of C. iberica in Canada could affect trade of forage seed with the states of AZ, CA, NV and OR, where it is regulated.

No respondents objected to this species being listed as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that C. iberica and C. melitensis (Maltese iberian thistle) have many characteristics in common and are difficult to distinguish.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Centaurea solstitialis
Common Name: Yellow Starthistle
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Centaurea solstitialis has been reported to occur in Canada, but there is no evidence of persistent populations and no evidence was found that it is cultivated in Canada. Therefore, this species is considered absent. C. solstitialis is considered likely to establish and become invasive in parts of Canada, including southern BC, if it is introduced to these areas.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remains as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Centaurea stoebe
Common Name: Spotted knapweed
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

There was not consensus to remove this species from Prohibited Noxious. Respondents voiced concern about the seriousness of this weed and its significant economic impact.

Centaurea stoebe is reported from BC, AL, SK, NB, NS, ON, QC, SK, YK.

Official Control: In British Columbia Centaurea stoebe is regulated (as Centaurea maculosa) throughout the province (BC 2010), and is prescribed as an invasive plant under the Forest and Range Practices Act (BC 2004). In Alberta the species is regulated (as Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos) as a prohibited noxious weed under the provincial Weed Control Act (Alberta 2010). In Manitoba it is listed (as Centaurea maculosa) as a noxious weed (Manitoba 1996).

In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, C. stoebe was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed.

The NSH has confirmed that C. diffusa (Diffuse knapweed) and C. stoebe (Spotted knapweed) are distinguishable with training.

The CFIA recommends that this species remains as Class 1.

Additional Stakeholder feedback regarding species distribution and control measures is requested.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Centaurea virgata subsp. squarrosa (=Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa)
Common Name: Squarrosa knapweed
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Respondents voiced concern about the seriousness of this weed and its potential economic impact.

Centaurea virgata is not known to occur in Canada. It has a limited distribution in Utah, Oregon, California, Wyoming and Michigan. It prefers dry, open rangeland with shallow soils. Based on its range in eastern Europe and Asia, it appears it could be hardy to NAPPFAST zone 5.

Official control: In Alberta Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa  is regulated as a prohibited noxious weed under the provincial Weed Control Act (Alberta 2010).

Centaurea virgata subsp. squarrosa is not yet present in Canada. It is somewhat uncertain what its temperature tolerances are, but it seems likely that it could grow in much of southern British Columbia, at least. It thrives in dry climates, so it might be restricted in eastern Canada by climate factors other than temperature minima.
Additional stakeholder feedback regarding this species is requested.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as Class 1.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Crupina vulgaris
Common Name: Common Crupina
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Depending on the level of infestation and the potential range of the species, Crupina vulgaris could have serious negative economic impacts on at least two major industries in Canada, forage and livestock production. The marketing of seed commodities could also be affected due to its designation as a federal noxious weed in the United States. It is not yet present in Canada and a pest risk assessment has shown that it is a potential threat to Canada.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 1.

CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Cuscuta spp.
Common Name: Dodder
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

The genus is widespread around the world and most of the exotic species are now of very sporadic occurrence in Canada. Exotic species could be considered to be "not widely distributed and under official control" and therefore qualify as quarantine pests to Canada.

The NSH has confirmed that C. monogyna (Eastern dodder) and C. epithymum (Clover dodder) are distinguishable. C. epilinum (Flax dodder) and C. europaea (European dodder) are difficult to distinguish.

The CFIA recommends that this genera remains as Class 1.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Echium plantagineum
Common Name: Paterson's curse
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Some of the major issues surrounding Echium plantagineum include its ability to dominate pastures in its exotic range, toxicity to livestock and potential control issues including herbicide resistance. E. plantagineum has demonstrated herbicide resistance in Australia. The CFIA conducted public consultations on E. plantagineum using a document which included the PRA for E. plantagineum, management options and resulted in the decision to prohibit the importation of Echium plantagineum into Canada. The recommendation was also made to regulate E. plantagineum as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

No respondents objected to listing this species as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that E. plantagineum is distinguishable from E. vulgare (Viper's Bugloss).

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Eriochloa villosa
Common Name: Woolly Cup Grass
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Populations in Quebec are under official control. Eriochloa villosa reduces crop yield in corn, soybean and cereals. The potential range of this species includes the corn and soybean growing areas in Canada.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as a Class 1.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 1.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Halogeton glomeratus
Common Name: Halogeton
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Halogeton glomeratus is poisonous to livestock due to its high concentrations of oxalates. H. glomeratus is thought to negatively impact soil processes in several ways, thereby further degrading disturbed or overgrazed ranges and pastures and inhibiting their recovery. This species is not present in Canada and it is proposed that it remains listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Inula britannica
Common Name: British Yellowhead
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Inula britannica qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and is not yet widely distributed. The capacity of Inula britannica to have an economic impact in Canada is very uncertain. It has not shown any tendency to spread far from the two introduced populations known in this country. It has demonstrated the ability to persist locally for extended periods of time. Ease of seed identification is not known.

Inula brittanica is a perennial herbaceous plant with stems that are 10–60 cm tall. The species is reported to be present in Ontario and Quebec. The current distribution in North America suggests that Inula britannica can survive to NAPPFAST zone 4.

This species was added to the USDA list of Noxious Weeds. Based on the results of a PRA, the CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Milium vernale
Common Name: Spring Millet Grass
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Millium vernale is considered likely to become weedy or invasive in the winter wheat growing areas of southern Canada. Due to its presence in Idaho, a possible pathway of introduction into Canada is as a seed contaminant in grain or in seed lots from Idaho.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that Milium vernale is distinguishable from other Panicum and Milium spp.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Nassella trichotoma
Common Name: Serrated Tussock
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Nassella trichotoma is a risk to native grasslands as it has the potential to become established in those areas. The main pathway for introduction of N. trichotoma into Canada is considered to be as a contaminant of seed.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Prohibited Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Paspalum dilatatum
Common Name: Dallis Grass
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Paspalum dilatatum is considered a weed of 14 crops in 28 countries. It is probable that the most likely pathway for introduction into Canada is as contaminants in grass seed.

No respondents objected to this species being classified as Prohibited Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that P. laeve (Field paspalum) is distinguishable from P. dilatatum.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Peganum harmala
Common Name: African-rue
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Peganum harmala is not known to be present or cultivated in Canada. It is toxic and unpalatable to grazing animals, and is toxic to humans. Two substances found within P. harmala (harmaline and harmalol) are regulated as controlled substances under Schedule 3 of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act (CDSA) administered by Health Canada.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Persicaria perfoliata
Common Name: Devil's-tail Tearthumb (mile-a-minute)
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

This species reproduces by seed only. It is not considered an agricultural weed, but has caused economic damages and losses to trees and shrubs in orchards, nurseries, Christmas tree plantations (and potentially other commercial forest sites), and regeneration sites.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Pueraria montana
Common Name: Kudzu
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Seed is not a major pathway of Pueraria montana. There is one known site in Ontario which is under official control by OMAFRA and CFIA working group.

The NSH has confirmed that Pueraria montana is distinguishable from Desmodium spp.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Senecio inaequidens
Common Name: Narrow-leaved Ragwort, South African Ragwort
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

This species is not thought to be present or cultivated in Canada. S. inaequidens contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids that are toxic to both livestock and humans.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Solanum elaeagnifolium
Common Name: Silverleaf Nightshade
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

S. elaeagnifolium is not reported to occur in Canada and no evidence was found that it is cultivated in Canada. All parts of the plant, but particularly the berries, are poisonous to livestock. S. elaeagnifolium has the potential to become weedy or invasive in parts of BC, southern ON and the Altlantic provinces.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that S. elaeagnifolium can be distinguished from S. carolinense (Horse-nettle).

