Language selection

Search

General Producer Guide - National Avian On-Farm Biosecurity Standard

This page is part of the Guidance Document Repository (GDR).

Looking for related documents?
Search for related documents in the Guidance Document Repository

Table of Contents

About this document

Who is this document for?

This General Producer Guide has been developed as an information resource for the National Avian On-Farm Biosecurity Standard to assist poultry producers with the development of biosecurity plans for their farming operations. Biosecurity planning and implementation reduces the risk of infectious disease transfer within and among poultry flocks. Enhancing your farm's biosecurity protects both individual and industry-wide economic interests. Further, it reduces the risk to public health that may result from certain poultry diseases.

The General Producer Guide and the National Avian On-Farm Biosecurity Standard form the basis of a comprehensive program designed to provide applicable guidance for owners or managers across all the poultry sectors in Canada. This Guide has been developed as a tool for all people and businesses that handle and keep poultry, including large scale supply-managed producers, backyard flock owners, and other domestic bird keepers. It provides guidance to producers on how to achieve the Target Outcomes of the National Avian On-Farm Biosecurity Standard.

The Standard and the associated Producer Guide are designed both to support the development of farm-specific biosecurity protocols for sectors that do not participate in a provincial association or On-Farm Food Safety (OFFS) program - such as the non-regulated commercial and non-commercial sectors - and to complement and enhance existing on-farm programs. The OFFS programs, developed by industry, formally address many elements of biosecurity and will be the primary avenue for implementation, where applicable.

This Guide is based on clear, scientifically justified principles. It details a range of measures that could be implemented to prevent disease-causing agents from entering or leaving a premises that houses poultry.

The importance of biosecurity

There is no formal definition for the word "biosecurity", but it has become the accepted term used to describe the measures needed to protect against the introduction and spread of diseases.

It is in the best interest of poultry keepers to ensure that they are aware of the risks and that they implement procedures to limit the chances of disease developing or spreading. When a bird is infected with a pathogenic organism, there may or may not be obvious signs of clinical disease. Nevertheless, this pathogen can be reproduced in the bird's body, which then sheds the organism into the environment through body excretions, including feces, urates from the kidneys, and aerosols from the respiratory system. The organisms contained in these excretions contaminate the surfaces in the surrounding environment, which then carry the infection to the next bird. If another bird becomes infected and the pathogens are in sufficient quantity to overcome a susceptible bird's immune system, the bird becomes infected and the cycle continues. As the pathogenic organism passes through more and more birds, its numbers in the environment multiply rapidly.

Additionally, pathogenic organisms can change over time to become more or less capable of causing disease. Circulating unchecked within a flock or between flocks of different generations, organisms have greater opportunity to undergo genetic alterations, and thus potentially cause more significant disease in poultry or other animal species, including humans.

Because pathogenic organisms are microscopic, they are invisible to the naked eye. Despite this, they can be found in large numbers in visible material, such as dust, water droplets suspended in the air, and fecal contamination. A dust particle can contain an infective dose. In fact, such a small amount of contaminated material may be hidden on equipment, clothing, footwear, or even hands, allowing the disease to be carried from one flock to another.

Past disease outbreaks, both in Canada and overseas, clearly demonstrate the serious impact that avian diseases can have on business, individual livelihoods, and local communities. The impact may range from the destruction of tens of thousands of birds, to the cancellation of shows or sporting events. The period during which emergency controls are in place may vary depending on how rapidly a disease can be successfully controlled.

Some diseases, known as zoonoses, can infect both poultry and humans. Good biosecurity is therefore an important element in preventing human illnesses.

Those who keep poultry must share responsibility for protecting their business or hobby by reducing the risks associated with the spread of diseases.

Practising good biosecurity has clear benefits as follows:

The use of this document

The General Producer Guide has been organized to follow the organization of the Standard document. It is divided into three sections (the same as in the Standard), representing the foundations of a smoothly operating biosecurity system:

  1. Access Management
  2. Animal Management
  3. Operational Management

In each section, each Target Outcome of the Standard is followed by current information on a variety of biosecurity-related practices as examples of the measures that producers can implement to meet the target outcome. The Guide demonstrates the flexibility required for a variable and complex poultry industry. It is not a full and complete listing of all examples that can be used to meet the Target Outcomes. Many examples relate to large commercial-scale industry, but also apply to other sectors. Optimal or highly effective biosecurity measures are provided in text boxes labelled "Ideally". They represent an ideal for those producers who wish to implement more rigorous biosecurity measures. Other guides, with more sector-specific producer guidance, may be developed in the future.

Biosecurity is best achieved when all of the foundations and their components are in place and are being managed properly. Weak building blocks or poorly implemented biosecurity measures provide a route by which disease might enter the flock or remain undetected within the flock.

All keepers of poultry should focus on achieving a level of control in every component on their property. For those new to the concept of biosecurity, those with limited resources or where it is not practical or applicable to fully achieve all target outcomes, the Guide provides examples of measures to take to mitigate the risks on a day-to-day basis.

A Glossary at the end of the document provides definitions of terms used. There are also a number of annexes, one of which is a self-audit checklist. This checklist can be used to quickly record the Target Outcomes that are being effectively controlled and those that need further action on your premises.

General Producer Guide - National Avian On-Farm Biosecurity Standard

This document provides producer guidance on meeting Target Outcomes of the National Avian On-Farm Biosecurity Standard. These general guidance notes were developed with significant contributions from representatives of the various poultry sectors. They are not a full and complete listing of all methods that can be used to meet the Target Outcomes but do include some existing beneficial practices and other examples to facilitate meeting the Target Outcomes, while providing the flexibility required for a variable and complex poultry industry.

Some specific examples may be presented in boxes. Additional guidelines, in the "Ideally" boxes, may be more difficult and/or expensive procedures to implement, but will improve your biosecurity program. You should consider implementing these additional procedures - especially in scenarios of increased risk (i.e. a disease challenge in the area).

Section 1 - Access Management

1.1 Designation of Zones

1.1.1 Target Outcome - Recognizable zones and access points are in place.

Producer Guidance

Zones and access points may be defined as follows:

Controlled access zone (CAZ): The area of land and buildings constituting the poultry-production area of the premises that is accessible through a securable controlled access point.

Restricted access zone (RAZ): An area inside the CAZ that is used, or intended to be used, to house poultry, including semi-confined and range production, and where personnel and equipment access is more restricted than in the CAZ. Within the RAZ, the unrestricted movement of people, birds, and equipment may occur. The RAZ is sometimes referred to as the "production area" or "restricted area" (RA) in other poultry production documents and guides.

Controlled access point (CAP): A visually defined entry point(s) through which workers, equipment, feed trucks, etc. will enter the CAZ and/or the RAZ.

The CAZ
Recommendations for establishing a CAZ
The RAZ
Recommendations for establishing a RAZ

The three concepts depicted below provide options for laying out these zones, though other scenarios may better fit your operation.

Concept 1 One controlled access zone with one restricted access zone

Concept 1: One controlled access zone with one restricted access zone. Description follows.
Description for - Concept 1: One controlled access zone with one restricted access zone

A CAZ (green) and a RAZ (red) for a simple farm site, comprised of only one barn and/or range and limited outbuildings. A CAP (yellow) provides access to each zone, and parking outside of the CAZ limits the volume and frequency of traffic movement. A transition area at the front of the barn allows room for people who work on the premises to perform boot and clothing changes, hand washing, and other personal duties. Egg pickup personnel can access the egg storage room (pink) via an anteroom or through a separate exterior door.