The CFIA proposes to list Solanum elaeagnifolium as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Zygophyllum fabago
Common Name: Syrian Bean-caper
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Zygophyllum fabago is not known to occur in Canada. Control with herbicides is difficult because of the waxy leaf surfaces and extensive root system. The plants of this species are not palatable to livestock.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 1 Prohibited Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Class 2: Primary Noxious

Current Classification: Primary
(Weed Seeds Order, 2005)
Proposed Classification: Primary
(Oct 2009 Consultation)
Scientific Name: Abutilon theophrasti
 (Source: GRIN)
Common name: Velvetleaf
New Proposal: Class 2 –Primary Noxious
(June 2011)

Abutilon theophrasti is an annual herb of the mallow family which is native from the Mediterranean area to central Asia.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Acroptilon repens (=Rhaponticum repens)
Common Name: Russian Knapweed
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

There was not consensus to remove this species from Prohibited Noxious. Respondents voiced concern about the seriousness of this weed and its significant economic impact.

This species is present in BC, AB, SK, MB and ON. It is described as widespread in the southern portions of the four western provinces and southern Ontario, although it has probably not reached its extreme ecological limits.

Official control: In British Columbia Rhaponticum repens is regulated (as Acroptilon repens) in the North Okanagan region (BC 2010), and is prescribed as an invasive plant under the Forest and Range Practices Act (BC 2004). In Alberta the species is regulated as a prohibited noxious weed under the provincial Weed Control Act (Alberta 2010). In Manitoba it is listed (as Centaurea repens) as a noxious weed (Manitoba 1996).

Acroptilon repens is an herbaceous perennial of the aster family which is native to Eurasia which reproduces mainly by vegetative shoots from rhizomes but also produces small quantities of viable seed. This species is present throughout the west and central USA and is a quarantine weed in Australia, New Zealand and Russia.

A. repens has been listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed on the WSO since 1960.  In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. repens was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed. A. repens has been reported as difficult or challenging to control in organic production systems.

The CFIA recommends reclassifying this species to Class 2.

Additional Stakeholder feedback regarding species distribution and control measures is requested.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Amaranthus tuberculatus
Common Name: Tall Water-hemp
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Amaranthus tuberculatus is an annual herbaceous plant, with both male and female plants. A. tuberculatus disperses by seed and grows many habitats, including agricultural fields. It is currently very limited in distribution in south-western Ontario. A. tuberculatus has demonstrated herbicide resistance in ON.

The NSH has confirmed that A. tuberculatus is distinguishable from other Amaranthus spp.

The CFIA recommends that tall water hemp be listed as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Ambrosia trifida
Common Name: Giant Ragweed
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Ambrosia trifida is an annual herb of the aster family and is native to North America. It has been a federally regulated weed in Canada since 1905. This species can be difficult to control. Glyphosate tolerant populations have been confirmed in Ontario.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Carduus nutans
Common Name: Nodding Thistle
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

This species is present and not under official control. This species reproduces only by seed which is dispersed by wind, water, wildlife and livestock. C. nutans is a restricted weed in Alberta and a quarantine weed in Australia and New Zealand. This species is considered widespread in Canada; however there is still a desire to control the spread as its presence can have significant impacts.

The NSH has confirmed that C. acanthoides (Spiny Plumeless Thistle) is distinguishable from C. nutans (Nodding Thistle).

The CFIA recommends that this species be reclassified as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Cirsium arvense
Common Name: Canada Thistle
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Cirsium arvense was first regulated in Canada in 1667 in Quebec and has been regulated federally since 1905. Cirsium arvense is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in most crops and management systems. C. arvense is regulated federally in the U.S. and by many other trading partners. C. arvense is listed as a noxious weed in 50 US states. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Cirsium arvense was found in 83 domestic seed samples and 5 imported samples.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 2.

Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Conium maculatum
Common Name: Poison Hemlock
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

All plant parts are poisonous and it reproduces strictly via seeds. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Conium maculatum was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed. C. maculatum has been found in two grain imports sampled since February 2008.

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that Conium maculatum is distinct from Cicuta spp. (Water hemlock) and Sium spp. (Water parsnip).

The CFIA recommends that this species be reclassified as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Convolvulus arvensis
Common Name: Field Bindweed
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Convolvulus arvensis has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. Convolvulus arvensis is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in conventional, organic, and no-till systems.

There was no consensus to reclassify this species.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Datura stramonium
Common Name: Jimsonweed
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Datura stramonium is poisonous to humans and livestock and reproduces only by seed. D. stramonium no longer qualifies as a Prohibited Noxious weed species as it is present in BC, SK, ON, QC, NB, NS, and PE and is not under official control. It is proposed that D. stramonium be reclassified as a Primary Noxious weed species.

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that D. stramonium distinguishable from D. ferox (Long Spined Thorn Apple).

The CFIA recommends that this species be reclassified as a Class 2 – Primary Noxious Weed.

Current Classification: Primary, noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Elytrigia repens (=Elymus repens)
Common Name: Couch Grass
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

E. repens is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in organic production systems. E. repens has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Elytrigia repens was detected in 7 samples of imported seed and 95 samples of domestic seed.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 2. Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Euphorbia esula
Common Name: Leafy Spurge
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Six respondents commented on this species, three proposed that this species remain as Prohibited noxious and three agreed with moving to Primary noxious. As this species is present in Canada and is not under official control, it does not meet the definition of Prohibited Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that E. esula is distinguishable from E. cyparissias (Cypress Spurge).

The CFIA recommends that this species be reclassified as a Class 2. Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Galega officinalis
Common Name: Goat's-rue
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

G. officinalis is listed as a federal noxious weed by the USDA and as noxious or quarantine weed in twelve states in the USA.

The NSH has confirmed that typical seeds of G. officinalis can be distinguished with training from G. orientalis (Oriental goat's-rue).

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 2.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Galium aparine
Common Name: Cleavers
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

In cereal and flax crops, G. aparine reduces yields, causes lodging and interferes with harvesting operations. G. aparine spreads by seed only and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, NF and NT. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, G. aparine was found in 89 domestic samples and 7 imported samples.

No consensus to move this species from Class 2.

The NSH has confirmed that typical seeds of G. aparine can be distinguished from G. spurium (False cleavers).

The Canadian Seed Growers' Association's Crop Certification Regulations (Circular 6, 2010) indicate that the presence of Cleavers would results in a decline of pedigreed status in certified canola, mustard, oilseed radish, rapeseed and hybrid canola and rapeseed. As well as Probation and Foundation canola, mustard, oilseed radish, rapeseed, safflower and sunflower.

Seed to which Table VII of Schedule I of the Seeds Act applies shall be free from seeds of cleavers.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Galium spurium
Common Name: False Cleavers
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

The NSH has confirmed that typical seeds of G. aparine (Cleavers) can be distinguished from G. spurium.

Seed to which Table VII of Schedule I of the Seeds Act applies shall be free from seeds of false cleavers.

The CFIA recommends listing this species as a Class 2.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Galium verrucosum
Common Name: Warty Bedstraw
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Stakeholders have indicated that this species is very problematic in canola. The USDA Plants Database lists this species as present in the state of Michigan.