CAZ = controlled access zone RAZ = restricted access zone CAP = controlled access point

A CAZ and a RAZ for a simple farm site, comprised of only one barn and/or range and limited outbuildings, can be easily established. The CAZ incorporates all the farming activities, whereas the RAZ is the barn and/or range. A CAP provides access to each zone, and parking outside of the CAZ limits the volume and frequency of traffic movement.

A transition area at the front of the barn allows room for people who work on the premises to perform boot and clothing changes, hand washing, and other tasks. It may also provide room for dry storage or egg collection activities, depending on the needs of the farm site. For egg production, egg pickup personnel can access the egg storage room via the anteroom or through a separate exterior door.

Concept 2 One controlled access zone with multiple restricted access zones

Concept 2: One controlled access zone with multiple restricted access zones. Description follows.
Description for - Concept 2: One controlled access zone with multiple restricted access zones

A larger and more complicated site may contain multiple barns and/or ranges (red), along with equipment and storage buildings (grey), in a single CAZ (green). A separate RAZ and CAP (yellow) have been established for each barn and/or range. Transition areas at the front of each barn and/or range allow personnel to apply appropriate sanitary measures. One CAP provides access to the single CAZ. Parking is established outside the CAZ to reduce unnecessary traffic movements.

CAZ = controlled access zone RAZ = restricted access zone CAP = controlled access point

A larger and more complicated farm site may contain multiple barns, along with equipment and storage buildings. A separate RAZ and CAP have been established for each barn. Transition areas within the barn allow personnel to apply appropriate sanitary measures. One CAP provides access to the single CAZ. Parking is established outside the CAZ to reduce unnecessary traffic movements within the CAZ.

Concept 3 One controlled access zone with a restricted access zone, containing multiple buildings and/or ranges

Concept 3: One controlled access zone with a restricted access zone, containing multiple buildings and/or ranges. Description follows.
Description for - Concept 3: One controlled access zone with a restricted access zone, containing multiple buildings and/or ranges

A more complex site may contain multiple barns and/or ranges, along with equipment and storage buildings. One CAP (yellow) provides access to the single CAZ (green). The one RAZ (red) inside is not ideal for disease control; however, if the operation includes common equipment and personnel who are moving unrestricted between buildings, it may be the only alternative. Entry into the RAZ is controlled by a CAP (yellow). This could be an anteroom setup for personnel and with cleaning and disinfecting capabilities for larger equipment. Parking is established outside the CAZ to reduce unnecessary traffic movements.

CAZ = controlled access zone RAZ = restricted access zone CAP = controlled access point

A more complex farm site may contain multiple barns and/or ranges, along with equipment and storage buildings. One RAZ, as in this example, is not ideal for disease control; however, if the operation includes common equipment and personnel who are moving unrestricted among buildings, one RAZ, including all buildings and the area inside in which unrestricted movement occurs, may be the only alternative. In this setup, control of disease spread into and out of the complex is less effective than if each barn was a separate RAZ. Further, there is no control of disease spread between the barns. All barns would be of equal biosecurity status (i.e. as if they were all one barn). Entry into the RAZ is controlled by a CAP. This could be an anteroom setup for personnel and with cleaning and disinfecting capabilities for larger equipment. One CAP provides access to the single CAZ. Parking is established outside the CAZ to reduce unnecessary traffic movements within the CAZ.

1.1.2 Target Outcome - Visual indicators are in place to define the controlled access zone (CAZ) and the restricted access zone (RAZ).

Producer Guidance
Recommendations for demarcating the CAZ
Ideally:
  • The boundary of the CAZ would be readily distinguishable.
  • Boundaries, such as the edge of a cultivated field, driveway, roadway, or the property edge, are used if possible. Boundaries might be distinguished by one or more of the following:
    • landscaping (grass cutting, gravel, pathways);
    • tree lines, posts, or other visual markers;
    • fencing;
    • signage.
Recommendations for demarcating the RAZ

1.2 Entry, Movement, Exit Controls

1.2.1 Target Outcome - People who work on the premises are knowledgeable of and understand the importance of and rationale behind the CAZ and the RAZ.

Producer Guidance

The people who access or work within the zones require a briefing to identify the measures in place regarding access control to the zones and why it is important that they be followed. People who work on the premises should have this covered as part of their training and/or briefing (according to Target Outcomes 3.6.1 and 3.6.2) before starting work. This Guide and the Standards document could be used as training aids. An annual review for people working on the premises would be beneficial.

Individuals who frequent the premises, but do not work within the zones, should understand the importance of avoiding an unintentional compromise of biosecurity. They should know not to enter the zones without being supervised or without having further training. They also need to take responsibility for any accompanying non-essential visitors.

1.2.2 Target Outcome - Access to the CAZ and RAZ is controlled by appropriate measures and routine procedures. Tools/equipment/facilities necessary to accomplish the established procedures are available, functional and maintained for their required purpose.

Producer Guidance
The Controlled Access Points

The purpose of a CAP is to ensure CAZ and RAZ entry and exit is through a place where appropriate procedures can be applied to personnel, vehicles, equipment, and materials that may carry disease-causing agents to minimize disease spread. This may include cleaning and disinfection measures and/or clothing changes. The goal is to reduce pathogen transmission, primarily by mechanical means (common contact), enabling the CAZ and RAZ to be of a higher (more protected) health status than that of the outside environment.

Recommendations for establishing a CAP for the CAZ - physical structures, tools, equipment
Ideally:
  • There is a lockable gate, chain, or other device that restricts access of vehicles and people.
  • The barrier is kept closed, except when vehicles and personnel are entering or leaving.
Ideally:
  • The surface of the CAP would be hard, impervious, and easy to clean with a broom, shovel, or pressure washer. Concrete or asphalt is ideal. Crushed rock is preferred over bare earth, but cannot be easily cleaned. Other options could be considered.
  • Wash water would run off toward areas that provide natural filtration (grassy areas with vegetation) and would comply with applicable environmental regulations.
  • CAPs would be equipped with cleaning and decontamination equipment. This includes materials that are adequate for the effective cleaning and decontamination of vehicular and foot traffic, as necessary. For example:
    • water (preferably hot);
    • equipment to wash hands (sanitizer) and footwear (brushes);
    • paper towels and garbage disposal;
    • dedicated footwear (rubber boots) and outwear (coveralls);
    • equipment or tools to remove caked-on material;
    • pressure washers with the ability to apply detergent and disinfectant (when necessary);
    • equipment to clean the decontamination station.
  • CAP equipment (i.e. disinfectant, clothing, etc.) must be protected from the elements. A room, shed, or other structure at the CAP can be used for this purpose. For smaller operations, CAP equipment may be stored in large totes or bins.
Recommendations for movement control at the CAP to the CAZ
Ideally, access to/exit from the CAZ would be controlled by the following:
  • Supervised entry;
  • Agreements with feed, veterinary, and other service providers on entry and premises biosecurity protocols, delivery schedules, etc.;
  • Vehicles and/or equipment as follows:
    • For vehicles and equipment that are to remain in the CAZ, it may be sufficient that they are visibly clean and free from organic debris. Washing and disinfecting wheels and wheel wells is still a prudent measure.
    • At most access points, during summer and winter, cleaning may be accomplished with minimal equipment: a broom, shovel, and hand sprayer may be effective for the types of vehicles and dry roadway surfaces encountered. (A review of the frequency, type, cleanliness, and use of the vehicles and equipment entering the farm site would be required to implement this option.)
    • The sharing of equipment between premises and operations is not recommended.
    • Vehicles and equipment that have been directly exposed to poultry and/or manure from other premises will require full cleaning and disinfection. Optimally, this should be performed prior to vehicles and equipment leaving the premises where the exposure occurred to reduce the transmission of disease agents off-site. If this is not feasible, vehicles and equipment should be cleaned at the closest commercial wash station. On arrival at the next premises, minimal cleaning and disinfection would be required.
    • Vehicles and equipment that have visited other premises without direct exposure to poultry and/or manure require contact surfaces (e.g. tires) cleaned and disinfected.
    • Upon detection of serious contagious diseases within the local poultry population, all vehicles and equipment entering the CAZ should be cleaned and disinfected prior to entry and upon exit. When a disease alert has been issued, producers should request guidance on protocols from their veterinarian, poultry board or organization, and provincial or federal governments.
    Ideally, all personnel would be required to wear CAZ-specific boots and clothing, or to use disposable coveralls and booties.
    • Boot cleaning and/or the wearing of booties may be all that is necessary for visitors who are wearing clean clothing and who are moving through the CAZ directly to a RAZ where clothing and boot changes will be necessary, or who will be in the CAZ for a brief period and have not visited, nor will be visiting, any other agricultural premises that same day.

      Note: All visitors pose a risk to premises for disease carriage, but some visitors pose a higher risk than others. However, without requesting detailed information, risk cannot be adequately assessed. Always consider that visitors may be arriving from or going to other premises.

Recommendations for establishing a CAP for the RAZ - physical structures, tools, equipment

Hand Washing

Equip the CAPs with RAZ-specific footwear and clothing plus equipment and materials for cleaning and/or decontamination foot traffic (also equipment and vehicles if applicable).

Recommendations for movement control at the CAP to the RAZ

Note: Annex B provides a detailed set of barn access (entry and exit) procedures for personnel.

Ideally, at the access to/exit from the RAZ:
  • Barn doors or range gates would be kept locked;
  • The names and dates of essential visitors who enter the RAZ would be recorded; and
  • Personnel would put on premises-specific clothing or appropriate protective clothing, such as disposable coveralls.
Additional considerations for personnel and visitors

Ensure those who enter your premises are not sick, and have not been in contact with poultry, livestock, pets, and/or people that are sick, especially those exhibiting clinical signs related to influenza virus.

People who have had contact with poultry or poultry workers from other farm sites during the preceding 48 hours need to ensure they have washed (preferably showered) and changed into clean clothing before entering the RAZ where live poultry are kept. Any clothing that is worn off-farm or when visiting other premises is not acceptable as premises-specific clothing.

People should not access barns other than the ones in which they are working.

Traffic flow of trucks or equipment should be regulated to limit the proximity of activities to other barns.

Non-essential visitors

People and their equipment that have no requirement to access the CAZ and RAZ include, but are not limited to, guests, friends, and family. If there is no necessity for production purposes, these visitors should not be allowed access into the CAZ and the RAZ.

Essential visitor:

Any person who enters the CAZ or RAZ, other than personnel concerned with day-to-day poultry management on the premises.

Biosecurity measures that may be required of essential visitors - such as veterinarians, service and delivery people, suppliers and regulators - may include, but are not limited to the following:

Ideally:

A more comprehensive visitor log is the preferred option and may also include the following:

  • organization for which the visitor works;
  • vehicle licence plate;
  • purpose of visit;
  • date of last contact with poultry;
  • *location of previous premises visited; and
  • *next premises to be visited.

*These details are particularly important during a disease outbreak. The more information provided, the easier it is to trace movements that are a disease transmission risk.

Catching crew, vaccination crew, and other comparable service providers

When live poultry remain in the RAZ, biosecurity measures that may be imposed for RAZ access include, but are not limited to the following:

Egg pickup service providers:

The producer should strive to minimize the potential cross-contamination between the egg storage room and the rest of the production facility at all times. After eggs are picked up, the producer should ensure that the storage room is kept clean and tidy. The producer can sweep and spot clean areas, if necessary, to ensure that there is no accumulation of dust or egg residue.

Ideally:
  • Boot cleaning and disinfection may be all that is necessary for egg pickup service providers moving, for a short period of time, into the egg storage room that is part of the CAZ.
  • Washing and disinfecting the egg storage room can take place at the time of annual clean-out or prior to placing new birds. Note: For hatching eggs, the Canadian Hatching Egg Quality (CHEQ) Program recommends that egg room floors be cleaned weekly.

Section 2 - Animal Health Management

2.1 Animal Introduction, Movement, Removal

2.1.1 Target Outcome - Each placement or removal of poultry is recorded and carried out with appropriate scheduling, isolation or segregation to minimize the introduction or spread of disease.

Producer Guidance
Ideally:

All in/all out - All poultry within a new flock are placed in an empty RAZ within seven days. When the flock is removed from the RAZ, the process is again completed within seven days.

"All in/all out" scheduling should occur, keeping the completion time of poultry arrival and shipment as short as possible, first within each barn and ideally within the entire premises.

Ideally:

Records should be kept for a minimum of one year, unless a longer period is specified by provincial or On-Farm Food Safety (OFFS) program requirements.

2.1.2 Target Outcome - The downtime between flocks is optimized in each barn.

Producer Guidance
Definition:

Downtime: The time between flocks starting with a barn being emptied of birds and ending with the placement of new birds. It allows for the natural reduction in numbers of disease-causing micro-organisms within the barn. The effective period can be reduced by cleaning at the beginning of the period.

For each barn or production area, optimize downtime as follows:

Ideally:
  • Have a downtime of 14 days after the flock has been removed to significantly reduce pathogen load.
  • Dry clean after removing the birds, to reduce pathogen load further.
  • Add washing and disinfection after dry cleaning to minimize pathogen load and, if necessary, allow for some reduction in the overall downtime (i.e. 7 to 10 days total downtime).
  • If manure is not removed, schedule a downtime of at least 21 days. Composting the manure inside the barn or heat-treating by heating the barn (to 105°F/40°C for two days) will further reduce pathogen load and risk to the next flock.
  • Schedule for the entire barn to be empty approximately once a year, with a full cleanout and downtime of 14 days (and if possible, keep the entire premises empty of live poultry for 14 days).

2.1.3 Target Outcome - More stringent additional biosecurity measures are implemented either at the barn or premises level where "all in/all out" scheduling and downtime is not practical.

Producer Guidance
Areas where Target Outcomes 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 will not be met and which present an increased possibility of pathogen introduction:
The additional biosecurity measures that may be taken in association with moving or introducing poultry may include, but are not limited to the following:
The biosecurity measures that require extra attention to ensure adequate biosecurity between subsequent flocks may include, but are not limited to the following:

Note: Biosecurity measures may be applied to the premises level when there is more than one barn and when each barn is at a different stage of production.