The CFIA recommends listing this species as a Class 2.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Heracleum mantegazzianum
Common Name: Giant Hogweed
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Heracleum mantegazzianum is a phytotoxic plant whose sap can cause severe skin inflammation and burns when skin is exposed to sunlight or UV rays. This species spreads by seed and asexually from the crown. H. mantegazzianum is currently present in BC, ON, NB and NS.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that Heracleum mantegazzianum (Giant hogweed), Heracleum spondylium (Cow parsnip) and Heracleum persicum (Persian hogweed) are distinguishable.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Lepidium appelianum
Common Name: Globe-pod Hoary Cress
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Lepidium appelianum is widespread in BC, AB, SK, and MB, is not under official control and is considered difficult to control. L. appelianum is now too widely distributed to meet the criteria of a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious weed species and should be reclassified as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that Lepidum appelianum (Globe-pod hoary cress), Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense (Lens-pod hoary cress) and Lepidium draba subsp. draba (Heart-pod hoary cress) are difficult to distinguish without the pod.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense (=Lepidium chalepense)
Common Name: Lens-pod Hoary Cress
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense is widespread in BC, AB, SK, MB, and ON and is not under official control; therefore, this species no longer meets the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed species.

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that Lepidum appelianum (Globe-pod hoary cress), Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense (Lens-pod hoary cress) and Lepidium draba subsp. draba (Heart-pod hoary cress) are difficult to distinguish without the pod.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Lepidium draba subsp. draba (=Lepidium draba)
Common Name: Heart-pod Hoary Cress
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Lepidium draba subsp. draba is designated as a noxious weed in Alberta and a quarantine weed in South Africa. It is widespread in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, and NS and is not under official control; therefore, Lepidium draba subsp. draba no longer meets the definition of a Prohibited noxious weed species.

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that Lepidum appelianum (Globe-pod hoary cress), Lepidium draba subsp. chalapense (Lens-pod hoary cress) and Lepidium draba subsp. draba (Heart-pod hoary cress) are difficult to distinguish without the pod.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Linaria spp.
Common Name: Toadflax
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

No consensus to move species from Class 2 to Class 3.

These species are present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NT. Linaria spp. were added to the WSO in 1960 as Primary Noxious weeds. Linaria spp. is considered difficult or challenging to control in organic production systems.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Lythrum salicaria
Common Name: Purple Loosestrife
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Lythrum salicaria spreads by seed and asexually from roots. Detached root or stem fragments can also root and develop into flowering stems.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 2.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Nicandra physalodes
Common Name: Apple of Peru
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Nicandra physalodes is a serious agricultural weed in some parts of the world. It invades many crops, including Glycine max (soyabean), Hordeum vulgare (barley), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Triticum aestivum (wheat), Zea mays (maize), and others. In Canada, Nicandra physalodes has been found as a contaminant in survey samples of birdfeed and wheat. N. physalodes meets the definition of a Primary Noxious weed.

No respondents objected to the listing of this species as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Odontites vernus subsp. serotinus
Common Name: Red Bartsia
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Odontites vernus subsp. serotinus is present in Canada. Odontites vernus subsp. serotinus does not persist under cultivation. For this reason it is seldom a problem in cereals or special crops. The weed is, however, a serious concern in hayland and in pastures.

No respondents objected to this species being reclassified to Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species be reclassified as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Raphanus raphanistrum
Common Name: Wild Radish
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

During consultations, stakeholders indicated that this species is difficult to control.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain listed as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Senecio jacobaea (=Jacobaea vulgaris)
Common Name: Tansy Ragwort
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Senecio jacobaea spreads by seed, primarily by wind, water and animals. This species is present in BC, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Setaria faberi
Common Name: Giant Foxtail
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

S. faberi is present in ON and QC. S. faberi is known to have herbicide resistance in ON.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Silene latifolia subsp. alba
Common Name: White Cockle
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Silene latifolia subsp. alba spreads mostly from seed but root and stem fragments can establish. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Silene latifolia subsp. alba was detected in 56 samples of imported and domestic seed.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Silene vulgaris
Common Name: Bladder Campion
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

S. vulgaris has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1923. During consultations, stakeholders indicated that they considered this species difficult to control.

The CFIA recommends continued listing in Class 2.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Solanum carolinense
Common Name: Horse-nettle
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Solanum carolinense is a noxious weed in Manitoba and a quarantine weed in Australia, India and Russia. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. carolinense was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed. It has possibly reached the extent of its potential range in eastern Canada. As it is not under official control, S. carolinense does not meet the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed species.

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species to Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The NSH has confirmed that S. elaeagnifolium (Silverleaf nightshade) can be distinguished from S. carolinense.

The CFIA proposes to list Solanum carolinense as Class 2.

Current Classification: Primary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Sonchus arvensis
Common Name: Perennial Sow Thistle
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

S. arvensis has been regulated in Canada as a weed since 1905. S. arvensis is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in organic and no-till production systems.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as Class 2.

Current Classification: Prohibited
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Sorghum halepense
Common Name: Johnson Grass
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

S. halepense is present in ON and has possibly reached the limits of its potential range in Canada. As Sorghum halepense is present in Ontario and not under official control it is proposed that this species be reclassified as Primary Noxious.

No respondents objected to the reclassification of this species as a Class 2 Primary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as Class 2.

Class 3: Secondary Noxious

Current Classification: Secondary
(Weed Seeds Order, 2005)
Proposed Classification: Secondary
(Oct 2009 Consultation)
Scientific Name: Ambrosia artemisiifolia
 (Source: GRIN)
Common name: Common ragweed
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious
(June 2011)

In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Ambrosia artemisiifolia was detected in 2 samples of domestic seed, 17 samples of imported seed and 5 seed samples of unspecified origin. A. artemisiifolia has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905, and has demonstrated herbicide resistance.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Anthemis cotula
Common Name: Mayweed
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Anthemis cotula was detected in 41 domestic seed samples, 9 imported seed samples and 10 samples of unspecified origin. A. cotula has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1986 when it was added to the WSO as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3), where it currently remains listed.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Avena fatua
Common Name: Wild oat
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Avena fatua has demonstrated herbicide resistance in AB, MB and SK. A. fatua has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. fatua was detected in 133 domestic seed samples, 5 imported seed samples and 41 seed samples of unspecified origin.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

Seed to which Tables I, II, II.1 and III, of Schedule I of the Seeds Act applies shall be free from wild oats in Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.

The NSH has confirmed that Avena sterilis (Sterile oat) and A. fatua are distinguishable.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Avena sterilis
Common Name: Sterile oat
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Avena sterilis is an annual grass that is native to Eurasia. A. sterilis has become naturalized in California and Oregon, where it can be found in fields, vineyards, orchards and on hillsides. A. sterilis is present in ON and QC.

Stakeholders supported a Class 3 listing for this species.

The NSH has confirmed that Avena sterilis and A. fatua (wild oat) are distinguishable.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as Class 3.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Barbarea spp.
Common Name:
Yellow rocket
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Barbarea spp. are biennial herbs of the mustard family which are native to Eurasia and are widely established in North America. Barbarea spp. spread by seed. These species are present in BC, AB, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NT. Barbarea spp. was included in the WSO in 1960, as a Primary Noxious weed.

Stakeholders indicated this species is widespread and common.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 3.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Bromus japonicus
Common Name: Japanese brome
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Of eight respondents, four agreed with this species being listed as Class 2 but preferred that downy brome and japanese brome be listed in the same Class; one respondent suggested Class 3 and three objected to adding this species to the WSO. B. japonicus spreads by seed only and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC and YK.

Stakeholders indicated Downy brome and Japanese brome should be classified the same.

The NSH has confirmed that Bromus secalinus, B. japonicus (Japanese brome) and B. commutatus (Smooth brome) are distinguishable.