The measures that should be taken to clearly separate each barn into separate isolation units include, but are not limited to the following:

2.2 Ongoing Monitoring of Health Status and Response

2.2.1 Target Outcome - Individuals who monitor poultry are knowledgeable and experienced in monitoring flock health, the recognition of disease conditions, and timely response protocols.

Producer Guidance
The options for improving skills are as follows:
  • attending seminars and/or workshops organized by government, veterinarians, or the poultry industry;
  • descriptions and/or photographs of typical symptoms placed in anterooms, restrooms, etc.; and
  • supervision by more experienced personnel.

Note: Target Outcome 3.1.1 outlines further guidance on training.

2.2.2 Target Outcome - Daily procedures for observation, and culling if necessary, are followed.

Producer Guidance
Ideally:

Flock monitoring should be responsive to increased risk levels, and occur as follows:

  • during and after introduction of new stock;
  • following high-risk activities (e.g. visit from vaccination crew);
  • during seasonal or location risk; or
  • during a local outbreak, etc.

2.2.3 Target Outcome - A daily mortality log is maintained for each flock.

Producer Guidance
Ideally:

It is recommended that mortality records are maintained as part of a more comprehensive flock health management record, elements of which include but are not limited to the following:

  • daily observations of flock condition;
  • daily morbidity and mortality counts;
  • lists of all vaccines and medications given at the hatchery and the farm;
  • lists of all diseases and syndromes that were diagnosed, medicated, or not;
  • input and deliveries, including feed, suppliers, and chicks;
  • output records (e.g. egg production);
  • flock movements;
  • feed and water consumption rates; and
  • end of flock data.

2.2.4 Target Outcome - Unusual morbidity or mortality triggers contact with a veterinarian and disease diagnosis action. Suspicion of diseases that are contagious, of economic importance, or reportable triggers a "disease response plan" that provides guidance to individuals on the appropriate procedures to follow.

Producer Guidance
Ideally:

A veterinarian should be consulted if any of the following clinical signs are observed:

  • loss of appetite;
  • decreased egg production, and/or soft or misshapen eggs;
  • lack of energy (depressed behaviour);
  • diarrhea;
  • coughing or sneezing (respiratory distress);
  • swelling of tissues around eyes and neck;
  • purple wattles and combs;
  • abnormal neurological behaviour (muscular tremors, depression, drooping wings, twisting of heads and necks, lack of coordination, complete paralysis, etc.); or
  • elevated mortalities.

All farms should:

Records should be maintained when the veterinarian provides advice or recommendations on the health and welfare of the birds on the farm.

For example:
  • The contact name and number of the veterinarian or veterinary clinic is available.
  • The visitor log shows records of veterinary visits.
  • The flock sheet, feed, and production records show any medications prescribed to birds.
  • Diagnosed infectious or production-related diseases, copies of diagnostic reports, and prescriptions are kept on file, etc.
Disease response plan
An example of a disease diagnosis action plan:

Suspicious clinical signs or an unacceptable increase in unexplained mortalities is/are detected.
Down Arrow
There is a self-imposed barn or premises isolation or containment (Annex C).
Down Arrow
Access to the premises is restricted.
Down Arrow
A veterinarian is called.
Down Arrow
A contagious disease of economic importance is suspected.
(If a reportable disease is suspected, the veterinarian must notify the Canadian Food Inspection Agency [CFIA]).
Down Arrow
Appropriate samples are collected for lab analysis and confirmation.
Down Arrow
Self-declaration and notification of appropriate officials occur.
Down Arrow
The current visitor log is reviewed for trace-back purposes.

Upon the suspicion of disease of economic importance, a self-quarantine or isolation protocol (Annex C) may include, but is not limited to the following:

Section 3 - Operational Management

3.1 Mortality and Manure Management

3.1.1 Target Outcome - Daily procedures are followed with respect to dead birds including collection and removal from the production area.

Producer Guidance

Mortality management includes the activities below, all being performed in a biosecure manner:

Recognizing that production systems vary greatly, mortality management may occur as one seamless process or in a set of steps as follows:

Examples of acceptable containers include, but are not limited to, the following:
  • a pail with a tight-fitting lid;
  • empty feed bags;
  • plastic bags;
  • a labelled, closed cart set aside, specifically for the collection and movement of dead birds, etc.

3.1.2 Target Outcome - A dead poultry storage system, which protects the carcasses from scavengers and insects until final disposal, is utilized on the premises.

Producer Guidance

3.1.3 Target Outcome - Carcass disposal, including any on-farm disposal (incineration, composting and burial), is done in accordance with provincial or municipal guidelines. If a rendering service is utilized then the pickup is performed to minimize any biosecurity risk.

Producer Guidance

Follow federal, provincial, and municipal rules at all times. They may limit options and placement.

Off-farm rendering
On-farm incineration
Burial
Composters

Note: In rare instances, where flock size, production type, and/or geography limit disposal options and flock disposal occurs inside the RAZ by way of incineration or composting, the disposal system must ensure containment of mortality and separation from the flock in a controlled area.

  1. Physically separate the disposal system from the flock in an adjacent room or by a wall or barrier. This prevents exposure of the flock to pathogens in dust, debris, organic material, secretion, or excretions etc., which may be released during the disposal process.
  2. Ensure that the disposal system is the right size for the production type, volume, and mortality rates.
  3. Plan for storage and/or access of substrates that may be required for the composting process.
  4. Provide sufficient room for cleaning and storage of any dedicated equipment.
  5. Ensure that separate mortality disposal systems are present for each RAZ.
  6. Pay additional attention to pest management, as mortality can be an attractant for pests (flies, rodents, birds, and scavengers), which can transmit disease to the flock.
  7. Recognize that mortality disposal systems inside the RAZ increase the risk of flock exposure to pathogens and require a higher level of management to ensure that disease transmission does not occur.

3.1.4 Target Outcome - Manure is suitably handled and stored to minimize the risk of transferring disease organisms to poultry flocks.

Producer Guidance
Ideally:
  • Manure is stored in a dry location and on a non-porous surface.
  • Manure storage areas are controlled. These areas must be considered contaminated by contagious organisms. Limiting access to these areas will reduce disease transmission. They should be located away from barns to prevent transfer back into the barns by people, equipment, vehicles, or weather.
  • Manure is composted before its removal from the premises or spreading onto land.
  • Raw manure is not applied directly onto land. This is of significant concern if a disease outbreak has occurred recently in the barn.

3.2 Premises, Building, Equipment and Vehicule Sanitation

3.2.1 Target Outcome - A sanitation program is in place that applies to premises, building, equipment and vehicle sanitation.

Producer Guidance
Ideally:

In a disease-response situation, washing and disinfection would become a necessity for all buildings, equipment, and vehicles. Cleaning processes would include vehicles coming onto the premises.

Barns
Ideally:
  • Surfaces in the barn are impermeable and can be cleaned, pressure washed or steam cleaned, and disinfected. (Disinfection is essential if a barn is being cleaned after a disease outbreak.)
  • It is virtually impossible to clean or disinfect dirt floors. These should be avoided in the design of new barns.
  • See Annex D for barn cleaning and disinfection in inclement weather.
Equipment
Ideally:
  • Most equipment used during production is dedicated to individual barns.
  • Cleaning procedures for equipment and buildings include both dry cleaning and a wet cleaning process.
  • Disinfection is performed following wet cleaning.
Vehicles
Ideally, or in response to a disease situation:

A cleaning program for vehicles would include the following:

  • the physical removal of debris by washing with detergent and/or high pressure water;
  • cleaning of the inside footrest area and steering wheel;
  • disinfection of all outer surfaces of the vehicle;
  • disinfection of wheel wells and tires before entry to and upon exiting the CAZ;
  • appropriate disinfectant contact time before proceeding;
  • vehicle washing area (concrete pad or other hard surface) cleaned of debris and disinfected between vehicles; and
  • collection and containment of wash water and debris according to local/provincial regulations.

3.3 Facility Maintenance

3.3.1 Target Outcome - A program for facility maintenance is in place.

Producer Guidance

Poultry production areas and equipment should be maintained and kept functioning properly to ensure the best environment for continued health and ease of cleaning.

3.4 Water, Feed, Bedding Management

3.4.1 Target Outcome - A water management program is in place to ensure that water is potable and meets local guidelines for poultry consumption.

Producer Guidance
Water source
Water storage

When water is stored prior to use by poultry or between flock placements:

Water delivery
Water treatment

3.4.2 Target Outcome - Feed is obtained and stored in a manner that minimizes the risk of contamination by pathogens.

Producer Guidance
Obtaining feed
Feed storage

3.4.3 Target Outcome - Bedding is obtained and stored in a manner that minimizes the risk of contamination by pathogens.

Producer Guidance
Ideally:

Bedding will be stored in a weatherproof and pest-controlled environment.

3.5 Pest Control Program

3.5.1 Target Outcome - An integrated pest control program is present.

Producer Guidance

An effective integrated control program will ensure that the presence of potentially harmful pests, such as insects, rodents, and wild birds, is kept to a minimum.

General control methods for pests:
  • don't attract;
  • exclude (seal entry points);
  • exterminate (bait or trap); and
  • monitor for effectiveness and adjust.

These practices should be backed up by appropriate reduction methods, ongoing monitoring for pest activity, a response plan for signs of increased pest activity, and records of pest control activities, as follows:

Rodent-specific points
Insect-specific points
Range-specific points
Ideally:

The location will house poultry with sufficient space, no droppings will fall from overhead, and no small wild birds or rodents will have access. This could include housing with a solid roof and sides, but other materials, such as weld mesh, windbreak netting, and tarpaulins, are effective.

Ideally:
  • Construct fencing such that predators are unable to dig under the fence to gain entry or to climb over the top of the fence.
  • Ensure that the fence is of sufficient mesh size to stop predators from climbing through.

3.5.2 Target Outcome - Garbage is effectively and safely disposed of.

Producer Guidance

3.6 Biosecurity Program and Training

3.6.1 Target Outcome - All people working on the premises are knowledgeable of, and understand the rationale behind and importance of, biosecurity and biosecurity protocols.

Producer Guidance
Examples of training include the following:
  • attending seminars or workshops;
  • working under direct supervision;
  • reviewing written instructions, or standard operating procedures (SOPs) - Target Outcome 3.6.2 provides further guidance;
  • training using the Standard and this Guide as a template; and
  • formal qualifications.
Examples of records include the following:
  • title and/or certificate of attendance for seminars, workshops, courses attended;
  • individual training records, detailing training given and dates; and
  • a signed confirmation from each staff member that SOPs have been read and understood.

3.6.2 Target Outcome - All people working on the premises have reviewed the applicable biosecurity-related instructions as needed, based on their assigned tasks.

Producer Guidance
Development of Standard Operating Procedures

To ensure people understand how to complete their assigned tasks, written instructions or SOPs should be developed. These are step-by-step explanations of how to perform a task from beginning to end.

For example:

SOPs for mortality handling and disposal should include the following:

  • times for daily mortality collection;
  • mortality handling procedures, including hand sanitation;
  • mortality transfer from the RAZ to storage or disposal site;
  • procedures for the removal of birds for off-site disposal; and
  • compost procedures, including pest control, time spent at and temperature of the compost site (if composting is disposal method used).
Reviewing SOPs with staff
Ideally:
  • SOPs will be reviewed annually for relevance and clarity of content.
  • There will be SOPs including, but not limited to, the following:
    • access procedures for CAZ and RAZ;
    • moving between barns;
    • building cleaning and disinfection procedures;
    • vehicle and equipment cleaning and disinfection procedures;
    • the pest control program;
    • flock health monitoring and response;
    • mortality handling;
    • mortality disposal;
    • manure management; and
    • self-quarantine procedures (Annex C).

Glossary

Access point: A visually defined entry point(s) through which all traffic, such as workers, equipment, feed trucks, etc., will enter the CAZ and/or the RAZ.

Additional Biosecurity Measures: A level of biosecurity to be practised to mitigate situations where recommended practices cannot be followed. For example, where an "all in/all out" system is impossible (as in the case of a multi-age premises), additional biosecurity measures should be practised.

Anteroom: A room or area of a building which immediately precedes the restricted access zone (RAZ), providing a transition area from the controlled access zone (CAZ).

Approved: When used in reference to chemicals, such as rodenticides, it means approved by the appropriate regulatory authority for the specific usage mentioned in the text.

Beneficial practice: A management practice, technique or technology that, when adopted, results in improvement and increased sustainability of the operation.

Biosecurity program: A risk reduction program that conforms to Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) national standards and which is designed to prevent and control the introduction and spread of pathogens.

Clean: Free of any visible accumulation of organic matter and debris or other residues.

Complex: A collection of buildings and/or outdoor ranges that is or may be used directly for production.

Controlled access point: A visually defined entry point(s) through which all traffic, such as workers, equipment, feed trucks, etc., will enter the CAZ and/or the RAZ. It includes a transition area where procedures designed to minimize the spread of pathogens can occur.

Controlled Access Zone (CAZ): The area of land and buildings constituting the poultry production area of the premises that is accessible through a securable controlled access point. It excludes any residence and any other outbuildings that are not directly related to poultry production (e.g. machine sheds, storage sheds, workshops, etc.).

Debris: Any material that may be capable of harbouring disease-causing organisms or pests such as discarded equipment or machinery, manure, dead birds or parts of dead birds, egg white, egg yolk, egg shells, feathers and soil.

Disease response plan: A predetermined set of steps that is followed in the case of a significant disease occurrence. This response may be at the premises level by the production people, at the provincial level by the industry or provincial ministry, or at the national level in the case of reportable disease.

Disinfection: The application of a physical or chemical process to a surface for the purpose of destroying or inhibiting the activity of disease-causing micro-organisms.

Disposal (carcasses): Final removal of a bird carcass from the premises (by means of serviced rendering collection, composting, incineration, or burial).

Downtime: A period of time between flocks, starting with a barn being emptied of birds and ending with the placement of new birds. It allows for the natural reduction in numbers of disease-causing micro-organisms within the barn. The effective period can be reduced by cleaning at the beginning of the period.

Endemic Diseases: Diseases that are regularly reoccurring or whose causative agent is constantly present with a region or population.

Enhanced Biosecurity: At times when a disease outbreak is suspected on the premises or has been identified in the vicinity, additional biosecurity measures may be required, and increased emphasis placed on existing biosecurity procedures.