There is no consensus on a Class 3 listing of this species. Continued discussion between stakeholders is required. Additional feedback from stakeholders is requested.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Bromus secalinus
Common Name: Cheat
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Of four respondents, two agree and two object to this species being classified as a Class 2. Stakeholders suggested all bromes should be in the same class.

The NSH has confirmed that Bromus secalinus, B. japonicus (Japanese brome) and B. commutatus (Smooth brome) are distinguishable.

There is no consensus on a Class 3 listing of this species. Continued discussion between stakeholders is required. Additional feedback from stakeholders is requested.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Bromus tectorum
Common Name: Downy Brome
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

B. tectorum is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, YK and NT and is a serious weed in rangelands, winter wheat, alfalfa and grass seed fields.

Of ten responses, 5 respondents objected, two propose Class 2 and three supported Class 3. Stakeholders indicated Downy brome and Japanese brome should be classified the same.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 3.

There is no consensus on a Class 3 listing of this species. Continued discussion between stakeholders is required. Additional feedback from stakeholders is requested.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Daucus carota subsp. carota
Common Name: Wild Carrot
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Daucus carota subsp. carota spreads only by seed and is present in BC, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. Daucus carota subsp. carota has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1923. This species has demonstrated herbicide resistance in ON. It is difficult to control in no-till systems.

Respondents supported continued listing as a Class 3.

The NSH has confirmed that typical seeds of cultivated D. carota (Crop Kind in Schedule I) can be distinguished from wild D. carota.

The CFIA recommends that this species stay as Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Erucastrum gallicum
Common Name: Dog Mustard
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Erucastrum gallicum spreads by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF and NT. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, E. gallicum was detected in 5 domestic seed samples and 3 seed samples of unspecified origin.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 3.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Lepidium campestre
Common Name: Field Peppergrass
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Lepidium campestre spreads only by seed and is present in BC, AB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, L. campestre was detected in 27 domestic seed samples and 3 seed samples of unspecified origin.

No respondents objected to this species remaining Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 3.

Current Classification: Primary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Scientific Name: Leucanthemum vulgare
Common Name: Ox-eye Daisy
New Proposal: Classes 3 & 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious

Leucanthemum vulgare spreads by seeds and asexually from roots. L. vulgare is present in all provinces. L. vulgare has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905.

No respondents objected to reclassifying this species as Classes 3 & 5 - Secondary Noxious and Noxious.

The CFIA recommends reclassifying this species as Classes 3 and 5.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Lolium persicum
Common Name: Persian Darnel
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Lolium persicum is present in AB, SK, MB, ON, QC and NU. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, L. persicum was not detected in domestic and imported seed samples. L. persicum is known to show herbicide resistance in SK.

No respondents objected to this species remaining Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 3.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Pastinaca sativa
Common Name: Wild Parsnip
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Cultivation of parsnip has diminished in Canada to the point where it is now only a minor crop, but the wild form has increased as a troublesome weed, particularly in eastern regions. As a monocarpic biennial with a large tap root, it reproduces entirely by seed. A wide variety of habitats and soil types are tolerated. It is considered a noxious weed because of its toxic properties (primarily photo-activated dermatitis) to both humans and livestock. It invades disturbed sites, rights-of-way, pastures, perennial crops, and reduced-tillage fields where it effectively out-competes shorter vegetation. In Canadian agriculture it is a problem in pastures where it is differentially grazed, competes with forage species, and may cause livestock injury. It is also an increasing problem in reduced-tillage systems where perennial weeds are able to persist. As a weed in rights-of-way, it poses a serious health risk for vegetation managers, particularly during mowing and cutting operations. In Ontario, it is regulated by local weed control by-laws in the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville. In the United States, the species has been declared a prohibited noxious weed in the state of Ohio.Footnote 2

Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Plantago lanceolata
Common Name: Ribgrass
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Plantago lanceolata spreads only by seed and is present in BC, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, P. lanceolata was detected in 125 domestic seed samples, 11 imported seed samples and 19 seed samples of unspecified origin.

No respondents objected to this species remaining Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: All Rumex species, (except R. maritimus & R. acetosella)
Common Name: Dock
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Respondents agreed with this classification.

Dock has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. Rumex crispus and R. obtusifolius were listed as Secondary Noxious weeds on the WSO in 1960. The remaining species were included in 1986.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Silene noctiflora
Common Name: Night-flowering Catchfly
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

S. noctiflora has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. It was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3) on the WSO in 1960.

The CFIA recommends that this species remains in Class 3.

Current Classification: Primary
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Sinapis arvensis
Common Name: Wild Mustard
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

The majority of respondents supported reclassification to Class 3.

The Canadian Seed Growers' Association's Crop Certification Regulations (Circular 6, 2010) indicate that the presence of Wild Mustard would result in a decline pedigreed status in certified canola, mustard, oilseed radish, rapeseed and hybrid canola and rapeseed, as well as, Probation and Foundation canola, mustard, oilseed radish, rapeseed, safflower and sunflower.

The CFIA recommends that this species be reclassified as a Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Sisymbrium loeselii
Common Name: Tall Hedge Mustard
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

S. loeselii was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3) since 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. loeselii was detected in one domestic seed sample.

No respondents objected to this species remaining as Class 3 Secondary Noxious.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Remove
Scientific Name: Thlaspi arvense
Common Name: Stinkweed
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

T. arvense spreads only by seed and is present in BC, AB, SK, MB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE, NF, YK and NT. T. arvense has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. The species is grown as a crop type in Canada.

The Canadian Seed Growers' Association's Crop Certification Regulations (Circular 6, 2010) indicate that excessive numbers of Stinkweed would results in a decline in pedigreed status in Camelina.

There was not consensus to remove this species from the WSO.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 3.

Current Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. inodorum
Common Name: Scentless chamomile
New Proposal: Classes 3 and 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious

The NSH has confirmed that T.  mar. subsp. inodorum is distinguishable from T. maritimum subsp. maritimumis (Seashore chamomile). Differences are minor and seeds need to be typical.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as Classes 3 and 5.

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Remove
Scientific Name: Vaccaria hispanica
Common Name: Cow cockle
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

There was no consensus to remove this species.

V. hispanica was regulated in Canada as a weed from 1905 until 1960. V. hispanica was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3) on the WSO in 1986.

The CFIA recommends that this species remains as a Class 3.

Class 4 Secondary Noxious and Class 5 Noxious

Current Classification: Secondary, Noxious
(Weed Seeds Order, 2005)
Proposed Classification: Secondary, Noxious
(Oct 2009 Consultation)
Scientific Name: Cerastium spp.
 (Source: GRIN)
Common name: Chickweed
New Proposal: Classes 4 and 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious
(June 2011)

Cerastium spp. was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 4) and a Noxious weed (Class 5) on the WSO in 1960.

The CFIA recommends these species remain as Classes 4 and 5.

Current Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Scientific Name: Digitaria spp.
Common Name: Crabgrasses
New Proposal: Classes 4 and 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious

Crabgrass have been regulated as Secondary Noxious (Class 4) and Noxious (Class 5) weeds on the WSO since 1960.

The CFIA recommends that these species remain as Classes 4 and 5.

Current Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Scientific Name: Panicum spp.
Common Name: Panic grass
New Proposal: Classes 4 and 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious

Panicum spp. were listed as Secondary Noxious (Class 4) and Noxious (Class 5) weeds on the WSO in 1960.

Four problem species are P. miliaceum, P. capillaire, P. dichotomiflorum, and Dichanthelium acuminatum.

The CFIA recommends that these species remain listed as Classes 4 and 5.