Essential Visitors: Any person required to enter the RAZ, other than personnel concerned with day-to-day poultry production on the premises. Visitors include veterinarians, service and delivery people, suppliers, and regulators.

Exotic Diseases: Infectious diseases that normally do not occur in the region, either because they have never been present there or because they were eradicated and then kept out by government control measures or agricultural practices.

Facility: Synonymous with "premises" (see below). May be used to refer to production areas on a premises.

Flock: A group of poultry managed as a distinct population.

Flock Area: Area or range that (outdoor) poultry occupy.

Fomite: Any inanimate object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms. This may include but is not limited to equipment, farm vehicles and articles of clothing or shoes.

Isolation (or "segregation"): The status or practice of a bird, birds, or flock being kept physically separate from others (including direct and indirect contact). Usually performed for sick or returning animals.

Non-Essential Visitors: People and their equipment who do not require access to the CAZ and RAZ. These include, but are not limited to, guests, friends, and family.

Non-Premises Vehicles: Vehicles (cars, trucks, tractors, etc.) not owned or operated by the premises and not designated to the premises.

Pathogens: Biological agents, such as a bacteria or virus, that have the potential to cause diseases.

Potable: Suitable for drinking.

Poultry: All birds reared or kept in captivity for breeding, the production of eggs or meat for consumption, for production of other commercial products, for restocking supplies of game birds, or for breeding these categories of birds.

Poultry barn: Any structure that encloses poultry flocks, including sheds, runs, etc.

Premises (facility): A parcel of land with a continuous property boundary and defined by a legal land description or, in its absence, by geo-referenced coordinates, on which or on any part of which poultry are grown, kept, assembled, or disposed of.

Premises Vehicles: Vehicles (cars, trucks, tractors, etc.) owned and operated by the premises and primarily designated to the premises.

Producer Guidance: Examples and beneficial practices to facilitate achievement of the Standard.

Protocols: Effectively a code of conduct, defined procedure to be followed.

Range: A RAZ, allowing birds to roam freely within the confines of a perimeter.

Rendering: Using an off-farm service for the pickup and disposal of mortalities.

Reportable Disease: A disease that must be immediately reported to the CFIA. Reportable diseases in poultry are avian influenza, virulent/exotic Newcastle disease, pullorum disease (Salmonella pullorum), and fowl typhoid (Salmonella gallinarum). These diseases are sometimes referred to as "foreign animal diseases."

Restricted Access Zone (RAZ): An area inside the CAZ that is used, or intended to be used, to house poultry, including semi-confined and range production, and where personnel and equipment access is more restricted than within the CAZ. The RAZ is sometimes also referred to as the "production area" or "restricted area" (RA) in other poultry production documents and guides.

Spiking Males: Sexually mature male poultry introduced into a breeding flock to maintain fertility by boosting mating frequency.

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP): Documented procedure based on generally accepted good practices that describe in detail the steps followed to meet an objective (for example, a SOP that details the barn cleaning and disinfection procedure).

Storage (carcasses): Temporary placement of bird carcasses into a sealable, leakproof container until disposal.

Target Outcome: The goal that all keepers of poultry, regardless of the size of their flock, should aim for to protect their flocks from the introduction and spread of avian diseases.

Transition Area: An area where biosecurity procedures can occur for movement between the CAZ and the RAZ.

Annexes

Use of annexes

The information in the following annexes is not to be considered an official part of the General Producer Guide. The annexes have been provided for reference and example purposes only. The examples provided are not the only way to achieve the outcomes of the Guide; rather, they are intended to illustrate the flexibility and creativity that may be required given production variability.

Producers with any questions or concerns are advised to contact their national, provincial, or territorial boards. For further information, internet links have been provided at the end of each annex.

Annex A - Self-Evaluation Checklist

Self Evaluation Checklist - Section 1
Section 1 - Access Management Self Audit
or X
1.1 Designation of Zones
1.1.1 Recognizable zones and access points are in place.
1.1.2 Visual indicators are in place to define the Controlled Access Zone (CAZ) and Restricted Access Zone (RAZ).
1.2 Entry, Movement, Exit Controls
1.2.1 People who work on the premises are knowledgeable of and understand the importance of and rationale behind the CAZ and the RAZ.
Self Evaluation Checklist - Section 2
Section 2 - Animal Health Management Self Audit
or X
2.1 Animal Introduction, Movement, Removal
2.1.1 Each placement or removal of poultry is recorded and carried out with appropriate scheduling, isolation or segregation to minimize the introduction or spread of disease.
2.1.2 The downtime between flocks is optimized in each barn.
2.1.3 More stringent additional biosecurity measures are implemented, either at the barn or premises level where "all in/all out" scheduling and downtime is not practical.
2.2 Ongoing Monitoring of Health Status and Response
2.2.1 Individuals who monitor poultry are knowledgeable and experienced in monitoring flock health, the recognition of disease conditions, and timely response protocols.
2.2.2 Daily procedures for observation, and culling if necessary, are followed.
2.2.3 A daily mortality log is maintained for each flock.
2.2.4 Unusual morbidity or mortality triggers contact with a veterinarian and disease diagnosis action. The suspicion of diseases that are contagious, of economic importance, or reportable triggers a "disease response plan" that provides guidance to individuals on the appropriate procedures to follow.
Self Evaluation Checklist - Section 3
Section 3 - Operational Management Self Audit
or X
3.1 Mortality and Manure Management
Mortalities
3.1.1 Daily procedures are followed with respect to dead birds including collection and removal from the production area.
3.1.2 A dead poultry storage system, which protects the carcasses from scavengers and insects until final disposal, is utilized on the premises.
3.1.3 Carcass disposal, including any on-farm disposal (incineration, composting and burial), is done in accordance with provincial or municipal guidelines. If a rendering service is utilized then the pickup is performed to minimize any biosecurity risk.
Manure Management
3.1.4 Manure is suitably handled and stored to minimize the risk of transferring disease organisms to poultry flocks.
3.2 Premises, Building, Equipment and Vehicule Sanitation
3.2.1 A sanitation program is in place that applies to premises, building, equipment and vehicle sanitation.
3.3 Facility Maintenance
3.3.1 A program for facility maintenance is in place.
3.4 Water, Feed, Bedding Management
Water
3.4.1 A water management program is in place to ensure that water is potable and meets local guidelines for poultry consumption.
Feed
3.4.2 Feed is obtained and stored in a manner that minimizes the risk of contamination by pathogens.
Bedding
3.4.3 Bedding is obtained and stored in a manner that minimizes the risk of contamination by pathogens.
3.5 Pest Control Program
3.5.1 An integrated pest control program is present.
Garbage Management
3.5.2 Garbage is effectively and safely disposed.
3.6 Biosecurity Program and Training
3.6.1 All people working on the premises are knowledgeable of, and understand the rationale behind and importance of, biosecurity and biosecurity protocols.
3.6.2 All people working on the premises have reviewed the applicable biosecurity-related instructions as needed, based on their assigned tasks.

Annex B - Sample Standard Operating Procedures - Procedures for Barn Entry and Exit

The following is an example of a set of procedures for minimizing disease carriage while moving personnel in and out of a barn. The process may vary among producers.