Current Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Scientific Name: Prunella vulgaris
Common Name: Heal-all
New Proposal: Classes 4 and 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious

P. vulgaris was listed as a Secondary Noxious (Class 4) weed and Noxious (Class 5) weed on the WSO in 1960.

The CFIA recommends that this species remain as a Class 4 and 5.

Current Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Proposed Classification: Secondary, Noxious
Scientific Name: Stellaria media
Common Name: Common Chickweed
New Proposal: Classes 4 and 5 – Secondary Noxious and Noxious

S. media has been listed as a Secondary Noxious (Class 4) weed and a Noxious weed (Class 5) on the WSO since 1960. S. media has demonstrated herbicide resistance in AB and SK. It is difficult to control in reduced tillage production systems.

The CFIA recommends that this species remains in Classes 4 and 5.

Species Not Listed on the Weed Seeds Order (i.e., Class 6)

Current Classification: N/A
(Weed Seeds Order, 2005)
Proposed Classification: Primary
(Oct 2009 Consultation)
Scientific Name: Bassia scoparia
 (Source: GRIN)
Common name: Kochia
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)
(June 2011)

There was not consensus to add this species to the WSO.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be added to the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Ammi majus
Common Name: Bishop's weed
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

There was no consensus to list this species on the WSO. There are ornamental trade and identification issues.

The NSH has confirmed that Ammi majus appears to be distinguishable from Ammi visnaga (Khella).

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Remove
Scientific Name: Cichorium intybus
Common Name: Chicory
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Cichorium intybus is also a crop cultivated in Canada and is listed in Table XX of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations.

The NSH has confirmed that C. intybus and C. endivia (Endive) are distinguishable.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e. Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Echinochloa colonum
Common Name: Jungle rice
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

No consensus was reached based on responses received from stakeholders.

The NSH has confirmed that E. colonum is distinguishable from E. crus-galli (Barnyard grass).

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6). The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Alliaria petiolata
Common Name: Garlic mustard
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

No consensus was reached from respondents, as seed is not a major pathway for this species.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Alternanthera sessilis
Common Name: Sessile joyweed
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Amaranthus hybridus
Common Name: Slim amaranth
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

The NSH has confirmed that Amaranthus spp. (other than A. tuberculatus (Tall water-hemp) are difficult to make a definite identification.

There was not consensus to add Amaranthus spp. to the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Amaranthus powellii
Common Name: Powell's amaranth
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

The NSH has confirmed that Amaranthus spp. (other than A. tuberculatus (Tall water-hemp)) are difficult to make a definite identification.

There was not consensus to add Amaranthus spp. to the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Amaranthus retroflexus
Common Name: Redroot pigweed
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

A. retroflexus is known to have multiple herbicide resistances in MB, ON and QC.

The NSH has confirmed that Amaranthus spp. (other than A. tuberculatus (Tall water-hemp)) are difficult to make a definite identification.

There was not consensus to add Amaranthus spp. to the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Bidens pilosa
Common Name: Spanish needles
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

There was no consensus to add this species to Class 2.

The NSH has confirmed that this species is difficult to distinguish from B. alba (Common Beggarticks), B. bipinnata (Spanish needles) and B. subalternans (Greater Beggar's Ticks).

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Remove
Scientific Name: Camelina microcarpa
Common Name: Little-pod false flax
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Respondents agreed that Camelina spp. should be removed from the Weed Seeds Order Class 3. Camelina is now grown as a crop type in Western Canada. It is not considered to be an aggressive or problematic weed species.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: Secondary
Proposed Classification: Remove
Scientific Name: Camelina sativa
Common Name: Gold-of-Pleasure
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Respondents agreed that Camelina spp. should be removed from the Weed Seeds Order Class 3. Camelina is now grown as a crop type in Western Canada. It is not considered to be an aggressive or problematic weed species.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Chenopodium album
Common Name: Lambsquarters
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Respondents objected the addition of this species to Class 3.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Dioscorea polystachya
Common Name: Chinese yam
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Hordeum jubatum
Common Name: Foxtail barley
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Respondents object to this species being added to Class 3.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Impatiens glandulifera
Common Name: Himalayan balsam
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

There was not consensus to add this species to the WSO

The NSH has confirmed that I. glandulifera is distinguishable from I. capensis (Common Jewelweed).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Knautia arvensis
Common Name: Field scabious
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO.

The NSH has confirmed that K. dipsacifoliais (Wood scabious) distinguishable from K. arvensis.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Phragmites australis
Common Name: Common reed
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Polygonum cuspidatum (=Fallopia japonica)
Common Name: Japanese knotweed
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Ricinus communis
Common Name: Castor bean
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Silybum marianum
Common Name: Milk thistle
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Solanum ptychanthum Dunal
Common Name: Eastern black nightshade
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

The NSH has confirmed that the small size of S. ptychanthum Dunal (Eastern black nightshade), the raised, almost smooth centre of S. nigrum (Black nightshade), and the large surface cell pattern of S. maurritianum (Wild tobacco tree) distinguish these 3 species. Ability to distinguish requires magnification and may be aided by training.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Solanum sarrachoides
Common Name: Hairy nightshade
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

S. sarrachoides (Hairy nightshade) and S. triflorum (Cutleaf nightshade), are very similar: S. sarrachoides is distinguished by a smaller size and slight darkening at the hilum. Ability to distinguish requires magnification and may be aided by training.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Soliva sessilis
Common Name: Carpet burweed
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

There was no consensus to add this species to the WSO.

The CFIA proposes that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Secondary
Scientific Name: Vicia cracca
Common Name: Tufted vetch
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

No consensus to add this species to Class 3.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Vincetoxicum louiseae (=Vincetoxicum nigrum)
Common Name: Black dog strangling vine
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

No consensus to add this species to Class 2.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Primary
Scientific Name: Vincetoxicum rossicum
Common Name: Dog strangling vine
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

No consensus to add this species to Class 2.

The NSH has confirmed that typical seeds of Vincetoxicum rossicum can be distinguished by the large wing of V. fuscatum (Black Highbush Blueberry).

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: Prohibited
Scientific Name: Xanthium sibiricum
Common Name: Siberian cocklebur
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Respondents object to this species being listed as prohibited noxious due to significant identification and taxonomic issues.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6) due to taxonomic issues.

Species Proposed By Stakeholders

Species Proposed By Stakeholders as Part of the Oct 2009 – Feb 2010 Consultation

Current Classification: N/A
(Weed Seeds Order, 2005)
Proposed Classification: N/A
(Oct 2009 Consultation)
Scientific Name: Allium vineale
 (Source: GRIN)
Common name: Crow Garlic
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)
(June 2011)

Allium vineale qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and is not yet widely distributed. There will be difficulties in definitely identifying the seed or bulbils to the species level.

 A. vineale is a wild onion whose plants have 5-20 small clustered bulbs at the base of the plant. Its seeds, when produced, are black with a shiny seed coat. A. vineale is present in BC, ON and QC. It is listed as a noxious weed in CA, DC, HI, IL, MD, ME, MI, MO, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI and WV. The current distribution suggests that A. vineale can survive to NAPPFAST zone 5. In the past, the small bulbils, similar in size and shape to a wheat grain, frequently contaminated wheat grain grown in infested areas. Bread made from contaminated wheat is garlic-flavored, and cows grazing in infested pastures produce garlic-flavoured milk.

As seeds are not the major pathway, identification difficulties are present and it would have limited distribution in Canada, the CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Anagallis arvensis
Common Name: Scarlet pimpernel
New Proposal: Not listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Anagallis arvensis does not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that is not yet widely distributed, but it has little potential to have an economic impact in Canada. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Anagallis arvensis was detected in 13 domestic seed samples and 1 imported seed sample.

The CFIA recommends that this species be in not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Anthriscus sylvestris
Common Name: Cow Parsley
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Anthriscus sylvestris qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and has not yet reached its ecological limits in Canada. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts.

Anthriscus sylvestris is a monocarpic (usually bienniel) herbaceous plant. It is listed as a class one weed in Nova Scotia, a regional weed in southwestern BC, and in Grey County, Ontario and listed as a noxious weed in Massachusetts and Washington. The current distribution in North America suggests that Anthriscus sylvestris can survive to NAPPFAST zone 4.

CFIA recommends that this species be listed as Class 2.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Berteroa incana
Common Name: Hoary Alyssum
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Berteroa incana qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and has not yet reached its ecological limits in this country. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts.

The current distribution in North America suggests that Berteroa incana can survive to NAPPFAST zone 3. It is listed as a noxious weed in Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Washington and Wisconsin. It has become a serious weed in hay in the north central U.S., rangelands and pastures. It can take advantage of disturbances caused by drought, winter kill, overgrazing or poor soil fertility. It has also become a pest in Christmas tree plantations in Michigan. It is toxic to horses if consumed in large quantities, and contaminated hay can remain toxic to horses for up to 9 months. Contaminated seed of alfalfa and clover is thought to have been the pathway for entry into North America.

The CFIA recommends that this species be added as a Class 2.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Bothriochloa laguroides
Common Name: Silver beardgrass
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Bothriochloa laguroides meets most of the criteria for the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) Weed Seeds in the Weed Seeds Order. It is not yet present in Canada, and it reproduces by seed. It is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and control efforts in the United States indicate that it could have a potential impact on the economy if it were to become established in Canada.

Bothriochloa laguroides is a perennial bunchgrass 35-115 (130) cm tall. It is not reported to occur in the Canadian flora. Its current distribution in North America suggests it is hardy to NAPPFAST zone 5, which would give it a potential range in southern Canada. Bothriochloa laguroides [as Andropogon saccharoides] is reported as a weed in South America (Argentina, Chile, Peru) and the United States.

Bothriochloa ischaemum (Yellow bluestem) and B. laguroides (sometimes mistaken for B. saccharoides which is a more tropical species) are considered equally weedy and have the same distribution.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Bromus arvensis
Common Name: Field brome
New Proposal: Class 3 – Secondary Noxious

Bromus arvensis does meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) Weed Seeds in the Weed Seeds Order. It is present in Canada, but has not yet reached its full ecological range. It is not currently under official control but may be a potential candidate for official control in the future. It is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and it could have a potential impact on the economy if it were to become more widely established. Bromus arvensis is reported as a weed of arable land in various parts of Europe. The CFIA Seed Lab has indicated that they have specimens available for this species, and that seeds can be visually distinguished from those of other species.

Additional stakeholder feedback on this species is requested.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Calystegia sepium
Common Name: Hedge Bindweed
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Calystegia sepium does not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is a native species that is approaching its ecological limits in Canada and has not been shown to have an economic impact in this country. Seed identification is difficult but possible for trained seed analysts.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Carduus acanthoides
Common Name: Spiny Plumeless Thistle
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Carduus acanthoides qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and has not yet reached its ecological limits in this country. There are serious difficulties in identifying seeds of Carduus species. Similar to Carduus nutans and Carduus crispus. Seeds of Carduus species are difficult to identify and require a good binocular microscope plus a high level of training and skill on the part of seed analysts. With appropriate levels of care, training and experience, seeds of Carduus acanthoides can be separated from those of other Carduus species such as Carduus nutans. These two species hybridize readily (Desrochers et al., 1988) and it is unlikely that hybrids can be reliably identified. The CFIA Seeds Lab recommends this species remain as a proposed noxious weed seed as long as trained seeds analysts and appropriate reference materials are provided.

Carduus acanthoides is an annual, winter annual or biennial herbaceous plant. The first Canadian specimen was collected in Peel County, Ontario in 1907. There are now populations in BC, ON, QC, NB and NS. The current distribution in North America suggests that Carduus acanthoides can survive to NAPPFAST zone 4.
 It is listed as a noxious weed in AZ, CA, CO, MI, MO, NC, Nebraska, OR, SD, WA and WY. Carduus acanthoides infestations reduce the productivity of pastures and rangeland, both by suppressing more desirable forage plants and by physically interfering with livestock accessing forage plants among the spiny thistles.

The NSH confirmed that C. acanthoides is distinguishable from C. nutans.

The CFIA recommends that species be listed as a Class 2.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Cenchrus longispinus
Common Name: Long-spined sandbur
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Cenchrus longispinus does meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seeds in the Weed Seeds Order. It is present in Canada, but has not yet reached its full ecological range. It is not currently under official control but may be a potential candidate for official control in the future. It is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and it could have a potential impact on the economy, as well as animal health, if it were to become more widely established. The CFIA Seed Lab has indicated that they have specimens available for this species, and that seeds can be visually distinguished from those of other species, though with some difficulty.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as Class 2. Additional stakeholder feedback regarding control efforts and populations in BC and ON is requested.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Chondrilla juncea
Common Name: Rush skeletonweed
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Chondrilla juncea qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and is not yet widely distributed. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts.

In Canada, the species is reported to be present in British Columbia and Ontario. It is listed as a noxious weed in AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NV, OR, SD, WA and WY. The current distribution in North America suggests that Chondrilla juncea can survive to NAPPFAST zone 5. Dispersal is primarily by seed dispersal by wind and along transportation corridors, as well as in contaminated hay. Chondrilla juncea is an obligate apomict, producing seed entirely without pollination, so a single plant can establish a population. The extensive, long-lived root system enables plants to compete with crops for water and nutrients, especially nitrogen, reducing crop yields by as much as 70 percent. Contamination of grain and seed lots can occur if the weed has time to mature before harvest. Chemical control is difficult because only the tops and the upper part of the root are killed, leaving the rest of the root system to regenerate.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 2.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Cirsium palustre
Common Name: Marsh Plume thistle
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Cirsium palustre qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and has not yet reached its ecological limits in this country. There are serious difficulties with the identification of the seeds of Cirsium species.

Cirsium palustre is a biennial or monocarpic perennial herbaceous plant. Cirsium palustre grows in marshes and wet forests. It spreads invasively through wetland communities, forming impenetrable spiny stands as it displaces native species. The species is reported to be present in BC, ON, QC, NS and NL. The current distribution suggests that Cirsium palustre can survive to NAPPFAST zone 3.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6) as there are serious identification issues.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Crepis capillaries
Common Name: Smooth Hawksbeard
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Crepis capillaris does not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed but has not demonstrated the potential to have an economic impact in Canada and is already quite widely distributed, although it has almost certainly not reached its ecological limits. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Crepis tectorum
Common Name: Narrow-leaved Hawksbeard
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Crepis tectorum qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has an economic impact in parts of Canada and it has probably not reached its ecological limits in this country. Seed identification is difficult.

Crepis tectorum is an annual or winter annual herbaceous plant that reproduces entirely by seeds. It has been suggested that it spread from ballast dumps. It is particularly abundant in southern Manitoba and the northern sections of the cultivated areas in Saskatchewan and Alberta. The distribution in North America suggests that Crepis tectorum can survive to NAPPFAST zone 2. Crepis tectorum is considered a serious weed in perennial forage crops in western Canada. It can become dominant in poor stands of forage grasses where competition is reduced. It also occurs in cereal and oilseed crops in the west. The seeds are difficult to clean out of alfalfa seed (Najda et al., 1982).In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007; Crepis tectorum was detected in 35 domestic seed samples.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Cyperus rotundus
Common Name: Purple nutsedge
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Cyperus rotundus does meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seed in the Weed Seeds Order.