Irrespective of the method used, the goal is to create a separation between the internal environment (flock housing area) and the external environment (non-flock housing area).

Procedures for barn entry using an anteroom

Note: Cleaning and disinfecting barn-designated boots prior to entering the bird housing area will provide an added layer of security, removing any contaminants that may have been carried into the anteroom.

Click on image for larger view
Description of Concept 4. Description follows.

Description for - Concept 4

An anteroom (yellow) with areas designated for outside clothing and footwear (to the left), a bench (centre), and areas designated for inside clothing and footwear (to the right), protects the flock housing area (red).

Procedures for barn exit using an anteroom

Further information:

BC Agricultural Research and Development Corporation

BC Agriculture Council

Canadian Poultry Consultants Ltd.

University of Minnesota

The Poultry Site

Agbiosecurity

Annex C - Producer Self-Quarantine Protocol

Dr. Victoria Bowes, B.C. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries

This protocol presents to the producer a course of action during the suspicion of an infectious disease. This plan is an excellent example of procedure, but other protocols regarding quarantine and infectious disease do exist. It is recommended that all producers are familiar with local or industry-accepted procedures.

Background

Upon the suspicion of an infectious disease in a poultry flock, the following set of guidelines should be followed by the producer. The intention of this protocol is to limit the spread of disease between barns and, most importantly, the spread of disease off-farm.

Situation - There has been an unexplained:

Action plan

1) Obtain an answer
  1. Start your own on-farm investigation. Gather together all relevant documents, including health records of all flocks currently on the farm.
  2. Call your veterinarian with a complete description of the problem, including time of onset, duration, and whether things are getting worse or resolving over time. Offer your suspicions as to your thoughts on what the problem might be.
  3. Review and provide copies of production and mortality records.
  4. Provide representative birds and/or samples for diagnostic investigation:
    1. Call in your veterinarian to do on-farm necropsy and sampling techniques.
    2. Take birds and/or samples to a local poultry veterinarian and/or to the Vet Lab. (Note: there may be special precautions required when moving birds and/or samples off-farm. Consult your veterinarian for proper procedures.)
2) While you wait
  1. Follow the advice of your veterinarian, which may involve interim treatment of the flock, based upon the disease suspected.
  2. Review and list the on-farm traffic, visitors, and bird movements in the previous 10 days. Refer to visitor log.
  3. Immediately adopt enhanced biosecurity protocols. Service unaffected barns first and/or dedicate a specific employee to the affected barn(s). (Note: Enhanced biosecurity protocols should be prepared beforehand, in consultation with your veterinarian.)
  4. Immediately restrict on- and off-farm access by locking gates and requiring phone-ahead pre-arrangements for deliveries and pickups. Suspend all unnecessary traffic.
  5. Inform all family members and employees of the situation. Request confidentiality until diagnosis is confirmed.
  6. Follow strict personal biosecurity procedures for leaving the farm (e.g. non-farm clothing, footwear, and vehicle), especially if meeting with other poultry industry members, even socially.
  7. Postpone scheduled vaccinations until a diagnosis is confirmed.
  8. Postpone movements of any birds on or off-farm.
  9. Dispose of dead or culled birds, using an approved method: on-farm is preferable; composting or incineration is recommended. Treat as infectious material.
  10. If there is a strong suspicion of a highly infectious disease, such as infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), pox, avian infectious bronchitis (IBV), or avian influenza (AI), based on the visible lesions found at necropsy but before laboratory confirmation, request that the feed or egg truck make your farm the last stop of the day.
3) When a diagnosis is confirmed
  1. If the diagnosis confirms a "reportable" disease, either the CFIA (federal disease) or your producer association (provincial disease), will have been informed at the same time. Follow up. Prepare records and notes for review.
  2. In the case of a "reportable" disease, follow the directions and recommendations of the regulatory agency, but do not hesitate to ask questions.
  3. Modify or initiate treatment of flock as directed by your poultry veterinarian.
  4. Follow enhanced on-farm biosecurity procedures for at least 10 to 14 days following the end of treatment or the resolution of clinical signs.
  5. If they have not already been informed, update your service industry representatives and producer groups of the diagnosis and the measures undertaken for containment.
  6. If practical, inform neighbouring poultry operations.
  7. If appropriate, make provisions for birds moving directly to slaughter, in which case the processor should be informed.
  8. Recommended: Post enhanced biosecurity signs at gates, indicating that an infectious disease has been diagnosed and that access is restricted.
4) Getting back to normal
  1. Enhance the regular on-farm cleaning and disinfection procedures for the affected barns. Extend clean "downtime" as long as possible.
  2. Continue to monitor for disease reoccurrence in the same or subsequent flocks, watch for clinical signs, and submit follow-up samples.
  3. Record the event in the production records with as much detail as possible.
  4. Return to regular biosecurity measures.

Important note:

Pathogenic Newcastle disease (NDV), avian influenza (AI) and Salmonella pullorum and gallinarum are federally reportable diseases. The CFIA has developed disease response plans and strategies for these diseases upon their identification in domestic flocks.

The national immediately notifiable diseases are infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), avian cholera (pasteurellosis), chlamydiosis (psittacosis, ornithosis), duck hepatitis, avian encephalomyelitis, egg drop syndrome (avian adenovirus), goose parvovirus infection (Derzsy's disease), and turkey rhinotracheitis (avian pneumovirus, swollen head syndrome). The CFIA must be notified if these diseases occur; however, limited action is taken, and only with respect to certification of meat product for export to certain countries.

Specific provinces have a list of provincially notifiable diseases that are of significant economic concern, and there may be specific action response plans to the occurrence at the industry level or mandated by the provincial government. The most common ones are infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) and mycoplasma in breeder birds and turkeys.

All other diseases are "unregulated" and are a private issue between you and your veterinarian. Your confidentiality will be respected, but your cooperation in informing your industry service representatives of a potential infectious disease problem is encouraged and appreciated.

It's the right thing to do!

Further information:

BC Agricultural Research and Development Corporation

BC Agriculture Council

Annex D - Barn Cleaning and Disinfection in Inclement Weather

Freezing temperatures

Cold and wet weather

Additional measures

Annex E - Footwear Sanitation

Footwear sanitation is vital for a strong biosecurity program. As visitors or employees, people can enter a premises and have no physical contact with structures or animals, except for footwear. The process of footwear sanitation, and the best method for your premises, are worth investigating.

Generally, there are three approaches to footwear sanitation: premises-dedicated footwear, disposable foot coverings, and footbaths.

Premises-dedicated footwear

Having several pairs of footwear for employees and visitors is an option. Regardless of the type of footwear, it is important to follow two important guidelines:

  1. The footwear does not leave the biosecurity zone to which it is dedicated; and
  2. The footwear is sanitized on a routine basis.

Generally, the use of dedicated footwear will require an anteroom process (described in Annex B).

Disposable foot coverings

Disposable foot coverings can be a relatively cheap method of footwear sanitation. Before entering a premises or biosecurity zone, foot covers are placed over footwear. Upon exit from the biosecurity zone, the foot covers are removed and disposed of.

Some advantages to foot covers:

Some disadvantages:

Some of these disadvantages can be counteracted by cleaning, disinfecting, and drying outside footwear before the coverings are put on.