Seed is not considered a pathway for this species.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Dactylis glomerata
Common Name: Orchardgrass
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Dactylis glomerata does not meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seed in the Weed Seeds Order. It is widespread throughout Canada. It is a crop in Table XI of Schedule 1 of the Seeds Regulations.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Dipsacus spp.
Common Name: Common Teasel
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Dipsacus fullonum and Dipsacus laciniatus do not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed but it has not demonstrated the potential to have an economic impact in Canada. It is not yet widely distributed. There are also serious problems with the identification of seeds of Dipsacus species.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Echinochloa crus-galli
Common Name: Barnyard grass
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Echinochloa crus-galli meets the definition of a secondary noxious weed in Canada. It is a widespread and common weed in Canada, and its presence in cultivated fields reduces crop yields. However, due to its widespread distribution worldwide, its common occurrence in imported seed lots, and the lack of regulation by other countries, the regulation of this species could be difficult.

Echinochloa crus-galli is a tufted and robust annual grass growing up to 1.5 m tall. Echinochloa crus-galli is naturalized in all Canadian provinces except Newfoundland and Labrador where its status is unknown; it has not been reported from the territories. Echinochloa crus-galli has been reported as a weed in 36 crops by 61 countries. Echinochloa crus-galli is a widespread and common agricultural weed in Canada. In 2009, the CFIA Seeds Lab reported seeds lots of this species were imported into Canada as a commodity from the U.S. and Australia. This species was identified as a contaminant in seed lots from a variety of import products. This species was also identified in Canadian birdseed. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Echinochloa crus-galli was detected in 106 domestic seed samples and 8 imported seed samples.

According to the NSH, E. colona is distinguishable from E. crus-galli.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Galeopsis tetrahit
Common Name Nettle
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Galeopsis tetrahit does not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada but it has probably reached its ecological limits in this country. It is found to the limits of cultivation in every province except possibly British Columbia. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Galeopsis tetrahit was detected in 20 domestic seed samples.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Galium mollugo
Common Name False baby's breath
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Galium mollugo qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and has not yet reached its ecological limits, although it is fairly widespread. Identification of the seeds requires care as there are a number of Galium species whose seeds are encountered as contaminants in seed lots. However, this species is identifiable for trained seed analysts with good reference material.

Galium mollugo is a long-lived perennial herbaceous plant. It is present in BC, AB, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NL, including Labrador. The current distribution in North America suggests that Galium mollugo can survive to NAPPFAST zone 3. Galium mollugo contains chemical compounds that are toxic to mammals. Galium mollugo is not usually a weed of row crops, but it is a problem in pastures and meadows. It can also become established in perennial forage crops, such as bird's-foot trefoil, clovers, timothy and orchard grass. It is a problem weed in spruce plantations, reforestation projects, orchards and vineyards, as well. Livestock avoid Galium mollugo plants, giving them a competitive advantage in grazing systems.

Although hybrids have not yet been reported in North America, Galium mollugo can cross readily with Galium verum (yellow bedstraw) to produce aggressively weedy plants.

The CFIA recommends listing this species as a Class 2; however, additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Heracleum sosnowskyi
Common Name Hogweed
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Heracleum sosnowskyi meets most of the criteria for the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seed in the Weed Seeds Order. It is not yet present in Canada, it reproduces by seed, and related species are reported as seed contaminants. It is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and reports of impacts and control efforts in Europe and Asia indicate that it could have a potential impact on the economy, human health and/or animal health if it were to become established in Canada.

Heracleum sosnowskyi is a herbaceous, monocarpic perennial of the carrot family that grows up to 3 m tall. Based on its current distribution in Eurasia, it is hardy to at least NAPPFAST zone 6, probably 5. In Europe, the introduction of Heracleum sosnowskyi has lead to gross changes in vegetation, obstructed access to riverbanks and soil erosion. Like Heracleum mantegazzianum, Heracleum sosnowskyi contains photosensitizing furanocoumarins in the sap, which causes phytophotodermatitis (extreme photosensitivity) when it comes in contact with skin. The skin may be sensitive to exposure to sunlight even after the skin heals, which often takes months or even years.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 2.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Hieracium spp.
Common Name Orange / Yellow Hawkweed Complex
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e.,Class 6)

Hieracium pilosella (mouse-ear hawkweed) qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and it is has not reached its ecological limits in this country. There are serious difficulties with the identification of seeds of Hieracium species.

Propagation is by stolons and by seeds, which are produced in large numbers and are wind-dispersed. Within existing populations vegetative reproduction is more important for propagation than seeds but seeds are important for long-distance spread. It is listed as a noxious weed in CO, ID, MT, OR, WA and WY. Hieracium aurantiacum is reported from all Canadian provinces. The current distribution in North America suggests that Hieracium aurantiacum can survive to NAPPFAST zone 3. This would include the southern parts of all of the provinces from BC to Quebec and most of the Maritime Provinces. The species is probably approaching the limits of its ecological potential.

Hieracium aurantiacum (orange hawkweed)+G45 qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and it is possible that it has not quite reached its ecological limits in this country. There are serious difficulties with the identification of seeds of Hieracium species.

It is listed as a noxious weed in Oregon and Washington. Hieracium pilosella is reported from BC, ON, QC, NB, NS, PE and NF. The current distribution in North America suggests that Hieracium pilosella can survive to NAPPFAST zone 4. This would include southern and coastal BC, small areas in Alberta and Saskatchewan, southern Ontario and Quebec, and most of the Maritime Provinces. It is possible that this species is approaching the limits of its ecological potential in Canada, although, on the local scale, it is still spreading in eastern Ontario, especially in lawns. Hieracium spp. have proved resistant to most herbicides.

Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Lepidium latifoliium
Common Name Perennial Pepperweed
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e.,Class 6)

Lepidium latifolium does meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) Weed Seeds in the Weed Seeds Order. It is present in Canada, but has not yet reached its full ecological range. It is not currently under official control but may be a potential candidate for official control in the future. It is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and it could have a potential impact on the economy if it were to become more widely established. It is regulated as a noxious weed in the East Kootenay and Thompson-Nicola regional districts by the province of British Columbia it is listed as a noxious weed in the following states: Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Massachusetts, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. In the United States, invasion of this plant causes economic losses when it persists in meadows, pastures, and / or cropland, reducing forage quantity and hay quality. In Canada, Lepidium latifoliium has recently invaded agricultural crops such as cereal grains and alfalfa, and can contaminate hay shipments. The CFIA Seed Lab has indicated that they have specimens available for this species, and that seeds can be visually distinguished from those of other species, though with some difficulty.

Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Orobanche spp.
Common Name Broomrape
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e.,Class 6)

This species is difficult to identify in seed.

The Canadian Seed Growers' Association's Crop Certification Regulations (Circular 6, 2010) indicate that the presence of Broomrape would results in a decline of pedigreed status in Registered, Certified, Probation and Foundation Industrial Hemp.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Panicum miliaceum
Common Name Panic millet
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Panicum miliaceum (Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale) qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and is not yet widely distributed. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts. There are at least 7 distinct forms or biotypes of proso millet that exist as weeds in Canada (Bough et al., 1986).

If the decision is made to add proso millet to the Weed Seeds Order as a primary noxious weed seed there are three approaches that could be used.

  1. The whole species, Panicum miliaceum, could be considered a primary noxious when found as a contaminant in seed lots. This would the easiest from the laboratory viewpoint and would include all escaped biotypes, including those derived from the crop form.
  2. Only the wild subspecies, Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale, could be considered primary noxious. This would also be fairly clear-cut, although training and specimens would be required by laboratory analysts to enable them to identify the seeds.
  3. All wild biotypes of Panicum miliaceum could be considered primary noxious. This would be practically impossible, as many of the biotypes are difficult to separate from some of the cultivars of the crop.

Can be differentiated from other native millets.

Panicum miliaceum (Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale) is an annual grass in the subfamily Panicoideae and tribe Paniceae. It is listed as a noxious weed in Colorado and Wyoming. Panicum miliaceum (Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale) is now naturalized over much of North America. It can become a major weed, especially in corn fields. By 1985, it was considered a major problem in parts of southern Ontario, Quebec and the corn-growing areas of Manitoba. The current distribution in North America suggests that Panicum miliaceum (Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale) can survive to NAPPFAST zone 4. Panicum miliaceum (Panicum miliaceum subsp. ruderale) poses a serious threat to corn production due to the lack of adequate chemical control measures and can dominate white bean production fields.

In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Panicum miliaceum was detected in 3 domestic seed samples and 3 imported seed samples.

Additional stakeholder feedback is requested.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Papaver rhoeas
Common Name Corn Poppy
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e.,Class 6)

Papaver rhoeas does not qualify as a potential primary noxious weed seed. It is an alien weed but has little potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada. As there is little winter cereal production in parts of Canada with a Mediterranean climate (very limited areas of southwestern British Columbia), this species poses little threat to this country. It is not yet widely distributed. Seed identification is possible for trained seed analysts.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Polygonum polystachyum
Common Name Himalayan Knotweed
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e.,Class 6)

Based on its distribution, Persicaria wallichii (Polygonum polystachyum) does not meet the criteria for a secondary noxious weed. This species is not common or widespread in Canada. Seeds have been described as unlikely to be found in transit, seed production is limited in North America and its main means of dispersal is by vegetative plant parts. It is able to escape cultivation and invade both disturbed and natural areas, particularly riparian areas where it appears to reduce native biodiversity.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Polygonum sachalinense
Common Name Giant knotweed
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e.,Class 6)

Based on its distribution, Fallopia sachalinensis (Polygonum sachalinense) does not meet the definition of a secondary noxious weed. This species is widespread in Canada; however it does not appear to be common. It appears unlikely that seeds would be found in transit, seed production is limited in North America and it mainly disperses by vegetative means. It is able to escape cultivation and invade both disturbed and natural areas, particularly riparian areas where it appears to reduce native biodiversity.

The NSH has confirmed that Polygonum cuspidatum (Japanese knotweed) and Polygonum sachalinense (Giant knotweed) are difficult to distinguish.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Senecio madagascariensis
Common Name Madagascar ragwort
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Senecio madagascariensis meets most of the criteria for the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seed in the Weed Seeds Order. It is not yet present in Canada, it reproduces by seed, and it is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot. Reports of impacts and control efforts in other parts of the world indicate that it could have a potential impact on the economy and animal health if it were to become established in Canada.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 1.

The CFIA also consulted on the regulation of this species under the Plant Protection Act as part of the Least Wanted Plants project.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Setaria glauca
Common Name: Yellow foxtail
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Setaria pumila subsp. pumila (Setaria glauca) meets the definition of a secondary noxious weed in Canada. It is a widespread and common weed in Canada, and its presence in cultivated fields reduces crop yields. However due to its widespread distribution worldwide, its common occurrence in imported seed lots, and its lack of regulation by other countries the regulation of this species could be difficult.

Setaria pumila subsp. pumila (Setaria glauca) is an annual grass growing 20-130 cm tall. This species is naturalized in all the provinces, but it has not been reported from the territories. Setaria pumila subsp. pumila is a serious weed in the U.S. This species is a principal weed of soybean, tomato, corn, alfalfa and forage legumes. This species reduces crop yield, increases cleaning costs, and requires expensive cultural and chemical control methods. In 2009, this species was identified by the CFIA Seeds Lab as a contaminant in a variety of import products. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Setaria glauca was detected in 50 domestic seed samples and 15 imported seed samples.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Setaria viridis
Common Name Green foxtail
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Setaria italica subsp. Viridis (Setaria viridis) meets the definition of a secondary noxious weed in Canada. It is a widespread and common weed in Canada, and its presence in cultivated fields reduces crop yields. However due to its widespread distribution worldwide, its common occurrence in imported seed lots, and its lack of regulation by other countries the regulation of this species could be difficult.

Setaria italica subsp. viridis (Setaria viridis) is a tufted annual grass growing 10-100 cm tall. Setaria italica subsp. viridis is naturalized in Canada where it is most abundant in the western provinces. It is commonly found in cereal, vegetable, pulses, barley, beans, cereals, canola, sunflowers, wheat, tomatoes, sugar beet and corn. It infests almost 28% of cultivated land in western Canada. In 2009, this species was identified by the CFIA Seeds Lab as a contaminant in seed lots from a variety of import products. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, Setaria viridis was detected in 335 domestic seed samples and 17 imported seed samples.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Striga spp.
Common Name Witchweed
New Proposal: Not listed on WSO (i.e., Class 6)

Identification of this species is difficult due to the very small size of the seeds.

The CFIA recommends that this species not be listed on the WSO (i.e., Class 6).

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Taeniatherum caput-medusae
Common Name Medusahead rye
New Proposal: Class 1 – Prohibited Noxious

Taeniatherum caput-medusae does meet the proposed definition for Class 1 (Prohibited Noxious) weed seed in the Weed Seeds Order. It is not yet present in Canada, it is a weed the presence of which in seed could affect the value and/or intended use of the seed lot, and it could have a potential impact on the economy and environment if it were to become established. It is listed as a noxious weed in several states, including: California, Colorado, Nevada, Oregon, Hawaii, Wyoming and Utah. Taeniatherum caput-medusae reproduces by seed and is reported as a possible seed contaminant. Taeniatherum caput-medusae is an aggressive invader of disturbed sites in the Western United States, where it has become a serious problem on rangelands. It forms dense stands which suppress desirable vegetation, has a high silica content, and is unpalatable to livestock thereby decreasing carrying capacity and productivity of rangelands. Its forage value is very low other than for a short time in the early spring. The CFIA Seed Lab has indicated that they have specimens available for this species, and that seeds can be easily visually distinguished from those of other species.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed in Class 1.

Current Classification: N/A
Proposed Classification: N/A
Scientific Name: Tribulus terrestris
Common Name Puncture vine
New Proposal: Class 2 – Primary Noxious

Tribulus terrestris qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed seeds. It is an alien weed that has the potential to have an economic impact in parts of Canada and is not yet widely distributed. Seed identification is relatively easy for trained seed analysts.

Tribulus terrestris is a prostrate annual herbaceous plant. It is listed as a noxious weed in AZ, CA, CO, HI, IA, ID, MI, NC, NE, OR, TX, WA and WY. The species is reported to be present in British Columbia and Ontario. The current distribution in North America suggests that Tribulus terrestris can survive to NAPPFAST zone 6. Tribulus terrestris is included in The World's Worst Weeds and is a weed of 21 crops in 37 countries, especially in pastures, cotton, corn and other field crops. The plants compete very effectively for water under dry conditions. It is a serious nuisance in pastures where it poisons sheep and causes injuries to livestock with the spiny fruits. The spines on the fruits are strong enough to puncture bicycle and automobile tires.

The CFIA recommends that this species be listed as a Class 2.

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