Footbaths

Note: The use of footbaths is not promoted by On-Farm Food Safety (OFFS) programs, due to the high degree of maintenance required for efficacy and the potential for creating disease reservoirs. It is widely accepted that footbaths are most effective in clean areas and that they should always be used in combination with other preventative actions.

Some advantages to foot baths:

Some disadvantages:

If footbaths are the chosen option for your premises, it is important to understand the process required for their effective use. The four steps for footwear sanitation using a footbath are as follows:

  1. Remove visible debris from the footwear. This requires the physical removal of dirt, mud, manure, etc., using equipment such as a boot brush. Pay extra attention to treads.
  2. Wash footwear with a detergent. This step removes any oils, grease, or biofilms that may be invisible.
  3. Apply disinfectant. (This is the process of stepping into the footbath.)
  4. Ensure appropriate contact time. To be effective, the disinfectant should be in contact with the surfaces of the footwear for a period of time. Most manufacturers provided this information on the disinfectant's container. Depending on the concentration and pathogen, the time is generally about 10 minutes.

Further information:

BC Agricultural Research and Development Corporation

Annex F - Sample Standard Operating Procedures - Using Footbaths

The following procedure is for use by all persons entering and exiting a biosecurity zone requiring footwear sanitation.

  1. Remove visible debris from footwear, using the provided equipment (boot brush).
  2. Wash footwear with the water and detergent provided. Pay extra attention to treads.
  3. Step into the footbath, completely submersing the footwear for 5 to 10 seconds.
  4. Exit the footbath.
  5. Wait for (required time as recommended by manufacturer) before proceeding.

Annex G - Sample Standard Operating Procedures - Footbath Maintenance

Footbaths are to be controlled using the following monitoring schedule:

  1. Clean and maintain footbaths every Thursday before end of day.
  2. Check footbaths daily before start of day.
  3. If a footbath requires cleaning or recharging, do so immediately.

The following seven steps are to be carried out as required by the footbath monitoring schedule:

  1. Empty the used disinfectant into a bucket.
  2. Wash the footbath container with hot soap and water.
  3. Empty the used soap and water into the bucket containing the used disinfectant.
  4. Rinse.
  5. Empty the rinse water into the bucket.
  6. Recharge the footbath with fresh disinfectant at the desired concentration.
  7. Dispose of the water and used disinfectant in the bucket. (This is site specific, but should occur without crossing biosecurity zones.)

Further information:

BC Agricultural Research and Development Corporation

Annex H - Sample Mortality Log

Several examples can be found at BC Agricultural Research and Development Corporation

Annex I - Disinfectants

Terminology

"Disinfectants" are chemical compounds applied to inanimate (non-living) objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate disease-causing organisms.

"Disinfection" refers to the inactivation of disease causing organisms and includes but is not limited to chemicals, heat, and ultraviolet light.

Product regulation

Health Canada regulates the registration of disinfectants in Canada and provides a Drug Identification Number (DIN) prior to their marketing; this number will be listed on the disinfectant container.

Selecting a disinfectant

Disinfectants are evaluated by Health Canada using strict criteria; however, efficacy is determined under controlled laboratory conditions, and the use of disinfectants on a farm site requires that they be used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Disinfectant selection is based on a variety of factors, including the following:

These factors will affect the likelihood of a disinfectant performing as indicated by the manufacturer.

Choose broad-spectrum disinfectants with minimal toxicity that are easy to apply and that are effective under a variety of environmental conditions.

Disinfectant storage

Disinfectants have different shelf lives, depending on the chemical composition of the product, and often have a "best before" date. Chemicals degrade over time, reducing the effectiveness of the product: this often accelerates after a product has been opened. Use unexpired disinfectants and ensure lids, tops, bags are securely fastened for storage. Store in cool, dry, dark areas or according to manufacturer's recommendations.

Disinfectant application

Disinfectants are most effective when applied to clean, dry surfaces. Organic material (litter, soil, manure, etc.) on equipment, boots, and structures significantly reduces the activity of disinfectants, so these surfaces must be cleaned prior to disinfectant application.

Follow the manufacturer's recommendations for application, paying strict attention to the concentration required and contact time. Some disinfectants require rinsing as their final step. Follow local government regulations regarding the application of disinfectants to ensure compliance with environmental legislation.

Once disinfectants are mixed with water or other chemicals, their shelf life decreases dramatically, so they must be replenished regularly. This may be daily for some products and weekly for others.

Disinfectants used for cleaning boots and other heavily contaminated equipment must be replenished frequently and are only effective if properly applied; boot baths or dips with disinfectants are often heavily contaminated with disease-causing agents, are ineffective, and must be used with caution.

Further information:

Health Canada

Centers for Security and Public Health

Annex J - Impact of Federal Disease Control and Response Measures - Producer Considerations for Premises Design and Procedures

As mentioned in Annex C, the CFIA has developed disease control and response plans to address detections of federally reportable diseases. The measures applied differ, depending on the disease detected; however, the strategies are generally aimed at eradicating the disease, and restoring Canada's "disease-free" status as quickly as possible.

Premises actions

In most instances, where contagious diseases are detected on a site, the CFIA will declare the entire premises "infected", as per the Health of Animals Act. This allows control measures to be applied to all structures, equipment, animals, animal products and by-products etc. to prevent disease transmission off-site. The design of the site and procedures used can affect where and how control measures are applied.

Control measures often include the following:

The CFIA will conduct epidemiological investigations, which include, but are not limited to, determining the source of infection, determining methods of transmission, and identifying locations where disease may have been transmitted (significant risk contacts).

Premises design

Upon suspicion or detection of a federally reportable disease on a poultry premises, all areas of the premises, equipment, and materials used in raising, caring for or handling poultry, their products and by-products would be deemed "infected" by the CFIA. This includes barns, composting areas, manure storage, vehicles, equipment, etc. Producers should be aware that the locations of structures on their sites will affect control actions taken, as follows.

Location of flock housing

Housing areas (barns, open ranges) located in close proximity to each other on the same legal land description will often be treated under one CFIA declaration of an "infected premises"; disease identified in one housing area will result in disease control measures being applied to all housing areas on the site. Barns or housing areas located on a different premises that have shared equipment, staff, animals, or other potential carriers of disease would also be declared infected, and control measures would be applied.

If a producer can establish that a different but co-owned premises is epidemiologically distinct (with no cross utilization of staff or equipment, no link due to movement of animals, etc.), these sites would be monitored for disease. Reduced control actions may be applied to separate barns on an infected site if there is sufficient physical separation and they are epidemiologically distinct. Flocks which have significant value (breeder flocks, flocks with rare/unique genetics) should be located on a different premises from that of the main flock, and measures employed to ensure there are no epidemiological linkages between them.

Location of compost and manure

Compost and manure are considered as potentially contaminated with disease organisms. Access to areas where they are stored should be controlled. These areas should be located far enough from flock housing areas to eliminate the risk of disease introduction to the flock, and managed to prevent disease release. If central manure and compost sites are used - with the movement of all manure and litter from different barns and/or other sites to one location - the detection of disease in any barn or any site will result in control actions being applied to the central areas.

Note: This information is provided for information purposes only; disease response and control actions vary depending on the nature of the pathogenic agent, the course of an outbreak, and the geographic and demographic location of the outbreak.

Date modified: